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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679646/chronic-methamphetamine-exposure-attenuates-neural-activation-in-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-associated-brain-regions-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#1
Jason S Jacobskind, Zachary J Rosinger, Tiffany Gonzalez, Kristen L Zuloaga, Damian G Zuloaga
Sex differences in methamphetamine (MA) abuse and consequences of MA have been reported with females showing an increased addiction phenotype and withdrawal symptoms. One mechanism through which these effects might occur is via sex-specific alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its associated brain regions. In this study, mice were administered MA (5 mg/kg) or saline for 10 consecutive days. During early withdrawal, anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in the open field, light/dark box, and elevated plus maze...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679067/psychological-stress-deteriorates-skin-barrier-function-by-activating-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-and-the-hpa-axis
#2
Sung Jay Choe, Donghye Kim, Eun Jung Kim, Joung-Sook Ahn, Eun-Jeong Choi, Eui Dong Son, Tae Ryong Lee, Eung Ho Choi
Psychological stress (PS) increases endogenous glucocorticoids (GC) by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The negative effects of GC on skin barrier function under PS have been well-established. However, endogenous GC can also be active when cortisone (inactive form) is converted to cortisol (active form) by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I (11ß-HSD1) in the peripheral tissue. Here, we evaluated the changes in 11ß-HSD1 and barrier function under PS. Elevated 11ß-HSD1 in oral mucosa correlated with increased cortisol in the stratum corneum and deteriorated barrier function...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678754/sex-and-age-dependent-effects-of-orexin-1-receptor-blockade-on-open-field-behavior-and-neuronal-activity
#3
Shannon R Blume, Hannah Nam, Sandra Luz, Debra A Bangasser, Seema Bhatnagar
Adolescence is a sensitive and critical period in brain development where psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are more likely to emerge following a stressful life event. Females are two times more likely to suffer from psychiatric disorders than males. Patients with these disorders show alterations in orexins (also called hypocretins), important neuropeptides that regulate arousal, wakefulness and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Little is known on the role of orexins in mediating arousal behaviors in male and female rats during adolescence or adulthood...
April 17, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678398/altered-ultradian-cortisol-rhythmicity-as-a-potential-neurobiologic-substrate-for-chronic-insomnia
#4
REVIEW
Ivan Vargas, Alexandros N Vgontzas, James L Abelson, Rose T Faghih, Knashawn H Morales, Michael L Perlis
Chronic insomnia is highly prevalent and associated with significant morbidity (i.e., confers risk for multiple psychiatric and medical disorders, such as depression and hypertension). Therefore, it is essential to identify factors that perpetuate this disorder. One candidate factor in the neurobiology of chronic insomnia is hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis dysregulation, and in particular, alterations in circadian cortisol rhythmicity. Cortisol secretory patterns, however, fluctuate with both a circadian and an ultradian rhythm (i...
March 27, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678284/aberrant-g-protein-coupled-hormone-receptor-in-adrenal-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Matthieu St-Jean, Nada El Ghorayeb, Isabelle Bourdeau, André Lacroix
The regulation of cortisol or aldosterone production when ACTH of pituitary origin or the renin-angiotensin systems are suppressed in primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome or in primary aldosteronism is exerted by diverse genetic and molecular mechanisms. In addition to recently identified mutations in various genes implicated in the cyclic AMP or ion channel pathways, steroidogenesis is not really autonomous as it is frequently regulated by the aberrant adrenocortical expression of diverse hormone receptors, particularly G-protein coupled hormone receptors (GPCR) which can substitute for the normal function of ACTH or angiotensin-II...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677033/characterization-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-children-undergoing-cardiac-surgery
#6
Saul Flores, David S Cooper, Amy M Opoka, Ilias Iliopoulos, Sarah Pluckebaum, Matthew N Alder, Kelli A Krallman, Rashmi D Sahay, Lin Fei, Hector R Wong
OBJECTIVES: Postoperative administration of corticosteroids is common practice for managing catecholamine refractory low cardiac output syndrome. Since corticosteroid activity is dependent on the glucocorticoid receptor, we sought to characterize glucocorticoid receptor levels in children undergoing cardiac surgery and examined the association between glucocorticoid receptor levels and cardiovascular dysfunction. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Large, tertiary pediatric cardiac center...
April 19, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674169/intergenerational-gene-%C3%A3-environment-interaction-of-fkbp5-and-childhood-maltreatment-on-hair-steroids
#7
Alexandra M Koenig, Laura Ramo-Fernández, Christina Boeck, Maria Umlauft, Markus Pauly, Elisabeth B Binder, Clemens Kirschbaum, Harald Gündel, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa
BACKGROUND: The inconsistency in results of cortisol alterations after childhood maltreatment (CM) might arise due to the fact that no study so far considered the effects of environmental factors such as maltreatment load and genetic factors such as the influence of FKBP5 genotype on stress hormone regulation. This study analyzed the interaction between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1360780 within the FKBP5 gene and the severity of maternal CM experiences (maltreatment load) on hair steroid levels of mother-infant-dyads...
