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Retinal regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641110/sox11-expression-promotes-regeneration-of-some-retinal-ganglion-cell-types-but-kills-others
#1
Michael W Norsworthy, Fengfeng Bei, Riki Kawaguchi, Qing Wang, Nicholas M Tran, Yi Li, Benedikt Brommer, Yiming Zhang, Chen Wang, Joshua R Sanes, Giovanni Coppola, Zhigang He
At least 30 types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) send distinct messages through the optic nerve to the brain. Available strategies of promoting axon regeneration act on only some of these types. Here we tested the hypothesis that overexpressing developmentally important transcription factors in adult RGCs could reprogram them to a "youthful" growth-competent state and promote regeneration of other types. From a screen of transcription factors, we identified Sox11 as one that could induce substantial axon regeneration...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632489/the-effects-of-platelet-gel-on-cultured-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#2
Sahar Balagholi, Shaban Alizadeh, Abouzar Bagheri, Yashar Amizadeh, Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi
The positive role of platelet gel (PG) in tissue regeneration is well known, however, other characteristics of PG still remain to be determined. We investigated cellular and molecular changes in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells when treated with different concentrations of PG named PG1, PG2, and PG3. hRPE cells were isolated from donor eyes of two newborn children, within 24 hours after their death. The cells were treated with three concentrations of PG for 7 days: 3 × 104/ml (PG1), 6 × 104/ml (PG2), and 9 × 104/ml (PG3)...
June 20, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630333/boosting-cns-axon-regeneration-by-harnessing-antagonistic-effects-of-gsk3-activity
#3
Marco Leibinger, Anastasia Andreadaki, Renate Golla, Evgeny Levin, Alexander M Hilla, Heike Diekmann, Dietmar Fischer
Implications of GSK3 activity for axon regeneration are often inconsistent, if not controversial. Sustained GSK3 activity in GSK3(S/A) knock-in mice reportedly accelerates peripheral nerve regeneration via increased MAP1B phosphorylation and concomitantly reduces microtubule detyrosination. In contrast, the current study shows that lens injury-stimulated optic nerve regeneration was significantly compromised in these knock-in mice. Phosphorylation of MAP1B and CRMP2 was expectedly increased in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons upon enhanced GSK3 activity, but, surprisingly, no GSK3-mediated CRMP2 inhibition was detected in sciatic nerves, thus revealing a fundamental difference between central and peripheral axons...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616037/correlation-between-photoreceptor-injury-regeneration-and-behavior-in-a-zebrafish-model
#4
Ya-Jie Wang, Shi-Jiao Cai, Jian-Lin Cui, Yang Chen, Xin Tang, Yu-Hao Li
Direct exposure to intensive visible light can lead to solar retinopathy, including macular injury. The signs and symptoms include central scotoma, metamorphopsia, and decreased vision. However, there have been few studies examining retinal injury due to intensive light stimulation at the cellular level. Neural network arrangements and gene expression patterns in zebrafish photoreceptors are similar to those observed in humans, and photoreceptor injury in zebrafish can induce stem cell-based cellular regeneration...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596336/regenerating-optic-pathways-from-the-eye-to-the-brain
#5
REVIEW
Bireswar Laha, Ben K Stafford, Andrew D Huberman
Humans are highly visual. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the neurons that connect the eyes to the brain, fail to regenerate after damage, eventually leading to blindness. Here, we review research on regeneration and repair of the optic system. Intrinsic developmental growth programs can be reactivated in RGCs, neural activity can enhance RGC regeneration, and functional reformation of eye-to-brain connections is possible, even in the adult brain. Transplantation and gene therapy may serve to replace or resurrect dead or injured retinal neurons...
