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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334493/glucose-metabolism-in-mammalian-photoreceptor-inner-and-outer-segments
#1
REVIEW
Daniel S Narayan, Glyn Chidlow, John Pm Wood, Robert J Casson
Photoreceptors are the first order neurons of the visual pathway, converting light into electrical signals. Rods and cones are the two main types of photoreceptors in the mammalian retina. Rods are specialized for sensitivity at the expense of resolution and are responsible for vision in dimly lit conditions. Cones are responsible for high acuity central vision and colour vision. Many human retinal diseases are characterized by a progressive loss of photoreceptors. Photoreceptors consist of four primary regions: outer segments, inner segments, cell bodies, and synaptic terminals...
March 23, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333855/serous-retinopathy-associated-with-cisplatin-treatment
#2
Spencer Langevin, Jonathan S Chang, Stanley Chang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To describe a case of serous retinopathy and associated photoreceptor atrophy after intravenous cisplatin therapy. METHODS: Evaluation was performed using electroretinogram, optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, and funduscopic examinations to assess the extent of retinal disease, toxicity, and eventual atrophy. RESULTS: A 56 year-old man with metastatic small cell carcinoma with vision changes after initiation of cisplatin therapy...
March 22, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330519/insecticidal-effects-of-extracts-of-humulus-lupulus-hops-l-cones-and-its-principal-component-xanthohumol
#3
T Aydin, N Bayrak, E Baran, A Cakir
Insecticidal effects of the dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of Humulus lupulus (hops) L. cones and its principal components, xanthohumol was investigated on five stored pests, Sitophilus granarius (L.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Lasioderma serricorne (F.). The mortality of adults of the insects treated with 2, 5, 5, 10 and 20 mg ml̠-1 concentrations of the extracts and xanthuhumol was counted after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h...
March 23, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328727/strategies-for-deep-anterior-lamellar-keratoplasty-after-hydrops-in-keratoconus
#4
Matthias Fuest, Jodhbir S Mehta
Corneal hydrops affects approximately 2.5% of keratoconus (KC) cases, predominantly young males approximately 25 years of age with steep cones. Often, patients are left with a vision-reducing corneal scar frequently necessitating surgical treatment. Penetrating keratoplasty (PK) has worse survival outcomes in hydrops than in general KC cases. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) is a nonpenetrating technique believed to achieve equal or better outcomes in visual acuity, graft survival, endothelial rejection rates, and endothelial cell survival in comparison with PK, while maintaining globe integrity and the patients' Descemet membrane (DM) and endothelium...
March 21, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323642/a-bayesian-approach-for-three-dimensional-markerless-tumor-tracking-using-kv-imaging-during-lung-radiotherapy
#5
Chun-Chien Shieh, Vincent Caillet, Michelle Dunbar, Paul J Keall, Jeremy T Booth, Nicholas Hardcastle, Carol Haddad, Thomas Eade, Ilana Feain
The ability to monitor tumor motion without implanted markers can potentially enable broad access to more accurate and precise lung radiotherapy. A major challenge is that kilovoltage (kV) imaging based methods are rarely able to continuously track the tumor due to the inferior tumor visibility on 2D kV images. Another challenge is the estimation of 3D tumor position based on only 2D imaging information. The aim of this work is to address both challenges by proposing a Bayesian approach for markerless tumor tracking for the first time...
March 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320970/borc-kinesin-1-ensemble-drives-polarized-transport-of-lysosomes-into-the-axon
#6
Ginny G Farías, Carlos M Guardia, Raffaella De Pace, Dylan J Britt, Juan S Bonifacino
The ability of lysosomes to move within the cytoplasm is important for many cellular functions. This ability is particularly critical in neurons, which comprise vast, highly differentiated domains such as the axon and dendrites. The mechanisms that control lysosome movement in these domains, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that an ensemble of BORC, Arl8, SKIP, and kinesin-1, previously shown to mediate centrifugal transport of lysosomes in nonneuronal cells, specifically drives lysosome transport into the axon, and not the dendrites, in cultured rat hippocampal neurons...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320964/in-vivo-optophysiology-reveals-that-g-protein-activation-triggers-osmotic-swelling-and-increased-light-scattering-of-rod-photoreceptors
#7
Pengfei Zhang, Robert J Zawadzki, Mayank Goswami, Phuong T Nguyen, Vladimir Yarov-Yarovoy, Marie E Burns, Edward N Pugh
The light responses of rod and cone photoreceptors have been studied electrophysiologically for decades, largely with ex vivo approaches that disrupt the photoreceptors' subretinal microenvironment. Here we report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure light-driven signals of rod photoreceptors in vivo. Visible light stimulation over a 200-fold intensity range caused correlated rod outer segment (OS) elongation and increased light scattering in wild-type mice, but not in mice lacking the rod G-protein alpha subunit, transducin (Gαt), revealing these responses to be triggered by phototransduction...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318066/three-dimensional-ultrashort-echo-time-cones-t1%C3%AF-3d-ute-cones-t1%C3%AF-imaging
#8
Ya-Jun Ma, Michael Carl, Hongda Shao, Anthony S Tadros, Eric Y Chang, Jiang Du
We report a novel three-dimensional (3D) ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequence employing Cones trajectory and T1ρ preparation (UTE-Cones-T1ρ ) for quantitative T1ρ assessment of short T2 tissues in the musculoskeletal system. A basic 3D UTE-Cones sequence was combined with a spin-locking preparation pulse for T1ρ contrast. A relatively short TR was used to decrease the scan time, which required T1 measurement and compensation using 3D UTE-Cones data acquisitions with variable TRs. Another strategy to reduce the total scan time was to acquire multiple Cones spokes (Nsp ) after each T1ρ preparation and fat saturation...