April 5, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673237/panax-notoginseng-saponins-a-review-of-its-mechanisms-of-antidepressant-or-anxiolytic-effects-and-network-analysis-on-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology
#8
REVIEW
Weijie Xie, Xiangbao Meng, Yadong Zhai, Ping Zhou, Tianyuan Ye, Zhen Wang, Guibo Sun, Xiaobo Sun
Panax notoginseng (Burk) F. H. Chen , as traditional Chinese medicine, has a long history of high clinical value, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, inhibition of platelet aggregation, regulation of blood glucose and blood pressure, inhibition of neuronal apoptosis, and neuronal protection, and its main ingredients are Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS). Currently, Panax notoginseng (Burk) F. H. Chen may improve mental function, have anti-insomnia and anti-depression effects, alleviate anxiety, and decrease neural network excitation...
April 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663559/sex-differences-in-hippocampal-mineralocorticoid-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-mrna-expression-in-response-to-acute-mate-pair-separation-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#9
Farrah N Madison, Andrew J Kesner, Beau A Alward, Gregory F Ball
Mate separation has been shown to mediate changes in physiological and behavioral processes via activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in both mammalian and avian species. In order to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with changes in the HPA axis in response to social stress, we investigated the effects of mate pair separation on circulating corticosterone concentrations as well as gene expression levels of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of both male and female zebra finches, a species that forms strong pair bonds...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661784/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-a-sense-of-time-of-the-glucocorticoid-circadian-clock-from-the-ontogeny-to-the-diagnosis-of-cushing-s-syndrome
#10
Ayrton Custodio Moreira, Sonir Roberto R Antonini, Margaret De Castro
The circadian rhythm of glucocorticoids has long been recognised within the last 75 years. Since the beginning, researchers have sought to identify basic mechanisms underlying the origin and emergence of the corticosteroid circadian rhythmicity among mammals. Accordingly, Young, Hall and Rosbash, laureates of the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, as well as Takahashi's group among others, have characterised the molecular cogwheels of the circadian system, describing interlocking transcription/translation feedback loops essential for normal circadian rhythms...
April 16, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660919/blood-rheology-as-a-mirror-of-endocrine-and-metabolic-homeostasis-in-health-and-disease1
#11
Jean-Frédéric Brun, Emmanuelle Varlet-Marie, Marlène Richou, Jacques Mercier, Eric Raynaud de Mauverger
 Rheological properties of plasma and blood cells are markedly influenced by the surrounding milieu: physicochemical factors, metabolism and hormones. Acid/base status, osmolality, lipid status, plasma protein pattern, oxidative stress induced by increased free radicals production, endothelium-derived factors such as nitric oxide (NO), achidonic acid derivatives modulate both red blood cell (RBC) and white cell mechanics. Therefore, regulatory axes involving liver, endothelium, kidney, pancreas, adrenal gland, endocrine heart, adipose tissue, pituitary gland, and surely other tissues play important roles in the regulation of blood fluidity...
April 7, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658496/-gestastres-cohort-study-protocol-on-the-effects-of-stress-during-pregnancy-by-measuring-the-cortisol-in-women-s-and-newborn-s-hair
#12
Rafael A Caparros-Gonzalez, Inmaculada García-García, Juan Carlos Mariñas-Lirola, Maria Isabel Peralta-Ramírez
The aim was to present the longitudinal study protocol on the effects of perinatal stress from conception to one year of age. Stress is associated to psychopathological, cardiovascular and inmunological diseases. During pregnancy, the activation of the Hipotalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal results in an increased release of cortisol. Stress during pregnancy is related to maternal, fetal and infant negative outcomes that can last a lifetime. Nevertheless, contradictory findings have been reported. In this longitudinal study maternal stress is assessed from a sample of 807 pregnant women through hair cortisol levels and psychological question- naires during the three trimesters of pregnancy...
April 16, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656044/state-of-the-art-knowledge-in-adrenocortical-and-behavioral-responses-to-environmental-challenges-in-a-threatened-south-american-ratite-implications-to-in-situ-and-ex-situ-conservation
#13
REVIEW
Navarro Joaquín Luis, Alvina Lèche, Natalia S Della Costa, Marilina Vera Cortez, Raúl H Marin, Mónica B Martella
The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) is an endemic ratite to South America, whose wild populations have undergone a remarkable decrease due to habitat degradation and fragmentation by the expansion of the agricultural frontier, poaching and predation by dogs. Anthropogenic perturbations in wild environments, as well as the management in captivity, can generate different stress responses in this species, thus, the monitoring of adrenocortical and behavioral activities are considered primary assessment tools with both conservation and welfare implications...
