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Retinal regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936466/mouse-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-isolation-and-culture
#1
Xiao Liu, Luosheng Tang, Yongqing Liu
Müller cells are the major supportive and protective glial cells across the retina. Unlike in fish, they have lost the capacity to regenerate the retina in mammals. But, mammalian Müller cells still retain certain retinal stem cell properties with various degree of self-renewal and differentiation potentials, and thereby held a merit in cell-based therapies for treating retinal degeneration diseases. In our laboratory, we use an enzymatic procedure to isolate, purify, and culture mouse Müller cells.
August 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935984/regulation-of-axonal-regeneration-by-the-level-of-function-of-the-endogenous-nogo-receptor-antagonist-lotus
#2
Tomoko Hirokawa, Yixiao Zou, Yuji Kurihara, Zhaoxin Jiang, Yusuke Sakakibara, Hiromu Ito, Kengo Funakoshi, Nobutaka Kawahara, Yoshio Goshima, Stephen M Strittmatter, Kohtaro Takei
Axonal regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system is limited in part by the non-permissive environment, including axonal growth inhibitors such as the Nogo-A protein. How the functions of these inhibitors can be blocked remains unclear. Here, we examined the role of LOTUS, an endogenous Nogo receptor antagonist, in promoting functional recovery and neural repair after spinal cord injury (SCI), as well as axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush. Wild-type untreated mice show incomplete but substantial intrinsic motor recovery after SCI...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917662/successful-optic-nerve-regeneration-in-the-senescent-zebrafish-despite-age-related-decline-of-cell-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-response-processes
#3
Jessie Van Houcke, Ilse Bollaerts, Emiel Geeraerts, Benjamin Davis, An Beckers, Inge Van Hove, Kim Lemmens, Lies De Groef, Lieve Moons
Dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS) in neurodegenerative diseases or after brain lesions seriously affects life quality of a growing number of elderly, since the adult CNS lacks the capacity to replace or repair damaged neurons. Despite intensive research efforts, full functional recovery after CNS disease and/or injury remains challenging, especially in an aging environment. As such, there is a rising need for an aging model in which the impact of aging on successful regeneration can be studied...
August 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895631/-oct-angiography-of-rpe-tears-in-exudative-amd-morpohological-analysis-of-the-choriocapillaris-and-the-rpe
#4
Matthias Gutfleisch, Kai Rothaus, Marie-Louise Farecki, Henrik Faatz, Britta Heimes-Bussmann, Frederic Gunnemann, Martin Ziegler, Ioannis Papapostolou, Albrecht Lommatzsch, Daniel Pauleikoff
Background Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tears are a typical complication of vascular pigment epithelium detachment in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). During proactive intense anti-VEGF therapy, stabilisation or improvement of function may occur. With the new method of OCT angiography (OCT-A), retinal vessels and flow density can be quantified. This pilot study investigates changes in the choriocapillars (CC) in areas with increasing FAF in OCT following an RPE-tear. Methods In six eyes with an RPE-tear, prospectively initially and every three months thereafter, multimodal imaging was performed, including fundus autofluorescence (FAF) (HRA2, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Deutschland) and OCT-A (RTVue XR Avanti, SSDA-Modus, Angiovue, Optovue, Freemont, CA, USA)...
