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Michael A Rogawski
Since the 1970s, racetams have been in use as cognitive enhancers. Levetiracetam was discovered to have antiseizure activity in animal models and was then found to bind to SV2A in synaptic and endocrine vesicles. Brivaracetam, an analog of levetiracetam, was identified in a medicinal chemistry campaign with the objective of discovering analogs with higher affinity at racetam-binding sites and greater antiseizure potency.
October 20, 2016: Cell
Ekaterina M Budynina, Konstantin L Ivanov, Alexey O Chagarovskiy, Victor B Rybakov, Igor V Trushkov, Mikhail Ya Melnikov
A conceptually new type of donor-acceptor cyclopropane reactivity towards nucleophiles has been disclosed. An essential characteristic of the process is an unusual nucleophilic attack on the C(3)-position of a cyclopropane, combined with typical small ring-opening by cleavage of the C(1)-C(2) bond between the acceptor and the donor. Based on this new reaction between cyclopropane-1,1-diesters and nitroalkanes, we developed a convenient approach to γ-nitroesters that can be efficiently transformed to the substituted pyrrolidones, structural analogues of racetame family drugs (rolipram, phenylpiracetam, etc...
March 7, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
José Correa-Basurto, Roberto I Cuevas-Hernández, Bryan V Phillips-Farfán, Marlet Martínez-Archundia, Antonio Romo-Mancillas, Gema L Ramírez-Salinas, Óscar A Pérez-González, José Trujillo-Ferrara, Julieta G Mendoza-Torreblanca
Synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) is an integral membrane protein necessary for the proper function of the central nervous system and is associated to the physiopathology of epilepsy. SV2A is the molecular target of the anti-epileptic drug levetiracetam and its racetam analogs. The racetam binding site in SV2A and the non-covalent interactions between racetams and SV2A are currently unknown; therefore, an in silico study was performed to explore these issues. Since SV2A has not been structurally characterized with X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance, a three-dimensional (3D) model was built...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Satoko Kimura, Yoshiaki Ohi, Akira Haji
AIMS: Ventilatory disturbance is a fatal side-effect of opioid analgesics. Separation of analgesia from ventilatory depression is important for therapeutic use of opioids. It has been suggested that opioid-induced ventilatory depression results from a decrease in adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate content in the respiratory-related neurons. Therefore, we examined the effects of caffeine, a methylxanthine non-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor with adenosine antagonistic activity, and rolipram, a racetam selective PDE4 inhibitor, on ventilatory depression induced by morphine...
April 15, 2015: Life Sciences
Joanna Lee, Veronique Daniels, Zara A Sands, Florence Lebon, Jiye Shi, Philip C Biggin
The putative Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) transporter, SV2A, is the target for levetiracetam (LEV), which is a successful anti-epileptic drug. Furthermore, SV2A knock out mice display a severe seizure phenotype and die after a few weeks. Despite this, the mode of action of LEV is not known at the molecular level. It would be extremely desirable to understand this more fully in order to aid the design of improved anti-epileptic compounds. Since there is no structure for SV2A, homology modelling can provide insight into the ligand-binding site...
2015: PloS One
Oldřich Farsa
The log BB parameter is the logarithm of the ratio of a compound's equilibrium concentrations in the brain tissue versus the blood plasma. This parameter is a useful descriptor in assessing the ability of a compound to permeate the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study was to develop a Hansch-type linear regression QSAR model that correlates the parameter log BB and the retention time of drugs and other organic compounds on a reversed-phase HPLC containing an embedded amide moiety. The retention time was expressed by the capacity factor log k'...
March 2013: Scientia Pharmaceutica
H Nashawi, T Bartl, P Bartl, L Novotny, M A Oriowo, S B Kombian
Dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease, is a rapidly increasing medical condition that presents with enormous challenge for treatment. It is characterized by impairment in memory and cognitive function often accompanied by changes in synaptic transmission and plasticity in relevant brain regions such as the hippocampus. We recently synthesized TH-9, a conjugate racetam-methylxanthine compound and tested if it had potential for enhancing synaptic function and possibly, plasticity, by examining its effect on hippocampal fast excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity...
September 18, 2012: Neuroscience
Jiye Shi, Dina Anderson, Berkley A Lynch, Jean-Gabriel Castaigne, Patrik Foerch, Florence Lebon
LEV (levetiracetam), an antiepileptic drug which possesses a unique profile in animal models of seizure and epilepsy, has as its unique binding site in brain, SV2A (synaptic vesicle protein 2A). Previous studies have used a chimaeric and site-specific mutagenesis approach to identify three residues in the putative tenth transmembrane helix of SV2A that, when mutated, alter binding of LEV and related racetam derivatives to SV2A. In the present paper, we report a combined modelling and mutagenesis study that successfully identifies another 11 residues in SV2A that appear to be involved in ligand binding...
October 2011: Biochemical Society Transactions
Santiago Arroyo, Pamela Crawford
A good balance between safety and tolerability is necessary for an antiepileptic drug (AED) to be successful in the management of patients with epilepsy. Levetiracetam is one of the new generation of AEDs licensed as an add-on therapy for the treatment of patients with partial-onset seizures. Leveti-racetam's mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Controlled clinical trials, open-label studies, and postmarketing surveillance indicate that leveti-racetam has a favorable safety profile characterized by little effect on vital signs or clinical laboratory values, reported adverse events that are mild to moderate, and no known drug-drug interactions...
May 2003: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
A H Gouliaev, A Senning
Nearly three decades have now passed since the discovery of the piracetam-like nootropics, compounds which exhibit cognition-enhancing properties, but for which no commonly accepted mechanism of action has been established. This review covers clinical, pharmacokinetic, biochemical and behavioural results presented in the literature from 1965 through 1992 (407 references) of piracetam, oxiracetam, pramiracetam, etiracetam, nefiracetam, aniracetam and rolziracetam and their structural analogues. The piracetam-like nootropics are capable of achieving reversal of amnesia induced by, e...
May 1994: Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews
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