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Retinal vascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632993/the-role-of-small-gtpases-and-epac-rap-signaling-in-the-regulation-of-the-blood-brain-and-blood-retinal-barriers
#1
Carla J Ramos, David A Antonetti
Maintenance and regulation of the vascular endothelial cell junctional complex is critical for proper barrier function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the highly related blood-retinal barrier (BRB) that help maintain proper neuronal environment. Recent research has demonstrated that the junctional complex is actively maintained and can be dynamically regulated. Studies focusing on the mechanisms of barrier formation, maintenance, and barrier disruption have been of interest to understanding development of the BBB and BRB and identifying a means for therapeutic intervention for diseases ranging from brain tumors and dementia to blinding eye diseases...
June 9, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631245/hypoxia-and-inflammation-in-the-release-of-vegf-and-interleukins-from-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#2
Olli Arjamaa, Vesa Aaltonen, Niina Piippo, Tamás Csont, Goran Petrovski, Kai Kaarniranta, Anu Kauppinen
PURPOSE: Retinal diseases are closely associated with both decreased oxygenation and increased inflammation. It is not known if hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the retina itself evokes inflammation, or whether inflammation is a prerequisite for the development of neovascularization. METHODS: Human ARPE-19 cell line and primary human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were used. ARPE-19 cells were kept either under normoxic (24 h or 48 h) or hypoxic conditions (1% O2, 24 h)...
June 19, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627621/identification-of-different-macrophage-subpopulations-with-distinct-activities-in-a-mouse-model-of-oxygen-induced-retinopathy
#3
Yanji Zhu, Ling Zhang, Qing Lu, Yushuo Gao, Yujuan Cai, Ailing Sui, Ting Su, Xi Shen, Bing Xie
The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenotypic shift, quantity and role changes in different subgroups of retinal macrophages in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). The mRNA expression levels of macrophage M1 and M2 subgroup marker genes and polarization-associated genes were analyzed by RT-qPCR. The number of M1 and M2 macrophages in our mouse model of OIR was analyzed by flow cytometry at different time points during the progression of OIR. Immunofluorescence whole mount staining of the retinas of mice with OIR was performed at different time points to examine the influx of macrophages, as well as the morphological characteristics and roles of M1 and M2 macrophages...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626823/a-survey-of-ophthalmologists-and-gynecologists-regarding-termination-of-pregnancy-and-choice-of-delivery-mode-in-the-presence-of-eye-diseases
#4
Seyed-Farzad Mohammadi, Mojgan Letafat-Nejad, Elham Ashrafi, Hanieh Delshad-Aghdam
PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the attitudes of ophthalmologists and gynecologists in suggesting appropriate approach to pregnancy in different ocular conditions. METHODS: Specialty-specific questionnaires on delivery mode and abortion indications for ophthalmic patients (refractive, vascular, oncologic, retinal, glaucoma, postoperation, posttrauma, and infectious) were designed and distributed among physician staff of Farabi Eye Hospital and Yas Women Hospital in Tehran...
June 2017: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619516/the-inner-blood-retinal-barrier-cellular-basis-and-development
#5
Mónica Díaz-Coránguez, Carla Ramos, David A Antonetti
The blood-retinal barrier (BRB) regulates transport across retinal capillaries maintaining proper neural homeostasis and protecting the neural tissue from potential blood borne toxicity. Loss of the BRB contributes to the pathophysiology of a number of blinding retinal diseases including diabetic retinopathy. In this review, we address the basis of the BRB, including the molecular mechanisms that regulate flux across the retinal vascular bed. The routes of transcellular and paracellular flux are described as well as alterations in these pathways in response to permeabilizing agents in diabetes...
June 12, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615726/microfluidic-co-cultures-of-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-and-vascular-endothelial-cells-to-investigate-choroidal-angiogenesis
#6
Li-Jiun Chen, Shuntaro Ito, Hiroyuki Kai, Kuniaki Nagamine, Nobuhiro Nagai, Matsuhiko Nishizawa, Toshiaki Abe, Hirokazu Kaji
Angiogenesis plays a critical role in many diseases, including macular degeneration. At present, the pathological mechanisms remain unclear while appropriate models dissecting regulation of angiogenic processes are lacking. We propose an in vitro angiogenesis process and test it by examining the co-culture of human retinal pigmental epithelial cells (ARPE-19) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) inside a microfluidic device. From characterisation of the APRE-19 monoculture, the tight junction protein (ZO-1) was found on the cells cultured in the microfluidic device but changes in the medium conditions did not affect the integrity of monolayers found in the permeability tests...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615022/correlation-of-retinal-nerve-fibre-layer-and-macular-thickness-with-serum-uric-acid-among-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Munisamy-Naidu Vinuthinee-Naidu, Embong Zunaina, Anuar Azreen-Redzal, Naing Nyi-Nyi
BACKGROUND: Uric acid is a final breakdown product of purine catabolism in humans. It's a potent antioxidant and can also act as a pro-oxidant that induces oxidative stress on the vascular endothelial cells, thus mediating progression of diabetic related diseases. Various epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest that uric acid has a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the correlation of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) and macular thickness with serum uric acid in type 2 diabetic patients...
