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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458120/major-role-for-trpv1-and-insp3r-in-par-2-elicited-inflammatory-mediator-production-in-differentiated-human-keratinocytes
#1
Olivier Gouin, Killian L'Herondelle, Paul Buscaglia, Christelle Le Gall-Ianotto, Réginald Philippe, Nelig Legoux, Olivier Mignen, Virginie Buhé, Raphael Leschiera, Mehdi Sakka, Nathalie Kerfant, Jean-Luc Carré, Raphaele Le Garrec, Luc Lefeuvre, Nicolas Lebonvallet, Laurent Misery
Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) activation in basal keratinocytes stimulates inflammation via the Ca2+ -dependent production of mediators such as interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). In this study, we investigated PAR-2 calcium signaling and the consequent production of inflammatory mediators in differentiated human primary keratinocytes (DhPKs). Stimulation with the PAR-2 activating peptide SLIGKV promoted Ca2+ store depletion in both undifferentiated human primary keratinocytes (UhPKs) and DhPKs...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456837/synaptic-neuron-astrocyte-communication-is-supported-by-an-order-of-magnitude-analysis-of-inositol-tris-phosphate-diffusion-at-the-nanoscale-in-a-model-of-peri-synaptic-astrocyte-projection
#2
Pavel Montes de Oca Balderas, Horacio Montes de Oca Balderas
Background: Astrocytes were conceived for decades only as supporting cells of the brain. However, the observation of Ca2+ waves in astrocyte synctitia, their neurotransmitter receptor expression and gliotransmitter secretion suggested a role in information handling, conception that has some controversies. Synaptic Neuron-Astrocyte metabotropic communication mediated by Inositol tris-phosphate (SN-AmcIP3) is supported by different reports. However, some models contradict this idea and Ca2+ stores are 1000 ± 325 nm apart from the Postsynaptic Density in the Perisynaptic Astrocyte Projections (PAP's), suggesting that SN-AmcIP3 is extrasynaptic...
2018: BMC Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455469/insect-herbivory-and-plant-adaptation-in-an-early-successional-community
#3
Anurag A Agrawal, Amy P Hastings, Daniel M Fines, Steve Bogdanowicz, Meret Huber
To address the role of insect herbivores in adaptation of plant populations and the persistence of selection through succession, we manipulated herbivory in a long-term field experiment. We suppressed insects in half of 16 plots over nine years and examined the genotypic structure and chemical defense of common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), a naturally colonizing perennial apomictic plant. Insect suppression doubled dandelion abundance in the first few years, but had negligible effects thereafter. Using microsatellite DNA markers, we genotyped >2500 plants and demonstrate that insect suppression altered the genotypic composition of plots in both sampling years...
February 17, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454944/preparation-characterization-and-bioactivities-of-athelia-rolfsii-exopolysaccharide-zinc-complex-aeps-zinc
#4
Jinman Dong, Hongmei Li, Weihong Min
A new Athelia rolfsii exopolysaccharides (AEPS) were purified by Sephacryl S-300 and S-200. The physicochemical characteristics of AEPS fractions were assayed by HPGPC and GC methods. The structures of AEPS and AEPS‑zinc complex were characterized by SEM, FTIR and NMR. Moreover, the bioactivities of complex were also evaluated by experiments in vitro and in vivo. AEPSI consisted of glucose, galacturonic acid, talose, galactose, mannose and xylose, the relative contents of them were 24.74, 19.60, 33.65, 8...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452094/evolving-mechanisms-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-contraction-highlight-key-targets-in-vascular-disease
#5
REVIEW
Zhongwei Liu, Raouf A Khalil
Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) plays an important role in the regulation of vascular function. Identifying the mechanisms of VSM contraction has been a major research goal in order to determine the causes of vascular dysfunction and exaggerated vasoconstriction in vascular disease. Major discoveries over several decades have helped to better understand the mechanisms of VSM contraction. Ca 2+ has been established as a major regulator of VSM contraction, and its sources, cytosolic levels, homeostatic mechanisms and subcellular distribution have been defined...