June 9, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589680/all-trans-retinoic-acid-upregulates-the-expression-of-ciliary-neurotrophic-factor-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#6
Wen-Di Zhou, Lu-Lu Wang, Lan-Bo Zhou, Wei Bin, Tian-Ping Bao, Yi Zhang, Jin Shu, Wei-Xia Yang, Liang-Liang Hui, Rui Jin, Li-Li Zhuang, Guo-Ping Zhou
Retinopathy of prematurity, a leading cause of visual impairment in low birth-weight infants, remains a crucial therapeutic challenge. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor that promotes rod and cone photoreceptor survival and cone outer segment regeneration in the degenerating retina. Ciliary neurotrophic factor expression is regulated by many factors such as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). In this study, we found that ATRA increased CNTF expression in mouse retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and PKA signaling pathway is necessary for ATRA-induced CNTF upregulation...
June 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577895/sox2-regulates-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-reprogramming-and-proliferation-in-the-regenerating-zebrafish-retina-via-lin28-and-ascl1a
#7
Ryne A Gorsuch, Manuela Lahne, Clare E Yarka, Michael E Petravick, Jingling Li, David R Hyde
Sox2 is a well-established neuronal stem cell-associated transcription factor that regulates neural development and adult neurogenesis in vertebrates, and is one of the critical genes used to reprogram differentiated cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. We examined if Sox2 was involved in the early reprogramming-like events that Müller glia undergo as they upregulate many pluripotency- and neural stem cell-associated genes required for proliferation in light-damaged adult zebrafish retinas. In the undamaged adult zebrafish retina, Sox2 is expressed in Müller glia and a subset of amacrine cells, similar to other vertebrates...
May 31, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576690/complement-component-c3ar-constitutes-a-novel-regulator-for-chick-eye-morphogenesis
#8
Erika Grajales-Esquivel, Agustin Luz-Madrigal, Jeffrey Bierly, Tracy Haynes, Edimara S Reis, Zeyu Han, Christian Gutierrez, Zachary McKinney, Apostolia Tzekou, John D Lambris, Panagiotis A Tsonis, Katia Del Rio-Tsonis
Complement components have been implicated in a wide variety of functions including neurogenesis, proliferation, cell migration, differentiation, cancer, and more recently early development and regeneration. Following our initial observations indicating that C3a/C3aR signaling induces chick retina regeneration, we analyzed its role in chick eye morphogenesis. During eye development, the optic vesicle (OV) invaginates to generate a bilayer optic cup (OC) that gives rise to the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and neural retina...
May 30, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573143/combination-of-neuroprotective-and-regenerative-agents-for-age-induced-retinal-degeneration-in-vitro-study
#9
Guzel Bikbova, Toshiyuki Oshitari, Takayuki Baba, Shuichi Yamamoto
To determine the most effective combination of neuroprotective and regenerative agents for cultured retinal neurons from advanced glycation end products- (AGEs-) induced degeneration, retinal explants of 7 adult Sprague-Dawley rats were three-dimensionally cultured in collagen gel and incubated in serum-free media and in 7 media; namely, AGEs, AGEs + 100 μM citicoline, AGEs + 10 ng/mL NT-4, AGEs + 100 μM TUDCA, AGEs + 100 μM citicoline + TUDCA (doublet), and AGEs + 100 μM citicoline + TUDCA + 10 ng/mL NT-4 (triplet) were examined...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569783/damage-induced-neuronal-endopeptidase-dine-enhances-axonal-regeneration-potential-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-after-optic-nerve-injury
#10
Aoi Kaneko, Sumiko Kiryu-Seo, Sakiko Matsumoto, Hiroshi Kiyama
Damage-induced neuronal endopeptidase (DINE)/endothelin-converting enzyme-like 1 (ECEL1) is a membrane-bound metalloprotease that we identified as a nerve regeneration-associated molecule. The expression of DINE is upregulated in response to nerve injury in both the peripheral and central nervous systems, while its transcription is regulated by the activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a potent hub-transcription factor for nerve regeneration. Despite its unique hallmark of injury-induced upregulation, the physiological relevance of DINE in injured neurons has been unclear...