March 20, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317325/experimental-verification-of-advanced-collapsed-cone-engine-for-use-with-a-multichannel-vaginal-cylinder-applicator
#9
Brie Cawston-Grant, Hali Morrison, Geetha Menon, Ron S Sloboda
Model-based dose calculation algorithms have recently been incorporated into brachytherapy treatment planning systems, and their introduction requires critical evaluation before clinical implementation. Here, we present an experimental evaluation of Oncentra(®) Brachy Advanced Collapsed-cone Engine (ACE) for a multichannel vaginal cylinder (MCVC) applicator using radiochromic film. A uniform dose of 500 cGy was specified to the surface of the MCVC using the TG-43 dose formalism under two conditions: (a) with only the central channel loaded or (b) only the peripheral channels loaded...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316877/progression-of-pro23his-retinopathy-in-a-miniature-swine-model-of-retinitis-pigmentosa
#10
Patrick A Scott, Juan P Fernandez de Castro, Paul J DeMarco, Jason W Ross, Josephat Njoka, Eric Walters, Randall S Prather, Maureen A McCall, Henry J Kaplan
PURPOSE: We characterize the progression of retinopathy in Filial 1 (F1) progeny of a transgenic (Tg) founder miniswine exhibiting severe Pro23His (P23H) retinopathy. METHODS: The F1 TgP23H miniswine progeny were created by crossing TgP23H founder miniswine 53-1 with wild type (WT) inbred miniature swine. Scotopic (rod-driven) and photopic (cone-driven) retinal functions were evaluated in F1 TgP23H and WT littermates using full field electroretinograms (ffERGs) at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age, as well as the Tg founder miniswine at 6 years of age...
March 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316099/patterns-of-temporal-and-enemy-niche-use-by-a-community-of-leaf-cone-moths-caloptilia-coexisting-on-maples-acer-as-revealed-by-metabarcoding
#11
Ryosuke Nakadai, Atsushi Kawakita
The diversity of herbivorous insects is often considered a function of host plant diversity. However, recent research has uncovered many examples of closely related herbivores using the same host plant(s), suggesting that partitioning of host plants is not the only mechanism generating diversity. Herbivores sharing hosts may utilize different parts of the same plant, but such resource partitioning is often not apparent; hence, the factors that allow closely related herbivores to coexist are still largely undetermined...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302336/three-dimensional-analysis-of-mandibular-condyle-position-in-patients-with-deviated-mandibular-prognathism
#12
J-S Lee, T Xi, T-G Kwon
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bilateral difference in condyle position in patients with deviated mandibular prognathism. Patients with asymmetrical (n=28) and symmetrical mandibular prognathism (n=23) were compared using the three-dimensional (3D) reformatted image from cone beam computed tomography. Significant positional differences in the condyle and subcondyle region (sigmoid notch) were found between the deviated and contralateral sides in the group with asymmetrical mandibular prognathism, but not in the control group...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297459/on-the-use-of-a-convolution-superposition-algorithm-for-plan-checking-in-lung-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy
#13
Nicholas Hardcastle, Bradley M Oborn, Annette Haworth
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) aims to deliver a highly conformal ablative dose to a small target. Dosimetric verification of SBRT for lung tumors presents a challenge due to heterogeneities, moving targets, and small fields. Recent software (M3D) designed for dosimetric verification of lung SBRT treatment plans using an advanced convolution-superposition algorithm was evaluated. Ten lung SBRT patients covering a range of tumor volumes were selected. 3D CRT plans were created using the XiO treatment planning system (TPS) with the superposition algorithm...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297450/dosimetric-comparison-between-cone-iris-based-and-incise-mlc-based-cyberknife-plans-for-single-and-multiple-brain-metastases
#14
Si Young Jang, Ron Lalonde, Cihat Ozhasoglu, Steven Burton, Dwight Heron, M Saiful Huq
We performed an evaluation of the CyberKnife InCise MLC by comparing plan qualities for single and multiple brain lesions generated using the first version of InCise MLC, fixed cone, and Iris collimators. We also investigated differences in delivery efficiency among the three collimators. Twenty-four patients with single or multiple brain mets treated previously in our clinic on a CyberKnife M6 using cone/Iris collimators were selected for this study. Treatment plans were generated for all lesions using the InCise MLC...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297422/a-methodology-for-on-board-cbct-imaging-dose-using-optically-stimulated-luminescence-detectors
#15
Noor Mail, Muhammad Yusuf, Nazeeh Alothmany, A Abdulrahman Kinsara, Fahad Abdulkhaliq, Suliman M Ghamdi, Abdelhamid Saoudi