September 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894166/flavonoid-allosteric-modulation-of-mutated-visual-rhodopsin-associated-with-retinitis-pigmentosa
#5
María Guadalupe Herrera-Hernández, Eva Ramon, Cecylia S Lupala, Mercè Tena-Campos, Juan J Pérez, Pere Garriga
Dietary flavonoids exhibit many biologically-relevant functions and can potentially have beneficial effects in the treatment of pathological conditions. In spite of its well known antioxidant properties, scarce structural information is available on the interaction of flavonoids with membrane receptors. Advances in the structural biology of a specific class of membrane receptors, the G protein-coupled receptors, have significantly increased our understanding of drug action and paved the way for developing improved therapeutic approaches...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871032/klf9-and-jnk3-interact-to-suppress-axon-regeneration-in-the-adult-cns
#6
Akintomide Apara, Joana Galvao, Yan Wang, Murray Blackmore, Allison Trillo, Keiichiro Iwao, Dale P Brown, Kimberly A Fernandes, Abigail Huang, Tu Nguyen, Masoumeh Ashouri, Xiong Zhang, Peter X Shaw, Noelia J Kunzevitzky, Darcie L Moore, Richard T Libby, Jeffrey L Goldberg
Neurons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) decrease in intrinsic axon growth capacity during development in concert with changes in Krüppel-like transcription factors (KLFs). KLFs regulate axon growth in CNS neurons including retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here we find that knockdown of KLF9, an axon growth suppressor normally upregulated 250-fold in RGC development, promotes long-distance optic nerve regeneration in adult rat of both sexes. We identify a novel binding partner, MAPK10/JNK3 kinase, and find JNK3 is critical for KLF9's axon growth suppressive activity...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856242/3d-visualization-of-individual-regenerating-retinal-ganglion-cell-axons-reveals-surprisingly-complex-growth-paths
#7
Eric R Bray, Markus Noga, Kinjal Thakor, Yunfang Wang, Vance P Lemmon, Kevin K Park, Pantelis Tsoulfas
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the sole output cells of the retina, are a heterogeneous population of neurons that project axons to visual targets in the brain. Like most CNS neurons, RGCs are considered incapable of mounting long distance axon regeneration. Using immunolabeling-enabled 3D imaging of solvent-cleared organs (iDISCO) in transgenic mice, we tracked the entire paths of individual RGC axons and show that adult RGCs are highly capable of spontaneous long-distance regeneration, even without any treatment...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852381/soxc-transcription-factors-in-retinal-development-and-regeneration
#8
REVIEW
Kun-Che Chang, Jonathan Hertz
Glaucoma and other optic neuropathies result in optic nerve degeneration and the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) through complex signaling pathways. Although the mechanisms that regulate RGC development remain unclear, uncovering novel developmental pathways may support new strategies to regenerate the optic nerve or replace RGCs. Here we review recent studies that provide strong evidence that the Sry-related high-mobility-group C (SoxC) subfamily of transcription factors (TFs) are necessary and sufficient for axon guidance and RGC fate specification...
July 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844129/glaucoma-stem-cells-and-gene-therapy-where-are-we-now
#9
REVIEW
Karim Daliri, Alexander V Ljubimov, Seyedhossein Hekmatimoghaddam
Glaucoma is the second most common cause of blindness, affecting 70~80 million people around the world. The death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is the main cause of blindness related to this disease. Current therapies do not provide enough protection and regeneration of RGCs. A novel opportunity for treatment of glaucoma is application of technologies related to stem cell and gene therapy. In this perspective we will thus focus on emerging approaches to glaucoma treatment including stem cells and gene therapy...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842607/retinal-cell-death-dependent-reactive-proliferative-gliosis-in-the-mouse-retina
#10
Sheik Pran Babu Sardar Pasha, Robert Münch, Patrick Schäfer, Peter Oertel, Alex M Sykes, Yiqing Zhu, Mike O Karl
Neurodegeneration is a common starting point of reactive gliosis, which may have beneficial and detrimental consequences. It remains incompletely understood how distinctive pathologies and cell death processes differentially regulate glial responses. Müller glia (MG) in the retina are a prime model: Neurons are regenerated in some species, but in mammals there may be proliferative disorders and scarring. Here, we investigated the relationship between retinal damage and MG proliferation, which are both induced in a reproducible and temporal order in organotypic culture of EGF-treated mouse retina: Hypothermia pretreatment during eye dissection reduced neuronal cell death and MG proliferation; stab wounds increased both...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800637/biologically-active-recombinant-human-erythropoietin-expressed-in-hairy-root-cultures-and-regenerated-plantlets-of-nicotiana-tabacum-l
#11
Poornima Devi Gurusamy, Holger Schäfer, Siva Ramamoorthy, Michael Wink
Hairy root culture is a potential alternative to conventional mammalian cell culture to produce recombinant proteins due to its ease in protein recovery, low costs and absence of potentially human pathogenic contaminants. The current study focussed to develop a new platform of a hairy root culture system from Nicotiana tabacum for the production of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO), which is regularly produced in mammalian cells. The human EPO construct was amplified with C-terminal hexahistidine tag from a cDNA of Caco-2 cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795960/advances-in-experimental-optic-nerve-regeneration
#12