June 1, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560734/substrate-properties-of-zebrafish-rtn4b-nogo-and-axon-regeneration-in-the-zebrafish-optic-nerve
#11
Vsevolod Bodrikov, Cornelia Welte, Marianne Wiechers, Markus Weschenfelder, Gurjot Kaur, Aleksandra Shypitsyna, Alejandro Pinzon-Olejua, Martin Bastmeyer, Claudia A O Stuermer
This study explored why lesioned retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons regenerate successfully in the zebrafish optic nerve despite the presence of Rtn4b, the homologue of the rat neurite growth inhibitor RTN4-A/Nogo-A. Rat Nogo-A and zebrafish Rtn4b possess characteristic motifs (M1-4) in the Nogo-A-specific region, which contains delta20, the most inhibitory region of rat Nogo-A. To determine whether zebrafish M1-4 is inhibitory as rat M1-4 and Nogo-A delta20, proteins were recombinantly expressed and used as substrates for zebrafish single cell RGCs, mouse hippocampal neurons and goldfish, zebrafish and chick retinal explants...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559289/generating-minicorneal-organoids-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#12
Praveen Joseph Susaimanickam, Savitri Maddileti, Vinay Kumar, Sreedhar Rao Boyinpally, Ramavat Ravinder Naik, Milind N Naik, Geereddy Bhanuprakash Reddy, Virender Singh Sangwan, Indumathi Mariappan
Corneal epithelial stem cells residing within the annular limbal crypts regulate adult tissue homeostasis. Autologous limbal grafts and tissue engineered corneal epithelial cell sheets have been widely used in the treatment of various ocular surface defects. In case of bilateral limbal defects, pluripotent stem cell (PSC) derived corneal epithelial cells are now being explored as an alternative to allogeneic limbal grafts. We report here an efficient method to generate complex three dimensional corneal organoids from human PSCs...
May 30, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548249/m%C3%A3-ller-glial-cell-reactivation-in-xenopus-models-of-retinal-degeneration
#13
Rahul Langhe, Albert Chesneau, Gabriele Colozza, Magdalena Hidalgo, Divya Ail, Morgane Locker, Muriel Perron
A striking aspect of tissue regeneration is its uneven distribution among different animal classes, both in terms of modalities and efficiency. The retina does not escape the rule, exhibiting extraordinary self-repair properties in anamniote species but extremely limited ones in mammals. Among cellular sources prone to contribute to retinal regeneration are Müller glial cells, which in teleosts have been known for a decade to re-acquire a stem/progenitor state and regenerate retinal neurons following injury...
August 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539612/the-role-of-retinol-dehydrogenase-10-in-the-cone-visual-cycle
#14
Yunlu Xue, Shinya Sato, David Razafsky, Bhubanananda Sahu, Susan Q Shen, Chloe Potter, Lisa L Sandell, Joseph C Corbo, Krzysztof Palczewski, Akiko Maeda, Didier Hodzic, Vladimir J Kefalov
Pigment regeneration is critical for the function of cone photoreceptors in bright and rapidly-changing light conditions. This process is facilitated by the recently-characterized retina visual cycle, in which Müller cells recycle spent all-trans-retinol visual chromophore back to 11-cis-retinol. This 11-cis-retinol is oxidized selectively in cones to the 11-cis-retinal used for pigment regeneration. However, the enzyme responsible for the oxidation of 11-cis-retinol remains unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10), upregulated in rod/cone hybrid retinas and expressed abundantly in Müller cells, is the enzyme that drives this reaction...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539419/microglia-are-irrelevant-for-neuronal-degeneration-and-axon-regeneration-after-acute-injury
#15
Alexander M Hilla, Heike Diekmann, Dietmar Fischer
The role of microglia in de- and regenerative processes after damage of the nervous system still remains ambiguous, partially due to the paucity of appropriate investigative methods. Here, we show that treatment with the pharmacological colony stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor PLX5622 specifically eliminated microglia in murine retinae and optic nerves. Interestingly, time course and extent of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration after optic nerve crush remained unaffected upon microglia depletion, although remnants of pre-labeled apoptotic RGCs were not cleared from the retina in these animals...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536395/cellular-and-molecular-preconditions-for-retinal-pigment-epithelium-rpe-natural-reprogramming-during-retinal-regeneration-in-urodela
#16
REVIEW
Eleonora N Grigoryan, Yuliya V Markitantova
Many regeneration processes in animals are based on the phenomenon of cell reprogramming followed by proliferation and differentiation in a different specialization direction. An insight into what makes natural (in vivo) cell reprogramming possible can help to solve a number of biomedical problems. In particular, the first problem is to reveal the intrinsic properties of the cells that are necessary and sufficient for reprogramming; the second, to evaluate these properties and, on this basis, to reveal potential endogenous sources for cell substitution in damaged tissues; and the third, to use the acquired data for developing approaches to in vitro cell reprogramming in order to obtain a cell reserve for damaged tissue repair...
