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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049934/molecular-changes-associated-with-escitalopram-response-in-a-stress-based-model-of-depression
#1
Cristina Benatti, Silvia Alboni, Joan M C Blom, Julien Mendlewicz, Fabio Tascedda, Nicoletta Brunello
Converging evidence points at hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and neuroinflammation as important factors involved in the etiopathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and in therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. In this study, we examined the molecular effects associated with a response to a week-long treatment with escitalopram in the chronic escape deficit (CED) model, a validated model of depression based on the induction of an escape deficit after exposure of rats to an unavoidable stress...
October 13, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048574/community-crime-exposure-and-risk-for-obesity-in-preschool-children-moderation-by-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-response
#2
Maria A Gartstein, Erich Seamon, Stephanie F Thompson, Liliana J Lengua
Objective: Identification of early risk factors related to obesity is critical to preventative public health efforts. In this study, we investigated links between the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA)-axis activity (diurnal cortisol pattern), geospatially operationalized exposure to neighborhood crime, and body mass index (BMI) for a sample of 5-year-old children. Greater community crime exposure and lower HPA-axis activity were hypothesized to contribute to higher BMI, with child HPA-axis moderating the association between crime exposure and BMI...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042899/evidence-for-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-immune-alterations-at-prodrome-of-psychosis-in-males
#3
Evangelos Karanikas, Evangelos Ntouros, Dimitrios Oikonomou, Georgios Floros, Ioannis Griveas, Georgios Garyfallos
We aimed to investigate the inflammatory substrate in psychosis by evaluating both the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis function and immune state at prodrome. This involved the recruitment of Ultra High Risk (UHR) of Psychosis subjects, Healthy Controls (HC) and patients with established Schizophrenia (CHRON). Serum cortisol at 3 different times throughout the day was measured. The Dexamethasone Suppression Test was performed plus 12 circulating cytokines were measured. The UHR subjects presented increased IL-4 levels compared with both the HC and CHRON patients...
September 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041862/impact-of-chronic-maternal-stress-during-early-gestation-on-maternal-fetal-stress-transfer-and-fetal-stress-sensitivity-in-sheep
#4
Michelle Dreiling, Rene Schiffner, Sabine Bischoff, Sven Rupprecht, Nasim Kroegel, Harald Schubert, Otto W Witte, Matthias Schwab, Florian Rakers
Acute stress-induced reduction of uterine blood flow (UBF) is an indirect mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer during late gestation. Effects of chronic psychosocial maternal stress (CMS) during early gestation, as may be experienced by many working women, on this stress signaling mechanism are unclear. We hypothesized that CMS in sheep during early gestation augments later acute stress-induced decreases of UBF, and aggravates the fetal hormonal, cardiovascular, and metabolic stress responses during later development...
October 18, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038331/ghrelin-stimulation-by-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activation-depends-on-increasing-cortisol-levels
#5
Ibrahim Azzam, Susan Gilad, Rona Limor, Naftali Stern, Yona Greenman
Ghrelin plasma concentration increases in parallel to cortisol after a standardized psychological stress in humans, but the physiological basis of this interaction is unknown. We aimed to elucidate this question by studying the ghrelin response to pharmacological manipulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Six lean, healthy male volunteers were examined under four experimental conditions. Blood samples were collected every 30 minutes for two sequential periods of two hours. Initially, a baseline period was followed by intravenous injection of a synthetic analog of ACTH (250 μg)...
October 16, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036015/transient-pituitary-acth-dependent-cushing-syndrome-caused-by-an-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-combination
#6
Jeremy Lupu, Cécile Pages, Pauline Laly, Julie Delyon, Marie Laloi, Antoine Petit, Nicole Basset-Seguin, Imen Oueslati, Anne-Marie Zagdanski, Jacques Young, Clara Bouche, Céleste Lebbé, Jean-François Gautier
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have improved survival in numerous advanced malignancies, but are associated with a number of immune-related adverse events, including endocrinopathies. Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare disorder resulting from exposure to high levels of circulating cortisol. CS can be caused either by adrenal cortex tumors or hyperplasia or by pituitary or extra-pituitary tumors over-secreting ACTH (known as ACTH-dependent CS). We report the first case of transient ACTH-dependent CS, which appeared after combined ipilimumab and nivolumab therapy...