February 13, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450800/the-endogenous-subcellular-localisations-of-the-long-chain-fatty-acid-activating-enzymes-acsl3-and-acsl4-in-sarcoma-and-breast-cancer-cells
#6
Yassmeen Radif, Haarith Ndiaye, Vasiliki Kalantzi, Ruth Jacobs, Andrew Hall, Shane Minogue, Mark G Waugh
Fatty acid uptake and metabolism are often dysregulated in cancer cells. Fatty acid activation is a critical step that allows these biomolecules to enter cellular metabolic pathways such as mitochondrial β-oxidation for ATP generation or the lipogenic routes that generate bioactive lipids such as the inositol phospholipids. Fatty acid activation by the addition of coenzyme A is catalysed by a family of enzymes called the acyl CoA synthetase ligases (ACSL). Furthermore, enhanced expression of particular ACSL isoforms, such as ACSL4, is a feature of some more aggressive cancers and may contribute to the oncogenic phenotype...
February 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448381/wave-failure-at-strong-coupling-in-intracellular-ca-2-signaling-system-with-clustered-channels
#7
Xiang Li, Yuning Wu, Xuejuan Gao, Meichun Cai, Jianwei Shuai
As an important intracellular signal, Ca^{2+} ions control diverse cellular functions. In this paper, we discuss the Ca^{2+} signaling with a two-dimensional model in which the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP_{3}) receptor channels are distributed in clusters on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The wave failure at large Ca^{2+} diffusion coupling is discussed in detail in the model. We show that with varying model parameters the wave failure is a robust behavior with either deterministic or stochastic channel dynamics...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448154/a-serine-carboxypeptidase-like-acyltransferase-catalyzes-synthesis-of-indole-3-acetic-iaa-ester-conjugate-in-rice-oryza-sativa
#8
Anna Ciarkowska, Maciej Ostrowski, Anna Jakubowska
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) conjugation is one of mechanisms responsible for regulation of free auxin levels in plants. A new member of the serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) acyltransferases family from Oryza sativa has been cloned and characterized. 1-O-indole-3-acetyl-β-D-glucose (1-O-IAGlc): myo-inositol acyltransferase (IAInos synthase) is an enzyme of IAA ester conjugates biosynthesis pathway that catalyzes transfer of IAA moiety from 1-O-IAGlc to myo-inositol forming IA-myo-inositol (IAInos). The OsIAA-At cDNA has been cloned and expressed using yeast and bacterial expression systems...
February 9, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444320/effect-of-phytase-on-growth-performance-phytate-degradation-and-gene-expression-of-myo-inositol-transporters-in-the-small-intestine-liver-and-kidney-of-21-day-old-broilers
#9
C L Walk, M R Bedford, O A Olukosi
An experiment was conducted to evaluate phytase supplementation on growth, phytate degradation, and the gene expression of myo-inositol transporters in 21-day old broilers. Ross 308, male broilers (n = 240) were assigned to one of four diets, with 10 pens/diet and six birds/pen from day one to 21. The diets consisted of a negative control (NC) formulated to meet or exceed Ross 308 nutrient requirements, with the exception of calcium (Ca) and available P (avP), which were reduced by 0.16 and 0.15%, respectively...