Cone-beam computed tomography CBCT systems are used in radiation therapy for patient alignment and positioning. The CBCT imaging procedure for patient setup adds substantial radiation dose to patient's normal tissue. This study presents a complete procedure for the CBCT dosimetry using the InLight optically-stimulated-luminescence (OSL) nanoDots. We report five dose parameters: the mean slice dose (DMSD); the cone beam dose index (CBDIW); the mean volume dose (DMVD); point-dose profile, D(FOV); and the off-field Dose...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297352/improved-setup-and-positioning-accuracy-using-a-three-point-customized-cushion-mask-bite-block-immobilization-system-for-stereotactic-reirradiation-of-head-and-neck-cancer
#16
He Wang, Congjun Wang, Samuel Tung, Andrew Wilson Dimmitt, Pei Fong Wong, Mark A Edson, Adam S Garden, David I Rosenthal, Clifton D Fuller, Gary B Gunn, Vinita Takiar, Xin A Wang, Dershan Luo, James N Yang, Jennifer Wong, Jack Phan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the setup and positioning uncertainty of a custom cushion/mask/bite-block (CMB) immobilization system and determine PTV margin for image-guided head and neck stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (HN-SABR). We analyzed 105 treatment sessions among 21 patients treated with HN-SABR for recurrent head and neck cancers using a custom CMB immobilization system. Initial patient setup was performed using the ExacTrac infrared (IR) tracking system and initial setup errors were based on comparison of ExacTrac IR tracking system to corrected online ExacTrac X-rays images registered to treatment plans...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297351/output-factor-comparison-of-monte-carlo-and-measurement-for-varian-truebeam-6-mv-and-10-mv-flattening-filter-free-stereotactic-radiosurgery-system
#17
Jason Y Cheng, Holly Ning, Barbara C Arora, Ying Zhuge, Robert W Miller
The dose measurements of the small field sizes, such as conical collimators used in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), are a significant challenge due to many factors including source occlusion, detector size limitation, and lack of lateral electronic equilibrium. One useful tool in dealing with the small field effect is Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. In this study, we report a comparison of Monte Carlo simulations and measurements of output factors for the Varian SRS system with conical collimators for energies of 6 MV flattening filter-free (6 MV) and 10 MV flattening filter-free (10 MV) on the TrueBeam accelerator...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297337/one-year-analysis-of-elekta-cbct-image-quality-using-nps-and-mtf
#18
Satomi Nakahara, Masayuki Tachibana, Yoichi Watanabe
The image quality (IQ) of imaging systems must be sufficiently high for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Hence, users should implement a quality assurance program to maintain IQ. In our routine IQ tests of the kV cone-beam CT system (Elekta XVI), image noise was quantified by noise standard deviation (NSD), which was the standard deviation of CT numbers measured in a small area in an image of an IQ test phantom (Catphan), and the high spatial resolution (HSR) was evaluated by the number of line-pairs (LPN) visually recognizable in the image...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297304/evaluation-of-kidney-motion-and-target-localization-in-abdominal-sbrt-patients
#19
Marcus Sonier, William Chu, Nafisha Lalani, Darby Erler, Patrick Cheung, Renee Korol
The purpose of this study was to evaluate bilateral kidney and target translational/rotational intrafraction motion during stereotactic body radiation therapy treatment delivery of primary renal cell carcinoma and oligometastatic adrenal lesions for patients immobilized in the Elekta BodyFIX system. Bilateral kidney motion was assessed at midplane for 30 patients immobilized in a full-body dual-vacuum-cushion system with two patients immobilized via abdominal compression. Intrafraction motion was assessed for 15 patients using kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) datasets (n=151) correlated to the planning CT...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297303/experimental-evaluation-of-a-gpu-based-monte-carlo-dose-calculation-algorithm-in-the-monaco-treatment-planning-system
#20
Moti R Paudel, Anthony Kim, Arman Sarfehnia, Sayed B Ahmad, David J Beachey, Arjun Sahgal, Brian M Keller
A new GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm (GPUMCD), developed by the vendor Elekta for the Monaco treatment planning system (TPS), is capable of modeling dose for both a standard linear accelerator and an Elekta MRI linear accelerator. We have experimentally evaluated this algorithm for a standard Elekta Agility linear accelerator. A beam model was developed in the Monaco TPS (research version 5.09.06) using the commissioned beam data for a 6 MV Agility linac. A heterogeneous phantom representing several scenarios - tumor-in-lung, lung, and bone-in-tissue - was designed and built...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
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