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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237322/global-variation-in-diurnal-cortisol-rhythms-evidence-from-garisakangforager-horticulturalists-of-lowland-papua-new-guinea
#1
Samuel S Urlacher, Melissa A Liebert, Martina Konečná
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents an important and evolutionarily ancient biological pathway linking physical and psychological stressors with human health. Despite considerable research exploring the physiological stress response among developed populations, few studies have examined HPA activity in non-industrialized contexts, restricting understanding of variation in human stress reactivity across global socio-ecological diversity. The present study addresses this shortcoming by investigating diurnal cortisol rhythms among Garisakang forager-horticulturalists of remote, lowland Papua New Guinea...
December 13, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237154/effects-of-early-life-adversity-on-hippocampal-structures-and-associated-hpa-axis-functions
#2
Brigitte Dahmen, Vanessa B Puetz, Wolfgang Scharke, Georg G von Polier, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Kerstin Konrad
Early-life adversity (ELA) is one of the major risk factors for serious mental and physical health risks later in life. ELA has been associated with dysfunctional neurodevelopment, especially in brain structures such as the hippocampus, and with dysfunction of the stress system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Children who have experienced ELA are also more likely to suffer from mental health disorders such as depression later in life. The exact interplay of aberrant neurodevelopment and HPA axis dysfunction as risks for psychopathology is not yet clear...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236043/stress-induced-endocrine-and-immune-dysfunctions-in-caregivers-of-people-with-eating-disorders
#3
Ángel Romero-Martínez, Luis Moya-Albiol
Caregivers have to cope repeatedly with acute stressors in their daily lives, and this is associated with disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the immune system. Such disturbances could contribute to the development of health problems in informal caregivers of people with chronic illnesses, such as eating disorders (EDs). The main objective of this study was to examine endocrine (salivary cortisol levels (Csal)), immune (immunoglobulin-A (IgA)), and psychological (anxiety, mood, and anger feelings) responses to an acute psychological stressor in a sample of informal caregivers of individuals with EDs compared to a sample of non-caregivers...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235502/stress-induced-release-of-the-s100a8-a9-alarmin-is-elevated-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients-with-impaired-cortisol-response
#4
L Jonasson, H Grauen Larsen, A K Lundberg, B Gullstrand, A A Bengtsson, A Schiopu
Psychological stress is thought to be an important trigger of cardiovascular events, yet the involved pathways and mediators are largely unknown. Elevated systemic levels of the pro-inflammatory alarmin S100A8/A9 correlate with poor prognosis in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Here, we investigated the links between S100A8/A9 release and parameters of anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid secretion in two different cohorts subjected to a psychological stress test. In the first cohort of 60 CAD patients, psychological stress induced a rapid increase of circulating S100A8/A9...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234280/blunted-diurnal-cortisol-activity-in-healthy-adults-with-childhood-adversity
#5
Yuliya I Kuras, Naomi Assaf, Myriam V Thoma, Danielle Gianferante, Luke Hanlin, Xuejie Chen, Alexander Fiksdal, Nicolas Rohleder
Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232576/effects-of-oxytocin-on-cortisol-reactivity-and-conflict-resolution-behaviors-among-couples-with-substance-misuse
#6
Julianne C Flanagan, Melanie S Fischer, Paul J Nietert, Sudie E Back, Megan Moran-Santa Maria, Alexandra Snead, Kathleen T Brady
Social stress, particularly in the form of dyadic conflict, is a well-established correlate of substance use disorders (SUD). The neuropeptide oxytocin can enhance prosocial behavior and mitigate addictive behaviors. These effects may be, in part, a result of oxytocin's ability to attenuate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation. However, only one study to date has examined the effects of oxytocin on neuroendocrine reactivity or conflict resolution behavior among couples. Participants (N = 33 couples or 66 total participants) were heterosexual couples in which one or both partners endorsed substance misuse...