December 1, 2016: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536368/implications-of-a-multi-step-trigger-of-retinal-regeneration-in-the-adult-newt
#17
Hirofumi Yasumuro, Keisuke Sakurai, Fubito Toyama, Fumiaki Maruo, Chikafumi Chiba
The newt is an amazing four-limbed vertebrate that can regenerate various body parts including the retina. In this animal, when the neural retina (NR) is removed from the eye by surgery (retinectomy), both the NR and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) eventually regenerate through the process of reprogramming and proliferation of RPE cells. Thus far, we have pursued the onset mechanism of adult newt retinal regeneration. In this study, using an in vitro system, we found that both mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)-ERK and β-catenin were involved in cell cycle re-entry of RPE cells...
May 20, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487362/complex-binding-pathways-determine-the-regeneration-of-mammalian-green-cone-opsin-with-a-locked-retinal-analogue
#18
Nathan S Alexander, Kota Katayama, Wenyu Sun, David Salom, Sahil Gulati, Jianye Zhang, Muneto Mogi, Krzysztof Palczewski, Beata Jastrzebska
Phototransduction is initiated when the absorption of light converts the 11-cis-retinal chromophore to its all-trans configuration in both rod and cone vertebrate photoreceptors. To sustain vision, 11-cis-retinal is continuously regenerated from its all-trans conformation through a series of enzymatic steps comprising the visual or retinoid cycle. Abnormalities in this cycle can compromise vision because of the diminished supply of 11-cis-retinal and the accumulation of toxic, constitutively active opsin. As shown previously for rod cells, attenuation of constitutively active opsin can be achieved with the unbleachable analogue, 11-cis-6-membered ring (11-cis-6mr)-retinal, which has therapeutic effects against certain degenerative retinal diseases...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487225/structural-and-functional-alterations-associated-with-deutan-n94k-and-r330q-mutations-of-green-cone-opsin
#19
Sundaramoorthy Srinivasan, Miguel A Fernández-Sampedro, Eva Ramon, Pere Garriga
Deuteranopia is an X-linked congenital dichromatic condition in which single point mutations in green cone opsin lead to defective non-functional cone photoreceptor cells. Green cone opsin belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and consists of a seven transmembrane helical apoprotein covalently bound to 11-cis-retinal, by means of a protonated Schiff base linkage, in its inactive dark state. Several point mutations in green cone opsin have been reported to cause deuteranopia, but the structural details underlying the molecular mechanisms behind the malfunction of mutated opsins have not been clearly established...
May 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486987/progress-of-stem-progenitor-cell-based-therapy-for-retinal-degeneration
#20
REVIEW
Zhimin Tang, Yi Zhang, Yuyao Wang, Dandan Zhang, Bingqiao Shen, Min Luo, Ping Gu
Retinal degeneration (RD), such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa, is one of the leading causes of blindness. Presently, no satisfactory therapeutic options are available for these diseases principally because the retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) do not regenerate, although wet AMD can be prevented from further progression by anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Nevertheless, stem/progenitor cell approaches exhibit enormous potential for RD treatment using strategies mainly aimed at the rescue and replacement of photoreceptors and RPE...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
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