October 13, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035710/blunted-basal-corticosterone-pulsatility-predicts-post-exposure-susceptibility-to-ptsd-phenotype-in-rats
#7
Dor Danan, Michael A Matar, Zeev Kaplan, Joseph Zohar, Hagit Cohen
The basal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is highly dynamic and is characterized by both circadian and ultradian (pulsatile) patterns of hormone secretion. Pulsatility of glucocorticoids has been determined to be critical for optimal transcriptional, neuroendocrine, and behavioral responses. We used an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to assess whether stress-induced impairment of behavioral responses is correlated with aberrant secretion of corticosterone. Serial blood samples were collected manually via the jugular vein cannula during the light-(inactive)-phase in conscious male rats at 20-min intervals for a period of 5h before and 6...
October 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035709/heart-rate-variability-and-salivary-cortisol-in-very-preterm-children-during-school-age
#8
Natalie Urfer-Maurer, Sebastian Ludyga, Tobias Stalder, Serge Brand, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Markus Gerber, Alexander Grob, Peter Weber, Sakari Lemola
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays a major role in the human stress response and reflects physical and psychological adaptability to a changing environment. Long-term exposure to early life stressors may alter the function of the ANS. The present study examines differences in the ANS between children born very preterm and full-term as well as the association between the ANS and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the other main branch of the human stress system. Fifty-four healthy children born very preterm (<32nd gestational week) and 67 full-term children aged 7-12 years provided data for the present study...
October 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035323/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-modulation-of-glucocorticoids-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#9
REVIEW
Natalie G Burford, Natalia A Webster, Diana Cruz-Topete
The collective of endocrine organs acting in homeostatic regulation-known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-comprises an integration of the central nervous system as well as peripheral tissues. These organs respond to imminent or perceived threats that elicit a stress response, primarily culminating in the release of glucocorticoids into the systemic circulation by the adrenal glands. Although the secretion of glucocorticoids serves to protect and maintain homeostasis in the typical operation at baseline levels, inadequate regulation can lead to physiologic and psychologic pathologies...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033975/a-hypothesis-and-review-of-the-relationship-between-selection-for-improved-production-efficiency-coping-behavior-and-domestication
#10
Wendy M Rauw, Anna K Johnson, Luis Gomez-Raya, Jack C M Dekkers
Coping styles in response to stressors have been described both in humans and in other animal species. Because coping styles are directly related to individual fitness they are part of the life history strategy. Behavioral styles trade off with other life-history traits through the acquisition and allocation of resources. Domestication and subsequent artificial selection for production traits specifically focused on selection of individuals with energy sparing mechanisms for non-production traits. Domestication resulted in animals with low levels of aggression and activity, and a low hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033885/emotions-and-steroid-secretion-in-aging-men-a-multi-study-report
#11
Andreas Walther, Patricia Waldvogel, Emilou Noser, Jessica Ruppen, Ulrike Ehlert
Although aging increases the risk of cognitive and socioemotional deterioration, it has also been shown to be accompanied by an increase in experienced positive emotions and a decrease in negative emotions. Steroid hormones and age-related alterations in secretion patterns have been suggested to play a crucial role in these age-related changes in emotional experience. Importantly, previous studies identified effects of neuroactive hormones on age-related alterations in emotional experience, which vary by sex and depression levels...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033570/atypical-depression-current-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Dorota Łojko, Janusz K Rybakowski
The history and present status of the definition, prevalence, neurobiology, and treatment of atypical depression (AD) is presented. The concept of AD has evolved through the years, and currently, in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fifth Edition, the specifier of depressive episode with atypical feature is present for both diagnostic groups, that is, depressive disorders and bipolar and related disorders. This specifier includes mood reactivity, hyperphagia, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis, and interpersonal rejection sensitivity...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032090/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis-functioning-as-predictor-of-antidepressant-response-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Susanne Fischer, Christine Macare, Anthony J Cleare
OBJECTIVE: Although antidepressants are effective, around 50% of depressed patients are non-responsive. At the same time, some patients show alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Due to interactions with central monoaminergic systems, these may profit less from antidepressants. METHOD: To determine whether non-responders and responders differed in pre-treatment HPA axis functioning, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO were searched...