December 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232329/cortisol-and-subjective-stress-responses-to-acute-psychosocial-stress-in-fibromyalgia-patients-and-control-participants
#7
Eline Coppens, Stefan Kempke, Peter Van Wambeke, Stephan Claes, Bart Morlion, Patrick Luyten, Lukas Van Oudenhove
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction may play a role in fibromyalgia (FM) pathogenesis, but remains understudied in this disorder. Furthermore, early childhood adversities (ECA) are common in FM, but whether they moderate stress reactivity is unknown. Hence, we investigated cortisol and subjective responses to acute psychosocial stress in FM and controls, while adjusting for ECA. METHODS: Twenty-seven female FM patients and 24 age-matched female controls were recruited in a tertiary care center and through advertisements, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228518/childhood-trauma-is-associated-with-poorer-cognitive-performance-in-older-adults
#8
Andrew J Petkus, Eric J Lenze, Meryl A Butters, Elizabeth W Twamley, Julie Loebach Wetherell
OBJECTIVE: Childhood trauma is common and associated with both worse cognitive performance and disruption to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in younger adults. The extent to which these associations persist into older adulthood remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported childhood trauma in relation to cognitive performance, and the extent to which cortisol explained this association, in 2 independent samples of older adults. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, participants in the discovery sample (N = 76) consisted of older adults with a DSM-IV diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (N = 57) and age-equated psychiatrically healthy comparison subjects (N = 19) who were referred largely through primary care clinics between 2004-2006...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225572/adaptive-changes-in-the-sensitivity-of-the-dorsal-raphe-and-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nuclei-to-acute-exercise-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-may-contribute-to-the-antidepressant-effect-of-regular-treadmill-running-in-rats
#9
Ayu Nishii, Seiichiro Amemiya, Natsuko Kubota, Takeshi Nishijima, Ichiro Kita
Increasing clinical evidence suggests that regular physical exercise can prevent or reduce the incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders including depressive symptoms. Antidepressant effect of regular exercise may be implicated in monoaminergic transmission including serotonergic transmission, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and hippocampal neurogenesis, but few general concepts regarding the optimal exercise regimen for stimulating neural mechanisms involved in antidepressant properties have been developed...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225338/early-life-adversity-and-cortisol-response-to-social-stress-a-meta-analysis
#10
Ioana Maria Bunea, Aurora Szentágotai-Tătar, Andrei C Miu
Early-life adversity has been associated with a life-long increased risk for psychopathology and chronic health problems. These long-term negative effects have been explained through stress sensitization, which may involve dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis through either increased or decreased reactivity. The present meta-analysis assessed for the first time the effect of early-life adversity on cortisol response to social stress. Thirty data sets were included in the meta-analysis, in which early-life adversity and salivary cortisol response to social stress were assessed in 4292 individuals of different ages...
December 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224006/epigenetic-regulation-of-the-promotor-region-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-and-nerve-growth-factor-in-opioid-maintained-patients
#11
Adrian Groh, Kirsten Jahn, Alexandra Burkert, Alexandra Neyazi, Laura Schares, Eva Janke, Marie Rehme, Rilana Schuster, Thomas Hillemacher, Stefan Bleich, Helge Frieling, Annemarie Heberlein
AIMS: The nerve growth factor (NGF) and the vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) may be of importance for psychiatric diseases including substance use disorders. The aim of the study was to identify differences in the regulation of both neuropeptides via the DNA-methylation status of the promotor regions of NGF and VEGF-A in different forms of maintenance therapy for opioid dependence and the related stress regulation via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. METHODS: We compared methylation levels of opioid-dependent patients receiving treatment with diamorphine (n = 28) or levomethadone (n = 54) and similar levels in a healthy control group (n = 72)...
December 8, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223281/human-studies-on-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis
#12
REVIEW
Kamani Liyanarachchi, Richard Ross, Miguel Debono
The daily rhythm of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is regulated by the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Cortisol, a glucocorticoid, acts as a secondary messenger between the central clock and the peripheral tissues. Changes in clock time, as seen in shift workers, alters the HPA axis and results in metabolic disturbances associated with ill health. Depression, anorexia nervosa and obstructive sleep apnoea, are associated with cortisol rhythm phase shifts and increased cortisol exposure...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223280/circadian-and-ultradian-patterns-of-hpa-axis-activity-in-rodents-significance-for-brain-functionality
#13
REVIEW
Femke S den Boon, R Angela Sarabdjitsingh
The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis comprises interactions between the hypothalamus, the pituitary and the adrenal glands and its activation results in the release of corticosteroid hormones. Corticosteroids are secreted from the adrenal gland in a distinct 24-h circadian rhythm overarching an ultradian rhythm, which consists of hourly corticosteroid pulses exposing target tissues to rapidly changing steroid levels. On top of these rhythms surges can take place after stress. HPA-axis rhythms promote adaptation to predictable (i...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223003/steroidogenic-factor-1-inverse-agonists-as-a-treatment-option-for-canine-hypercortisolism-in%C3%A2-vitro-study
#14
K Sanders, J A Mol, A Slob, H S Kooistra, S Galac
Hypercortisolism is one of the most commonly diagnosed endocrinopathies in dogs, and new targeted medical treatment options are desirable. Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), an orphan nuclear hormone receptor, is a key regulator of adrenal steroidogenesis, development, and growth. In pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH), high plasma ACTH concentrations increase the transcriptional activity of SF-1. In adrenal-dependent hypercortisolism, SF-1 expression is significantly greater in dogs with recurrence after adrenalectomy than in those without recurrence...