June 14, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612282/probing-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-anchoring-on-tnf-alpha-challenged-vascular-endothelia-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-the-retinal-microvascular
#8
Yuan Li, Yao Lu, Qiong Chen, Yuejun Kang, Ling Yu
Retinopathy is a complication of diabetes that affects the eyes; it stems from damage to the microvasculature of the retina and eventually compromises vision. The diagnosis of retinopathy is difficult to make because there are no early symptoms or warning signs. Dysfunction of the retina's microvascular networks is believed to be associated with inflammatory cytokines and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). To investigate the effect of these cytokines, such as TNF-α, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/glass hydride microfluidic device reflecting the physiological structure of the retina's microvasculature was developed...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602949/connexin-channel-and-its-role-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#9
REVIEW
Sayon Roy, Jean X Jiang, An-Fei Li, Dongjoon Kim
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. Unfortunately, there is no cure for this devastating ocular complication. The early stage of diabetic retinopathy is characterized by the loss of various cell types in the retina, namely endothelial cells and pericytes. As the disease progresses, vascular leakage, a clinical hallmark of diabetic retinopathy, becomes evident and may eventually lead to diabetic macular edema, the most common cause of vision loss in diabetic retinopathy...
June 7, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601428/vegf-production-and-signaling-in-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-are-critical-to-modulating-vascular-function-and-neuronal-integrity-in-diabetic-retinopathy-and-hypoxic-retinal-vascular-diseases
#10
Yun-Zheng Le
Müller glia (MG) are major retinal supporting cells that participate in retinal metabolism, function, maintenance, and protection. During the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR), a neurovascular disease and a leading cause of blindness, MG modulate vascular function and neuronal integrity by regulating the production of angiogenic and trophic factors. In this article, I will (1) briefly summarize our work on delineating the role and mechanism of MG-modulated vascular function through the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and on investigating VEGF signaling-mediated MG viability and neural protection in diabetic animal models, (2) explore the relationship among VEGF and neurotrophins in protecting Müller cells in in vitro models of diabetes and hypoxia and its potential implication to neuroprotection in DR and hypoxic retinal diseases, 7and (3) discuss the relevance of our work to the effectiveness and safety of long-term anti-VEGF therapies, a widely used strategy to combat DR, diabetic macular edema, neovascular age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, and other hypoxic retinal vascular disorders...
June 7, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600299/evaluation-of-optical-coherence-tomography-angiographic-findings-in-alzheimer-s-type-dementia
#11
Mehmet Bulut, Fatma Kurtuluş, Onursal Gözkaya, Muhammet Kazım Erol, Ayşe Cengiz, Melih Akıdan, Aylin Yaman
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To identify the retinal vascular pathologies in patients with Alzheimer's type dementia (ATD) through optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) imaging. METHODS: Our study included 26 patients in the patient group, and age-matched and sex-matched 26 subjects in the control group. A detailed ophthalmological and neurological examination was performed for all subjects included in the study. The retinal, choroidal vascular structures and choroidal thickness (CT) of all subjects were analysed in a detailed way with a commercial spectral domain OCTA...
June 9, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599331/-the-aging-retina-in-the-context-of-cerebral-neurodegenerative-diseases
#12
Michael R R Böhm, Solon Thanos
Background Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) consist of divers affections of the central nervous system related to etiology, localization, and of course of the disease. Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias are best investigated together with socioeconomic conditions and play an important role in its high prevalence. This work will present ND diseases in the context of analogous retinal degeneration mechanisms and ophthalmological diseases. Methods Based on epidemiological data, the current neurological bibliography of ND has been considered...
June 9, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596917/assessment-of-vascular-change-using-swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-a-new-theory-explains-central-visual-loss-in-behcet-s-disease
#13
Thanapong Somkijrungroj, Sritatath Vongkulsiri, Wijak Kongwattananon, Peranut Chotcomwongse, Sasivarin Luangpitakchumpol, Korrawan Jaisuekul
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate retinal vascular structural change in ocular Behcet's using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and fluorescein angiography (FA). METHODS: An analytic cross-sectional study of 37 eyes of 21 Behcet's uveitic patients was performed. Foveal retinal thickness (FRT), perifoveal hypoperfusion areas in superficial capillary plexus (SCP), and deep capillary plexus (DCP) were measured with swept-source optical coherence tomography and OCTA...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595552/pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-a-novel-therapeutic-target-for-cardiometabolic-diseases-and-related-complications
#14
Sho-Ichi Yamagishi, Takanori Matsui
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a glycoprotein that belongs to the superfamily of serine protease inhibitors, serpins. It was first identified as a neuronal differentiating factor secreted by human retinal pigment epithelial cells, and then found to be the most potent inhibitor of pathological angiogenesis in mammalian eyes. Recently, PEDF has been shown not only to suppress oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions in vascular wall cells, T cells and macrophages, and adipocytes, but also to exert anti-thrombotic and anti-fibrotic properties, thereby protecting against the development and progression of various cardiometabolic diseases and related complications...