February 12, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440447/a-human-genome-wide-rnai-screen-reveals-diverse-modulators-that-mediate-ire1%C3%AE-xbp1-activation
#10
Zhifen Yang, Jing Zhang, Dadi Jiang, Purvesh Khatri, David E Solow-Cordero, Diego A S Toesca, Constantinos Koumenis, Nicholas C Denko, Amato J Giaccia, Quynh-Thu Le, Albert C Koong
Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathways is linked to multiple human diseases including cancer. The inositol-requiring kinase 1 (IRE1)-X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) pathway is the most evolutionarily conserved of the three major signaling branches of the UPR. Here, we performed a genome-wide siRNA screen to obtain a systematic assessment of genes integrated in the IRE1-XBP1 axis. We monitored the expression of an XBP1-luciferase chimeric protein in which luciferase was fused in-frame with the spliced (active) form of XBP1...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436612/seawater-inhalation-induces-acute-lung-injury-via-ros-generation-and-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-pathway
#11
Peng-Cheng Li, Bo-Rong Wang, Cong-Cong Li, Xi Lu, Wei-Sheng Qian, Yu-Juan Li, Fa-Guang Jin, De-Guang Mu
Seawater (SW) inhalation can induce acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the present study, SW induced apoptosis of rat alveolar epithelial cells and histopathological alterations to lung tissue. Furthermore, SW administration increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas pretreatment with the ROS scavenger, N‑acetyl‑L‑cysteine (NAC), significantly decreased ROS generation, apoptosis and histopathological alterations. In addition, SW exposure upregulated the expression levels of glucose‑regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), which are critical proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, thus indicating that SW may activate ER stress...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436038/comparison-of-reproducibility-of-single-voxel-spectroscopy-and-whole-brain-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-imaging-at-3t
#12
Yue Zhang, Edward Taub, Nouha Salibi, Gitendra Uswatte, Andrew A Maudsley, Sulaiman Sheriff, Brent Womble, Victor W Mark, David C Knight
To date, single voxel spectroscopy (SVS) is the most commonly used MRS technique. SVS is relatively easy to use and provides automated and immediate access to the resulting spectra. However, it is also limited in spatial coverage. A new and very promising MRS technique allows for whole-brain MR spectroscopic imaging (WB-MRSI) with much improved spatial resolution. Establishing the reproducibility of data obtained using SVS and WB-MRSI is an important first step for using these techniques to evaluate longitudinal changes in metabolite concentration...
February 13, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430722/patients-affected-by-dent-disease-2-could-be-predisposed-to-hidradenitis-suppurativa
#13
Pierluigi Marzuillo, Vincenzo Piccolo, Massimo Mascolo, Andrea Apicella, Giuseppe Argenziano, Nicoletta Della Vecchia, Stefano Guarino, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Angela La Manna
Dent disease 2 (DD2) is a rare X-Linked disorder characterized by proximal tubule dysfunction. It is considered as mild variant of Lowe Syndrome (LS) and both conditions are secondary to OCRL1 gene mutations.1 Mutations in this gene drastically reduce (<10%) inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (OCRL1) activity.1 This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 11, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430617/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-agonist-attenuates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-changes-in-social-behavior-and-brain-connectivity-in-mice
#14
Amanda Crider, Tyler Nelson, Talisha Davis, Kiley Fagan, Kumar Vaibhav, Matthew Luo, Sunay Kamalasanan, Alvin V Terry, Anilkumar Pillai
Impaired social interaction is a key feature of several major psychiatric disorders including depression, autism, and schizophrenia. While, anatomically, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is known as a key regulator of social behavior, little is known about the cellular mechanisms that underlie impairments of social interaction. One etiological mechanism implicated in the pathophysiology of the aforementioned psychiatric disorders is cellular stress and consequent adaptive responses in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that can result from a variety of environmental and physical factors...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428175/beyond-the-channel-metabotropic-signaling-by-nicotinic-receptors
#15
REVIEW
Nadine Kabbani, Robert A Nichols
The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a ligand-gated ion channel (LGIC) that plays an important role in cellular calcium signaling and contributes to several neurological diseases. Agonist binding to the α7 nAChR induces fast channel activation followed by inactivation and prolonged desensitization while triggering long-lasting calcium signaling. These activities foster neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, and somatodendritic regulation in the brain. We discuss here the ability of α7 nAChRs to operate in ionotropic (α7 i ) and metabotropic (α7 m ) modes, leading to calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) and G protein-associated inositol trisphosphate (IP 3 )-induced calcium release (IICR), respectively...