November 21, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222606/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis-functioning-in-overtraining-syndrome-findings-from-endocrine-and-metabolic-responses-on-overtraining-syndrome-eros-eros-hpa-axis
#15
Flavio A Cadegiani, Claudio E Kater
BACKGROUND: Overtraining syndrome (OTS) results from excessive training load without adequate recovery and leads to decreased performance and fatigue. The pathophysiology of OTS in athletes is not fully understood, which makes accurate diagnosis difficult. Previous studies indicate that alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be responsible for OTS; however, the data is not conclusive. This study aimed to compare, through gold standard and exercise-independent tests, the response of the HPA axis in OTS-affected athletes (OTS group) to healthy physically active subjects (ATL group) and healthy non-active subjects (NCS group)...
December 8, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221568/nutritional-programming-by-glucocorticoids-in-breast-milk-targets-mechanisms-and-possible-implications
#16
REVIEW
Jonneke J Hollanders, Annemieke C Heijboer, Bibian van der Voorn, Joost Rotteveel, Martijn J J Finken
Vertical transmission of glucocorticoids via breast milk might pose a mechanism through which lactating women could prepare their infants for the postnatal environment. The primary source of breast-milk glucocorticoids is probably the systemic circulation. Research from our group showed that milk cortisol and cortisone concentrations follow the diurnal rhythm of maternal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, with a higher abundance of cortisone compared to cortisol. Measurement of breast-milk glucocorticoid concentrations is challenging due to possible cross-reactivity with progestagens and sex steroids, which are severely elevated during pregnancy and after parturition...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220613/fully-automated-pipetting-sorting-system-for-different-morphological-phenotypes-of-zebrafish-embryos
#17
Helmut Breitwieser, Thomas Dickmeis, Marcel Vogt, Marco Ferg, Christian Pylatiuk
Systems biology methods, such as transcriptomics and metabolomics, require large numbers of small model organisms, such as zebrafish embryos. Manual separation of mutant embryos from wild-type embryos is a tedious and time-consuming task that is prone to errors, especially if there are variable phenotypes of a mutant. Here we describe a zebrafish embryo sorting system with two cameras and image processing based on template-matching algorithms. In order to evaluate the system, zebrafish rx3 mutants that lack eyes due to a patterning defect in brain development were separated from their wild-type siblings...
December 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218429/protein-expression-of-pttg1-as-a-diagnostic-biomarker-in-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#18
Minerva Angélica Romero Arenas, Timothy G Whitsett, Anna Aronova, Samuel A Henderson, Janine LoBello, Mouhammed Amir Habra, Elizabeth G Grubbs, Jeffrey E Lee, Kanishka Sircar, Rasa Zarnegar, Theresa Scognamiglio, Thomas J Fahey, Nancy D Perrier, Michael J Demeure
BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) has a poor prognosis and there is an unmet clinical need for biomarkers to improve both diagnostic and prognostic assessment. Pituitary-tumor transforming gene (PTTG1) has been shown to modulate cancer invasiveness and response to therapy. The potential role of PTTG1 protein levels in ACC has not been previously addressed. We assessed whether increased nuclear protein expression of PTTG1 distinguished ACCs from adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs)...
December 7, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215456/child-and-adult-socioeconomic-status-and-the-cortisol-response-to-acute-stress-evidence-from-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#19
Félice Lê-Scherban, Allison B Brenner, Margaret T Hicken, Belinda L Needham, Teresa Seeman, Richard P Sloan, Xu Wang, Ana V Diez Roux
OBJECTIVE: A long-hypothesized pathway through which low socioeconomic status (SES) harms health is through dysregulation of the physiologic stress response systems. No previous studies have tested this hypothesis by investigating cortisol reactivity and recovery to acute stress in relation to SES at different times in the life course in adults. Alteration of the cortisol response to an acute stressor could signal dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and has been associated with chronic illness...
December 5, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214106/basal-serum-cortisol-and-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-levels-in-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#20
Zohreh Tehranchinia, Hoda Rahimi, Sara Lotfi
Background: Certain studies suggest that percutaneous absorption of topical steroids may cause suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. This study aimed to investigate the basal serum cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and IgE levels in patients with AD and their correlation with the disease severity. Methods: Levels of basal serum cortisol, ACTH, and IgE were assessed by ELISA in 31 patients with AD and 31 controls...
October 2017: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
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