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Cuc Thi Thu Ngo, Leonard S Fishman, P Emile Rossouw, Hongyue Wang, Omar Said
OBJECTIVE: To determine the usefulness of panoramic radiographs in determining the labio-palatal position of maxillary impacted canines (MICs) and root resorption of permanent incisors on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in correlation with the mesiodistal position of MICs on panoramic radiographs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective radiographic study reviewed 64 patients with 86 MICs. Subjects were divided into two groups: group I (<15 years old) and group II (>15 years old)...
March 21, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
Austin B Hopper, Ajay P S Sandhu, J Kellogg Parsons, Brent Rose, John P Einck
Purpose: Cryotherapy is an option for the primary treatment of localized prostate cancer, along with radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy, and brachytherapy. Although it is known that local recurrence can occur in >20% of patients treated with primary cryotherapy, unfortunately there is a paucity of data on later salvage treatments. The use of external beam radiation therapy is an attractive option after cryotherapy failure, but there is little data on its efficacy and toxicity...
January 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
K Mohamathu Rafic, S Amalan, B S Timothy Peace, B Paul Ravindran
Background and aim: The practicability of computing dose calculation on cone beam CT (CBCT) has been widely investigated. In most clinical scenarios, the craniocaudal scanning length of CBCT is found to be inadequate for localization. This study aims to explore extended tomographic localization and adaptive dose calculation strategies using Hounsfield unit (HU) corrected CBCT image sets. Materials and methods: Planning CT (pCT) images of the Rando phantom (T12 -to-midthigh) were acquired with pelvic-protocol using Biograph CT-scanner...
March 2018: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Ilaria Savelli, Iñigo Novales Flamarique, Tom Iwanicki, John S Taylor
Variable expression of visual pigment proteins (opsins) in cone photoreceptors of the vertebrate retina is a primary determinant of vision plasticity. Switches in opsin expression or variable co-expression of opsins within differentiated cones have been documented for a few rodents and fishes, but the extent of photoreceptor types affected and potential functional significance are largely unknown. Here, we show that both single and double cones in the retina of a flatfish, the starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), undergo visual pigment changes through opsin switches or variable opsin co-expression...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel Mattle, Bernd Kuhn, Johannes Aebi, Marc Bedoucha, Demet Kekilli, Nathalie Grozinger, Andre Alker, Markus G Rudolph, Georg Schmid, Gebhard F X Schertler, Michael Hennig, Jörg Standfuss, Roger J P Dawson
In the degenerative eye disease retinitis pigmentosa (RP), protein misfolding leads to fatal consequences for cell metabolism and rod and cone cell survival. To stop disease progression, a therapeutic approach focuses on stabilizing inherited protein mutants of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) rhodopsin using pharmacological chaperones (PC) that improve receptor folding and trafficking. In this study, we discovered stabilizing nonretinal small molecules by virtual and thermofluor screening and determined the crystal structure of pharmacologically stabilized opsin at 2...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Cristiane Patricia Pissinato Pere, Sophia N Economidou, Gurprit Lall, Clémentine Ziraud, Joshua S Boateng, Bruce D Alexander, Dimitrios A Lamprou, Dennis Douroumis
In this study, polymeric microneedle patches were fabricated by stereolithography, a 3D printing technique, for the transdermal delivery of insulin. A biocompatible resin was photopolymerized to build pyramid and cone microneedle designs followed by inkjet print coating of insulin formulations., trehalose and xylitol were used as drug carriers with the aim to preserve insulin integrity and stability but also facilitate rapid release rates. Circular dichroism and Raman analysis demonstrated that all carriers maintained the native form of insulin with xylitol presenting the best performance...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
D Messineo, S Masieri, C Cavaliere
Rhinitis is an underestimated clinical condition, which has a considerable impact on the quality of life of the affected patients. The subject of this review focuses on three fundamental aspects: the development of knowledge concerning anatomic landmarks, the development of radiological imaging technology, and developments that can make a difference in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The anatomical study of paranasal sinuses has been conducted since the time of the ancient Egyptians. Development of radiological equipment from the early 1900s has helped to improve information on the morphology of paranasal sinuses, sufficient to be considered valuable information regarding frontal anatomy and its variability...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Daniel B Rodrigues, Paulo S F Campos, Larry M Wolford, Jaqueline Ignácio, João R Gonçalves
PURPOSE: Maxillary segmentation involving interdental osteotomies can have an adverse effect on the interdental crestal bone and adjacent teeth. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of interdental osteotomies on surrounding osseous and dental structures, including adjacent teeth, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), in patients who underwent segmental maxillary osteotomies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present retrospective cohort study evaluated interdental osteotomy (IDO) sites between the lateral incisors and canines in patients treated with 3-piece Le Fort I osteotomies...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Nemandra A Sandiford, Peter Misur, Donald S Garbuz, Nelson V Greidanus, Bassam A Masri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Rubens Spin-Neto, Louise H Matzen, Lars W Schropp, Thomas S Sørensen, Ann Wenzel
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of head motion artefacts and an automated artefact-correction system on CBCT image quality and interpretability for simulated diagnostic tasks. METHODS: A partially dentate human skull was mounted on a robot simulating four types of head movement (antero-posterior translation, nodding, lateral rotation, and tremor), at three distances (0.75, 1.5, and 3 mm) based on two movement patterns (skull returning/not returning to the initial position)...