April 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656013/escitalopram-alleviates-stress-induced-alzheimer-s-disease-like-tau-pathologies-and-cognitive-deficits-by-reducing-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-reactivity-and-insulin-gsk-3%C3%AE-signal-pathway-activity
#14
Chao Wu, Wei-Gang Gong, Yan-Juan Wang, Jun-Jun Sun, Hong Zhou, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Qing-Guo Ren
Chronic stress, a causal factor for depression, can also cause cognitive impairments and tau pathology. However, whether and how the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant escitalopram ameliorates these effects are still unclear. In the present study, rats were subjected to chronic mild unpredictable stress for 8 weeks. Following the initial 4 weeks, the stressed animals were separated into susceptible (depressive) and unsusceptible (resistant) groups based on behavioral tests. Then, escitalopram (10 mg/kg i...
March 19, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652832/sympathetic-nerve-hyperactivity-in-the-spleen-causal-for-nonpathogenic-driven-chronic-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-imids
#15
REVIEW
Denise L Bellinger, Dianne Lorton
Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs) is a descriptive term coined for an eclectic group of diseases or conditions that share common inflammatory pathways, and for which there is no definitive etiology. IMIDs affect the elderly most severely, with many older individuals having two or more IMIDs. These diseases include, but are not limited to, type-1 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and autoimmunity, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjőgren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and multiple sclerosis...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652216/psychophysiological-measures-of-stress-in-caregivers-of-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review
#16
Ciara Padden, Carolina Concialdi-McGlynn, Sinead Lydon
PURPOSE: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often self-report heightened levels of stress and physical health problems. This paper reviewed studies assessing physiological measures of stress among parents of children with ASD. METHODS: Systematic database searches identified 15 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Studies were reviewed to determine: (a) control group characteristics; (b) caregiver and care recipient characteristics; (c) setting; (d) physiological measures employed; (e) physiological outcomes; and (f) stressor type...
April 13, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651676/essence-of-shen-kidney-controlling-bones-conceptual-analysis-based-on-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-osteo-related-cells-axis
#17
Tao-Tao Xu, Hong-Ting Jin, Pei-Jian Tong
As a traditional concept of Chinese medicine (CM), the theory of "Shen (Kidney) controlling bones" has been gradually proven. And in modern allopathic medicine, the multiple mechanisms of bone growth, development and regeneration align with the theory. Shen defifi ciency as a pathological condition has a negative effect on the skeleton of body, specififi cally the disorder of bone homeostasis. Present studies indicate that Shen defifi ciency shares a common disorder characterized by dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
April 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650294/increased-methylation-at-an-unexplored-glucocorticoid-responsive-element-within-exon-1-d-of-nr3c1-gene-is-related-to-anxious-depressive-disorders-and-decreased-hippocampal-connectivity
#18
Helena Palma-Gudiel, Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Cristian Tornador, Carles Falcón, Núria Bargalló, Gustavo Deco, Lourdes Fañanás
Among the major psychiatric disorders, anxious-depressive disorders stand out as one of the more prevalent and more frequently associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities. Methylation at the exon 1F of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 has been associated with both early stress exposure and risk for developing a psychiatric disorder; however, other NR3C1 promoter regions have been underexplored. Exon 1D emerges as a suggestive new target in stress-related disorders epigenetically sensitive to early adversity...
April 9, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650226/are-cushing-s-disease-patients-curable
#19
Xavier Bertagna
Treatment of Cushing's disease remains a challenge. Whereas pituitary surgery can "cure" the patient and restore a completely normal pituitary adrenal axis, there are immediate failures and late recurrences which ultimately require alternate therapeutic approaches. These are numerous, but so are their drawbacks, and all appear to be "default options". For the future, pituitary adenoma has to remain the "reasonable obsession" of efficient and optimistic therapists….
April 9, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650225/an-update-on-cushing-syndrome-in-pediatrics
#20
Constantine A Stratakis
Cushing syndrome (CS) in childhood results mostly from the exogenous administration of glucocorticoids; endogenous CS is a rare disease. The latter is the main reason pediatric patients with CS escape diagnosis for too long. Other barriers to optimal care of a pediatric patient with CS include improper following of the proper sequence of testing for diagnosing CS, which stems from lack of understanding of pathophysiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; lack of access to proper (i.e., experienced, state-of-the-art) surgical treatment; and unavailability of well-tolerated and effective medications to control hypercortisolemia...
April 9, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
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