October 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031410/harnessing-gut-microbes-for-mental-health-getting-from-here-to-there
#14
REVIEW
Annadora J Bruce-Keller, J Michael Salbaum, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
There has been an explosion of interest in the study of microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (gut microbiota) and their impact on host health and physiology. Accumulating data suggest that altered communication between gut microbiota and host systems could participate in disorders such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and autoimmune disorders as well as neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, anxiety, and major depressive disorders. The conceptual development of the microbiome-gut-brain axis has facilitated understanding of the complex and bidirectional networks between gastrointestinal microbiota and their host, highlighting potential mechanisms through which this environment influences central nervous system physiology...
August 30, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030905/comparing-the-effects-of-age-pubertal-development-and-symptom-profile-on-cortisol-rhythm-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Rachael A Muscatello, Blythe A Corbett
Previous studies in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have shown elevated evening cortisol; however, few studies have examined diurnal rhythm in adolescents with ASD. Adolescence is a time of significant physical and psychological change, and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may put adolescents with ASD at increased risk for internalizing disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The extent to which cortisol levels are associated with age, puberty and symptom profile was examined in 113 youth (ages 7-17) with ASD and typical development...
October 14, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030109/social-information-changes-stress-hormone-receptor-expression-in-the-songbird-brain
#16
Jamie M Cornelius, Gillian Perreau, Valerie R Bishop, Jesse S Krause, Rachael Smith, Thomas P Hahn, Simone L Meddle
Social information is used by many vertebrate taxa to inform decision-making, including resource-mediated movements, yet the mechanisms whereby social information is integrated physiologically to affect such decisions remain unknown. Social information is known to influence the physiological response to food reduction in captive songbirds. Red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) that were food reduced for several days showed significant elevations in circulating corticosterone (a "stress" hormone often responsive to food limitation) only if their neighbors were similarly food restricted...
October 10, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030008/assessment-of-leukocyte-activity-in-mice-devoid-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-the-noradrenergic-system-gr-dbhcre
#17
Adam Roman, Justyna Kuśmierczyk, Grzegorz Kreiner, Irena Nalepa
Disturbances in brain monoamines, overactivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and pro-inflammatory tendency in the immune system are the key features of depressive disorders. Recently, several murine lines with mutations in glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) have been generated and these animals may be utilized for study depressive-like disorders. In the present study, we have investigated whether selective ablation of GRs in noradrenergic neurons affects functional properties of leukocytes and redirects them towards pro-inflammatory activity...
October 8, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027649/sex-specific-effects-of-combined-exposure-to-chemical-and-non-chemical-stressors-on-neuroendocrine-development-a-review-of-recent-findings-and-putative-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Whitney J Cowell, Rosalind J Wright
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Environmental toxicants and psychosocial stressors share many biological substrates and influence overlapping physiological pathways. Increasing evidence indicates stress-induced changes to the maternal milieu may prime rapidly developing physiological systems for disruption by concurrent or subsequent exposure to environmental chemicals. In this review, we highlight putative mechanisms underlying sex-specific susceptibility of the developing neuroendocrine system to the joint effects of stress or stress correlates and environmental toxicants (bisphenol A, alcohol, phthalates, lead, chlorpyrifos, and traffic-related air pollution)...
October 13, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026467/chromogranin-a-as-a-biochemical-marker-for-neuroendocrine-tumors-a-single-center-experience-at-royal-hospital-oman
#19
Elham S Al-Risi, Fatma S Al-Essry, Waad-Allah S Mula-Abed
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the significance of serum chromogranin A (CgA) status in patients with and without different neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) by conducting a retrospective assessment of the diagnostic utility and limitations of CgA as a biomarker for NETs in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of CgA requests referred to the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory, Royal Hospital, Oman over a 24-month period (April 2012 to March 2014)...
September 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026448/newborn-genome-wide-dna-methylation-in-association-with-pregnancy-anxiety-reveals-a-potential-role-for-gabbr1
#20
Elise Beau Vangeel, Ehsan Pishva, Titia Hompes, Daniel van den Hove, Diether Lambrechts, Karel Allegaert, Kathleen Freson, Benedetta Izzi, Stephan Claes
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence for the role of prenatal stress in shaping offspring DNA methylation and disease susceptibility. In the current study, we aimed to identify genes and pathways associated with pregnancy anxiety using a genome-wide DNA methylation approach. METHODS: We selected 22 versus 23 newborns from our Prenatal Early Life Stress (PELS) cohort, exposed to the lowest or highest degree of maternal pregnancy anxiety, respectively. Cord blood genome-wide DNA methylation was assayed using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (HM450, n = 45) and candidate gene methylation using EpiTYPER (n = 80)...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
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