February 7, 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427755/high-fat-diet-treatment-impairs-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-without-alterations-of-the-core-neuropathological-features-of-alzheimer-disease
#16
Isabel H Salas, Akila Weerasekera, Tariq Ahmed, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh, Uwe Himmelreich, Rudi D'Hooge, Detlef Balschun, Takaomi C Saido, Bart De Strooper, Carlos G Dotti
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity might increase the risk for AD by 2-fold. Different attempts to model the effect of diet-induced diabetes on AD pathology in transgenic animal models, resulted in opposite conclusions. Here, we used a novel knock-in mouse model for AD, which, differently from other models, does not overexpress any proteins. Long-term high fat diet treatment triggers a reduction in hippocampal N-acetyl-aspartate/myo-inositol metabolites ratio and impairs long term potentiation in hippocampal acute slices...
February 7, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427089/xbp1-and-perk-have-distinct-roles-in-a%C3%AE-induced-pathology
#17
Kuan-Chung Cheng, Hsueh-Cheng Chiang
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers multiple cellular signals to restore cellular function or induce proapoptosis that is altered in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the role of ER stress in β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced AD pathology remains elusive, and data obtained from different animal models and under different experimental conditions are sometimes controversial. The current study conducted in vivo genetic experiments to systematically examine the distinct role of each ER stress effector during disease progression...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420109/vasodilation-and-antihypertensive-activities-of-swietenia-macrophylla-mahogany-seed-extract
#18
Yung Sing Ch'ng, Yean Chun Loh, Chu Shan Tan, Mariam Ahmad, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Wan Maznah Wan Omar, Mun Fei Yam
The seeds of Swietenia macrophylla King (SM) (Meliaceae) are used as a folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension in Malaysia. However, the antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of SM seeds are still not widely studied. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the in vivo antihypertensive effects and in vitro mechanism of vasorelaxation of a 50% ethanolic SM seed extract (SM50) and the fingerprint of SM50 was developed through tri-step Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The vasorelaxant activity and the underlying mechanisms of SM50 were evaluated on thoracic aortic rings isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats in the presence of antagonists...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417793/novel-combination-for-the-treatment-of-acne-differentiated-according-to-gender-a-new-step-towards-personalized-treatment
#19
Ersilia Tolino, Nevena Skroza, Alessandra Mambrin, Nicoletta Bernardini, Sara Zuber, Veronica Balduzzi, Anna Marchesiello, Ilaria Proietti, Concetta Potenza
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of a complete skin care line consisting of an oral supplement in two distinct formulations for males and females, and a topical cream device in the treatment of mild and moderate acne. Oral supplements contain biotin, probiotic, vitamin E, zinc, nicotinamide; in the formulation for males beta sitosterol and boswella serrata were added, the oral supplement for females contains myo-inositol and folic acid. The topical cream device is represented by the association between active plant agents (verbascoside, ocimum gratissimum) and keratolytic molecules (salicylic acid, gluconolactone, complex alpha-hydroxy acids)...
February 7, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417057/fat-storage-inducing-transmembrane-fit-or-fitm-proteins-are-related-to-lipid-phosphatase-phosphotransferase-enzymes
#20
Matthew Hayes, Vineet Choudhary, Namrata Ojha, John Jh Shin, Gil-Soo Han, George M Carman, Christopher Jr Loewen, William A Prinz, Timothy Levine
Fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT or FITM) proteins have been implicated in the partitioning of triacylglycerol to lipid droplets and the budding of lipid droplets from the ER. At the molecular level, the sole relevant interaction is that FITMs directly bind to triacyglycerol and diacylglycerol, but how they function at the molecular level is not known. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two FITM homologues: Scs3p and Yft2p. Scs3p was initially identified because deletion leads to inositol auxotrophy, with an unusual sensitivity to addition of choline...
December 28, 2017: Microbial Cell
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