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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643132/integrated-inflammatory-stress-itis-model
#1
Elisabeth O Bangsgaard, Poul G Hjorth, Mette S Olufsen, Jesper Mehlsen, Johnny T Ottesen
During the last decade, there has been an increasing interest in the coupling between the acute inflammatory response and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis. The inflammatory response is activated acutely by pathogen- or damage-related molecular patterns, whereas the HPA axis maintains a long-term level of the stress hormone cortisol which is also anti-inflammatory. A new integrated model of the interaction between these two subsystems of the inflammatory system is proposed and coined the integrated inflammatory stress (ITIS) model...
June 22, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641771/fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis-is-it-related-to-cytokines-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#2
Aylin Akcali, Fatma Zengin, Sefika Nur Aksoy, Orhan Zengin
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common symptom of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) that diminishes the quality of life of patients, but its exact mechanism remains poorly understood. There is not a generally adopted scale to determine MS fatigue. Studies that investigated physiopathology of fatigue symptom have shown dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis. In the current study, we aimed to compare the results obtained with two separate scales, namely the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the Neurological Fatigue Index-Multiple Sclerosis (NFI-MS), and assess the relationship between fatigue and serum IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-35, IL-2, IL-10, ACTH, cortisol, α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH and CLIP (Corticotropinlike intermediate lobe peptide) in MS patients categorized as fatigued and non-fatigued on the basis of FSS scores...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641541/-stress-is-80-years-old-from-hans-selye-original-paper-in-1936-to-recent-advances-in-gi-ulceration
#3
Sandor Szabo, Masashi Yoshida, Janos Filakovszky, Gyorgy Juhasz
The first scientific publication on 'general adaption syndrome', or as we know today 'biologic stress' has been published in Nature in 1936 by the 29-year old Hans Selye. His results in that short publication that contained no references or illustrations, were based on experiments in rats that were exposed to severe insults/stressors, but his idea about a 'nonspecific bodily response' originated from his observations of sick patients whom he had seen as a medical students and young clinician. Autopsy of stressed rats revealed three major, grossly visible changes: hyperemia and enlargement of the adrenals, atrophy of the thymus and lymph nodes as well as hemorrhagic gastric erosions/ulcers (the "stress triad")...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641158/determinants-of-cortisol-during-pregnancy-the-abcd-cohort
#4
Laura S Bleker, Tessa J Roseboom, Tanja G Vrijkotte, Rebecca M Reynolds, Susanne R de Rooij
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stress during pregnancy has been proposed as a major contributor of glucocorticoid-mediated programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, with later adverse health consequences. However, evidence linking maternal stress to maternal cortisol values during pregnancy is inconclusive. A possible explanation for this is that other maternal factors overshadow any potential effects of stress on cortisol levels. We studied a large cohort of pregnant women with extensive data on pregnancy characteristics to determine the respective contributions of biological, environmental and psychosocial stress factors to cortisol levels in pregnancy...
May 31, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639924/cushing-syndrome-diagnostic-workup-and-imaging-features-with-clinical-and-pathologic-correlation
#5
Nicolaus A Wagner-Bartak, Ali Baiomy, Mouhammed Amir Habra, Shalini V Mukhi, Ajaykumar C Morani, Brinda R Korivi, Steven G Waguespack, Khaled M Elsayes
OBJECTIVE: Cushing syndrome (CS) is a constellation of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from chronic exposure to excess cortisol, either exogenous or endogenous. Exogenous CS is most commonly caused by administration of glucocorticoids. Endogenous CS is subdivided into two types: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependent and ACTH independent. CONCLUSION: Cushing disease, which is caused by a pituitary adenoma, is the most common cause of ACTH-dependent CS for which pituitary MRI can be diagnostic, with bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling useful in equivocal cases...
July 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639383/longitudinal-associations-between-low-morning-cortisol-in-infancy-and-anger-dysregulation-in-early-childhood-in-a-cps-referred-sample
#6
Allison Frost, Caitlin Jelinek, Kristin Bernard, Teresa Lind, Mary Dozier
Children who experience early adversity are at increased risk for developing psychopathology, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is a possible mechanism conferring this risk. This study sought to characterize the association between morning cortisol during different developmental periods and deficits in children's emotion regulation, a core feature of many psychological disorders. Morning cortisol was collected at two time points (i.e., during infancy, M = 13.0 months old, and during early childhood, M = 36...