June 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592811/evaluating-the-impact-of-vitreomacular-adhesion-on-anti-vegf-therapy-for-retinal-vein-occlusion-using-machine-learning
#15
Sebastian M Waldstein, Alessio Montuoro, Dominika Podkowinski, Ana-Maria Philip, Bianca S Gerendas, Hrvoje Bogunovic, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth
Vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) represents a prognostic biomarker in the management of exudative macular disease using anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents. However, manual evaluation of VMA in 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) is laborious and data on its impact on therapy of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) are limited. The aim of this study was to (1) develop a fully automated segmentation algorithm for the posterior vitreous boundary and (2) to study the effect of VMA on anti-VEGF therapy for RVO...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592747/roles-of-hypoxia-response-in-retinal-development-and-pathophysiology
#16
Toshihide Kurihara
The hypoxia response is a fundamental phenomenon mainly regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). For more than a decade, we have investigated and revealed the roles of the hypoxia response in the development, physiology, and pathophysiology of the retina by generating and utilizing cell-type-specific conditional knockout mice. To investigate the functions of genes related to the hypoxia response in cells composing the retina, we generated various mouse lines that lack HIFs and/or related genes specifically in retinal neurons, astrocytes, myeloid cells, or retinal pigment epithelium cells...
June 6, 2017: Keio Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585152/overview-of-the-safety-of-anti-vegf-drugs-analysis-of-the-italian-spontaneous-reporting-system
#17
Paola Maria Cutroneo, Claudia Giardina, Valentina Ientile, Simona Potenza, Laura Sottosanti, Carmen Ferrajolo, Costantino J Trombetta, Gianluca Trifirò
INTRODUCTION: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) drugs are widely used for the treatment of several cancers and retinal diseases. The systemic use of anti-VEGF drugs has been associated with an increased risk of serious adverse reactions. Whether this risk is also related to intravitreal administration of anti-VEGF drugs is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the safety of anti-VEGF drugs in oncology and ophthalmology settings using the Italian Spontaneous Reporting System (SRS)...
June 5, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584235/the-effect-of-interleukin-38-on-angiogenesis-in-a-model-of-oxygen-induced-retinopathy
#18
Jing Zhang, Ruijuan Zhao, Jianping Chen, Jiayi Jin, Ying Yu, Yunzhe Tian, Weihua Li, Wencong Wang, Hongyan Zhou, Shao Bo Su
Interleukin 38 (IL-38) is a novel identified cytokine of IL-1 family in which some members are important in inflammation and angiogenesis. However, the role of IL-38 in regulating angiogenesis is unknown. The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of IL-38 on angiogenesis. Oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) of C57BL/6 J mice was induced by exposure of hyperoxia (75% oxygen) from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P12 and then returned to room air. The mice were injected with IL-38. At P17, neovascular region (tufts) and avascular area of the retinas were analyzed...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579550/the-application-of-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-retinal-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Kumar Sambhav, Sandeep Grover, K V Chalam
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, non-invasive imaging technique that generates real time volumetric data of chorioretinal vasculature and its flow pattern. With the advent of high-speed optical coherence tomography, established en-face chorioretinal segmentation, and efficient algorithms, OCTA generate images that resembles an angiogram. The principle of OCTA involves determining the change in backscattering between consecutive B-scans and then attributing the differences to the flow of erythrocytes through retinal blood vessels...
June 1, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575130/long-term-consequences-of-developmental-vascular-defects-on-retinal-vessel-homeostasis-and-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-norrie-disease
#20
Susanne C Beck, Yuxi Feng, Vithiyanjali Sothilingam, Marina Garcia Garrido, Naoyuki Tanimoto, Niyazi Acar, Shenliang Shan, Britta Seebauer, Wolfgang Berger, Hans-Peter Hammes, Mathias W Seeliger
Loss of Norrin signalling due to mutations in the Norrie disease pseudoglioma gene causes severe vascular defects in the retina, leading to visual impairment and ultimately blindness. While the emphasis of experimental work so far was on the developmental period, we focus here on disease mechanisms that induce progression into severe adult disease. The goal of this study was the comprehensive analysis of the long-term effects of the absence of Norrin on vascular homeostasis and retinal function. In a mouse model of Norrie disease retinal vascular morphology and integrity were studied by means of in vivo angiography; the vascular constituents were assessed in detailed histological analyses using quantitative retinal morphometry...
2017: PloS One
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