March 14, 2018: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
Hussam Alfawaz, Abdullah Alqedairi, Abdulrahman K Alkhayyal, Abdulaziz A Almobarak, Mohannad F Alhusain, Jorge N R Martins
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of the C-shaped root canal configuration, location of the longitudinal groove, sex differences, and unilateral/bilateral presence in mandibular first and second molars in a Saudi population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: CBCT images for the mandibular first and second molars of 487 patients (a total of 529 first molars and 681 s molars) were evaluated. The teeth were assessed for the presence of C-shaped root canals according to Fan criteria...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Vidya Kochat, Atanu Samanta, Yuan Zhang, Sanjit Bhowmick, Praveena Manimunda, Syed Asif S Asif, Anthony S Stender, Robert Vajtai, Abhishek K Singh, Chandra S Tiwary, Pulickel M Ajayan
Among the large number of promising two-dimensional (2D) atomic layer crystals, true metallic layers are rare. Using combined theoretical and experimental approaches, we report on the stability and successful exfoliation of atomically thin "gallenene" sheets on a silicon substrate, which has two distinct atomic arrangements along crystallographic twin directions of the parent α-gallium. With a weak interface between solid and molten phases of gallium, a solid-melt interface exfoliation technique is developed to extract these layers...
March 2018: Science Advances
S A Owerre
Topological magnon insulators are the bosonic analogs of electronic topological insulators. They are manifested in magnetic materials with topologically nontrivial magnon bands as realized experimentally in a quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) kagomé ferromagnet Cu(1-3, bdc), and they also possess protected magnon edge modes. These topological magnetic materials can transport heat as well as spin currents, hence they can be useful for spintronic applications. Moreover, as magnons are charge-neutral spin-1 bosonic quasiparticles with a magnetic dipole moment, topological magnon materials can also interact with electromagnetic fields through the Aharonov-Casher effect...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Junwei Shi, Thirupandiyur S Udayakumar, Keying Xu, Nesrin Dogan, Alan Pollack, Yidong Yang
PURPOSE: The image guided small animal arc radiation treatment platform has adopted onboard cone beam computed tomography and bioluminescence tomography (BLT). We used BLT to guide irradiation delivery and quantitatively assess irradiation-induced tumor response. METHODS AND MATERIALS: BLT was first validated on a tissue-simulating phantom, where the internal chemiluminescent liquid had a constant volume while its luminescence intensity gradually decayed. Then, in vivo experiments were performed on BALB/c mice orthotopically inoculated with 4T1 breast carcinoma cells expressing luciferase...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
G Jakob Lexow, Marcel Kluge, Nils-Claudius Gellrich, Thomas Lenarz, Omid Majdani, Thomas S Rau
PURPOSE: Patient specific selection of cochlear implants would benefit from pre-operative knowledge of cochlear length. Several methods for its measurement or estimation have been described in literature. This study focused on the achievable accuracy in clinically available imaging. METHODS: Five simplified cochlea models milled into porcine bone were scanned in water using clinical cone beam computed tomography. Due to their well-known dimensions these phantoms served as gold standard for the length measurements...
March 12, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Patricia Dore, Ardian Dumani, Geddes Wyatt, Alex J Shepherd
This study explored associations between local and global shape perception on coloured backgrounds, colour discrimination, and non-verbal IQ (NVIQ). Five background colours were chosen for the local and global shape tasks that were tailored for the cone-opponent pathways early in the visual system (cardinal colour directions: L-M, loosely, reddish-greenish; and S-(L+M), or tritan colours, loosely, blueish-yellowish; where L, M and S refer to the long, middle and short wavelength sensitive cones). Participants also completed the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test (FM100) to determine whether performance on the local and global shape tasks correlated with colour discrimination overall, or with performance on the L-M and tritan subsets of the FM100 test...
March 9, 2018: Vision Research
Yuval Barkan, Hedva Spitzer
The human visual system faces many challenges, among them the need to overcome the imperfections of its optics, which degrade the retinal image. One of the most dominant limitations is longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA), which causes short wavelengths (blue light) to be focused in front of the retina with consequent blurring of the retinal chromatic image. The perceived visual appearance, however, does not display such chromatic distortions. The intriguing question, therefore, is how the perceived visual appearance of a sharp and clear chromatic image is achieved despite the imperfections of the ocular optics...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Matthias Baudisch, Andrea Marini, Joel D Cox, Tony Zhu, Francisco Silva, Stephan Teichmann, Mathieu Massicotte, Frank Koppens, Leonid S Levitov, F Javier García de Abajo, Jens Biegert
The speed of solid-state electronic devices, determined by the temporal dynamics of charge carriers, could potentially reach unprecedented petahertz frequencies through direct manipulation by optical fields, consisting in a million-fold increase from state-of-the-art technology. In graphene, charge carrier manipulation is facilitated by exceptionally strong coupling to optical fields, from which stems an important back-action of photoexcited carriers. Here we investigate the instantaneous response of graphene to ultrafast optical fields, elucidating the role of hot carriers on sub-100 fs timescales...
March 9, 2018: Nature Communications
S W A Himaya, Richard J Lewis
Cone snail venoms are considered a treasure trove of bioactive peptides. Despite over 800 species of cone snails being known, each producing over 1000 venom peptides, only about 150 unique venom peptides are structurally and functionally characterized. To overcome the limitations of the traditional low-throughput bio-discovery approaches, multi-omics systems approaches have been introduced to accelerate venom peptide discovery and characterisation. This "venomic" approach is starting to unravel the full complexity of cone snail venoms and to provide new insights into their biology and evolution...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
A Z Oz, S Ciger
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes of incisor root resorption associated with impacted maxillary canines and health of periodontal tissues around maxillary canines erupted with orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with a unilateral palatally impacted maxillary canine were included in the study. Cone-beam computed tomography images taken before and after orthodontic treatment were compared with the contralateral canines serving as control teeth...
March 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
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