June 21, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635080/neuroadaptations-of-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-gabab-receptor-function-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-in-response-to-chronic-unpredictable-stress
#7
Yonggang Gao, Jing-Jing Zhou, Yun Zhu, Li Wang, Therese A Kosten, Xiangjian Zhang, De-Pei Li
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress induces an impaired GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid type A) receptor-mediated inhibition in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It is not clear whether GABAB receptor function is altered in chronic stress. We hypothesize that chronic stress alters GABAB receptor function in PVN corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons to control hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Whole cell patch-clamp recording was performed on PVN-CRH neurons expressing eGFP driven by CRH promoter in brain slices from unstressed rats and rats that had been subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627308/hormonal-and-neuromuscular-responses-to-breastfeeding-a-pilot-study
#8
Madalynn Neu, Zhaoxing Pan, Ashley Haight, Karen Fehringer, Katrina Maluf
OBJECTIVES: Difficult breastfeeding in the first weeks after birth may result in muscle tension in infants and activation of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Our primary objective was to examine the feasibility of collecting neuroendocrine markers of maternal HPA axis and SNS activation (salivary cortisol and α-amylase [sAA]) and electromyographic (EMG) markers of infant distress during feeding in the first 2 weeks after birth...
July 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625926/prenatal-caffeine-exposure-induced-high-susceptibility-to-metabolic-syndrome-in-adult-female-offspring-rats-and-its-underlying-mechanisms
#9
Lin-Guo Pei, Chao Yuan, Yi-Tian Guo, Hao Kou, Li-Ping Xia, Li Zhang, You-E Yan, Dan Xu, Hui Wang
Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) induced an intrauterine programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA)-associated neuroendocrine metabolism in 3-month-old offspring rats. In this study, we aimed to confirm this programming disorder and high susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in 10-month-old female PCE offspring with postnatal catch-up growth. We found that PCE female offspring rats showed decreased bodyweight but a higher rate of weight gain after birth...
June 15, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624161/clinical-follow-up-of-the-first-sf-1-insufficient-female-patient
#10
Karine Gerster, Anna Biason-Lauber, Eugen J Schoenle
OBJECTIVE: Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1/NR5A1) plays a crucial role in regulating adrenal development, gonad determination and differentiation, and in the hypothalamic-pituitary control of reproduction and metabolism. In men (46, XY), it is known that mutations in SF-1/NR5A1 gene cause a wide phenotypic spectrum with variable degrees of undervirilization. In recent years, the role of SF-1 in the ovarian function was increasingly discussed and alterations in the gene were related to primary ovarian insufficiency...
June 14, 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623763/saturated-high-fat-feeding-independent-of-obesity-alters-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-but-not-anxiety-like-behaviour
#11
Cecile Hryhorczuk, Léa Décarie-Spain, Sandeep Sharma, Caroline Daneault, Christine Des Rosiers, Thierry Alquier, Stephanie Fulton
Overconsumption of dietary fat can elicit impairments in emotional processes and the response to stress. While excess dietary lipids have been shown to alter hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and promote anxiety-like behaviour, it is not known if such changes rely on elevated body weight and if these effects are specific to the type of dietary fat. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a saturated and a monounsaturated high-fat diet (HFD) on HPA axis function and anxiety-like behaviour in rats...
June 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619017/borderline-personality-disorder-and-childhood-trauma-exploring-the-affected-biological-systems-and-mechanisms
#12
Nadia Cattane, Roberta Rossi, Mariangela Lanfredi, Annamaria Cattaneo
BACKGROUND: According to several studies, the onset of the Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) depends on the combination between genetic and environmental factors (GxE), in particular between biological vulnerabilities and the exposure to traumatic experiences during childhood. We have searched for studies reporting possible alterations in several biological processes and brain morphological features in relation to childhood trauma experiences and to BPD. We have also looked for epigenetic mechanisms as they could be mediators of the effects of childhood trauma in BPD vulnerability...
June 15, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618657/antidepressive-effects-of-ginsenoside-rg1-via-regulation-of-hpa-and-hpg-axis
#13
Zheng Mou, Qian Huang, Shi-Feng Chu, Mei-Jin Zhang, Jin-Feng Hu, Nai-Hong Chen, Jun-Tian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity is a well-established pathological feature of major depression, accompanied by the persistent increase of glucocorticoid level and the dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is one of the most active ingredients of Panax ginseng, which has various biological activity. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the antidepressive effects of Rg1 and elucidate its impact on neuroendocrine system...
June 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618114/subjective-insomnia-symptoms-and-sleep-duration-are-not-related-to-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity-in-older-adults
#14
Rian J G Peters van Neijenhof, Erik van Duijn, Julia F Van Den Berg, Margot W M de Waal, Roos C van der Mast, Hannie C Comijs
Insomnia symptoms are highly prevalent in depressed older adults. This study investigates the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and symptoms of insomnia, respectively, sleep duration among 294 depressed and 123 non-depressed older adults of the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older people (NESDO) study. Insomnia symptoms were defined as clinically relevant when having a score ≥ 10 points on the Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale (WHIIRS). Sleep duration was categorized in short (≤ 6 h per night), normal (7-8 h per night) and long (≥ 9 h per night) duration...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617197/chronic-early-life-stress-induced-by-limited-bedding-and-nesting-lbn-material-in-rodents-critical-considerations-of-methodology-outcomes-and-translational-potential
#15
Claire-Dominique Walker, Kevin G Bath, Marian Joels, Aniko Korosi, Muriel Larauche, Paul J Lucassen, Margaret J Morris, Charlis Raineki, Tania L Roth, Regina M Sullivan, Yvette Taché, Tallie Z Baram
The immediate and long term effects of exposure to early life stress (ELS) have been documented in humans and animal models. Even relatively brief periods of stress during the first 10 days of life in rodents can impact later behavioral regulation and the vulnerability to develop adult pathologies, in particular an impairment of cognitive functions and neurogenesis, but also modified social, emotional and conditioned fear responses. The development of preclinical models of ELS exposure allows the examination of mechanisms and testing of therapeutic approaches that are not possible in humans...
June 15, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617035/measuring-stress-in-young-children-using-hair-cortisol-the-state-of-the-science
#16
Randi Bates, Pamela Salsberry, Jodi Ford
Extensive literature suggests that adverse experiences in early childhood may deleteriously impact later health. These effects are thought to be related to the impact of persistent or chronic stress on various biological processes, mediated by dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and ultimately irregularities in cortisol levels. Ameliorating persistent stress in young children requires accurately measuring the chronicity of physiologic stress, which is difficult in young children because of unreliable self-report and the burden and inaccuracy associated with using invasive acute-stress biomeasures...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616995/the-hippocampus-and-the-regulation-of-human-food-intake
#17
Richard J Stevenson, Heather M Francis
Human and animal data suggest that the hippocampus plays certain roles in regulating food intake. However, its actual role may be far broader than currently envisaged, a claim suggested by the centrality of the hippocampus to so many aspects of human/animal cognition. Understanding these ingestion-related functions is especially significant. This is because some degree of hippocampal impairment may be quite common, resulting for example from a Western-style diet, insomnia, diabetes, and depression-among many other causes...
June 15, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615049/a-case-of-acute-sheehan-s-syndrome-and-literature-review-a-rare-but-life-threatening-complication-of-postpartum-hemorrhage
#18
Shinya Matsuzaki, Masayuki Endo, Yutaka Ueda, Kazuya Mimura, Aiko Kakigano, Tomomi Egawa-Takata, Keiichi Kumasawa, Kiyoshi Yoshino, Tadashi Kimura
BACKGROUND: Sheehan's syndrome occurs because of severe postpartum hemorrhage causing ischemic pituitary necrosis. Sheehan's syndrome is a well-known condition that is generally diagnosed several years postpartum. However, acute Sheehan's syndrome is rare, and clinicians have little exposure to it. It can be life-threatening. There have been no reviews of acute Sheehan's syndrome and no reports of successful pregnancies after acute Sheehan's syndrome. We present such a case, and to understand this rare condition, we have reviewed and discussed the literature pertaining to it...
June 14, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614607/anatomical-and-functional-implications-of-crh-neurons-in-a-septal-nucleus-of-the-avian-brain-an-emphasis-on-glial-neuronal-interaction-via-v1a-receptors-in-vitro
#19
Gurueswar Nagarajan, Alexander Jurkevich, Seong W Kang, Wayne J Kuenzel
Previously, we showed that corticotropin releasing hormone immunoreactive (CRH-ir) neurons in a septal structure are associated with stress and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in birds. In this study, we focused upon CRH-ir neurons located within the septal structure called the nucleus of the hippocampal commissure (NHpC). Immunocytochemical and gene expression analyses were used to identify the anatomical and functional characteristics of cells within the NHpC. A comparative morphometry analysis showed that CRH-ir neurons in the NHpC were significantly larger than CRH-ir parvocellular neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614036/an-individualized-approach-to-the-evaluation-of-cushing-syndrome
#20
Susmeeta T Sharma
Cushing syndrome (CS) is caused by chronic exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Early recognition and treatment of hypercortisolemia can lead to decreased morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of CS and thereafter, establishing the cause can often be difficult, especially in patients with mild and cyclic hypercortisolism. Surgical excision of the cause of excess glucocorticoids is the optimal treatment for CS. Medical therapy (steroidogenesis inhibitors, medications that decrease adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] levels or glucocorticoid antagonists) and pituitary radiotherapy may be needed as adjunctive treatment modalities in patients with residual, recurrent or metastatic disease, in preparation for surgery, or when surgery is contraindicated...
June 2017: Endocrine Practice
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