Bo Young Chun, Dean M Cestari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances in experimental studies of optic nerve regeneration to better understand the pathophysiology of axon regrowth and provide insights into the future treatment of numerous optic neuropathies. RECENT FINDINGS: The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system and cannot regenerate if injured. There are several steps that regenerating axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) must take following optic nerve injury that include: maximizing the intrinsic growth capacity of RGCs, overcoming the extrinsic growth-inhibitory environment of the optic nerve, and optimizing the reinnervation of regenerated axons to their targets in the brain...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795779/core-shell-fibrous-scaffold-as-a-vehicle-for-sustained-release-of-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-derived-factor-pedf-for-photoreceptor-differentiation-of-conjunctiva-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#13
Fatemeh Nasehi, Mohsen Karshenas, Samad Nadri, Ghasem Barati, Ahdiye Salim
Coaxial electrospinning technique was introduced as a flexible and promising technique for the fabrication of core-shell fibrous scaffold from poly ethylene glycol/poly caprolactone (PEG/PCL), where retinal pigmented epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) was encapsulated in the core, for photoreceptor differentiation of conjunctiva mesenchymal stem cells (CJMSCs) seed on scaffolds. The morphology and structure of fibers were characterized using SEM and TEM and photoreceptor differentiation was examined by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746305/stimulation-of-functional-neuronal-regeneration-from-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-in-adult-mice
#14
Nikolas L Jorstad, Matthew S Wilken, William N Grimes, Stefanie G Wohl, Leah S VandenBosch, Takeshi Yoshimatsu, Rachel O Wong, Fred Rieke, Thomas A Reh
Many retinal diseases lead to the loss of retinal neurons and cause visual impairment. The adult mammalian retina has little capacity for regeneration. By contrast, teleost fish functionally regenerate their retina following injury, and Müller glia (MG) are the source of regenerated neurons. The proneural transcription factor Ascl1 is upregulated in MG after retinal damage in zebrafish and is necessary for regeneration. Although Ascl1 is not expressed in mammalian MG after injury, forced expression of Ascl1 in mouse MG induces a neurogenic state in vitro and in vivo after NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) damage in young mice...
August 3, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728472/the-identification-of-interferon-%C3%AE-as-a-key-supportive-factor-for-retinal-differentiation-of-murine-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#15
Barbora Hermankova, Jan Kossl, Eliska Javorkova, Pavla Bohacova, Michaela Hajkova, Alena Zajicova, Magdalena Krulova, Vladimir Holan
Retinal disorders represent the main cause of decreased quality of vision and even blindness worldwide. The loss of retinal cells causes irreversible damage of the retina, and there are currently no effective treatment protocols for most retinal degenerative diseases. A promising approach for the treatment of retinal disorders is represented by stem cell-based therapy. The perspective candidates are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can differentiate into multiple cell types and produce a number of trophic and growth factors...
August 22, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719353/effect-of-triptolide-on-retinal-ganglion-cell-survival-in-an-optic-nerve-crush-model
#16
Y-F Li, Y-F Zou, X-F Chen, W Zhang
Optic nerve crush model could be used to investigate the mechanism of neuronal survival and axonal regeneration in central nervous system. Triptolide, a Chinese herb extract with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities, has shown neuron protective functions in nervous system. In this study, we investigated the changes in retinal ganglion cell survival and axonal regeneration after administration of triptolide in optic nerve crush model. Triptolide treatment tended to promote retinal ganglion cell survival rather than optic nerve regeneration as well as inhibit the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716559/optic-nerve-regeneration-in-mammals-regenerated-or-spared-axons
#17
REVIEW
Dietmar Fischer, Alan R Harvey, Vincent Pernet, Vance P Lemmon, Kevin K Park
Intraorbital optic nerve crush in rodents is widely used as a model to study axon regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system. Recent studies using appropriate genetic manipulations have revealed remarkable abilities of mature retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons to regenerate after optic nerve injury, with some studies demonstrating that axons can then go on to re-innervate a number of central visual targets with partial functional restoration. However, one confounding factor inherent to optic nerve crush injury is the potential incompleteness of the initial lesion, leaving spared axons that later on could erroneously be interpreted as regenerating distal to the injury site...
October 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700926/the-energetics-of-chromophore-binding-in-the-visual-photoreceptor-rhodopsin
#18
He Tian, Thomas P Sakmar, Thomas Huber
The visual photoreceptor rhodopsin is a prototypical G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that stabilizes its inverse agonist ligand, 11-cis-retinal (11CR), by a covalent, protonated Schiff base linkage. In the visual dark adaptation, the fundamental molecular event after photobleaching of rhodopsin is the recombination reaction between its apoprotein opsin and 11CR. Here we present a detailed analysis of the kinetics and thermodynamics of this reaction, also known as the "regeneration reaction". We compared the regeneration of purified rhodopsin reconstituted into phospholipid/detergent bicelles with rhodopsin reconstituted into detergent micelles...
July 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695619/m%C3%A3-ller-glia-and-phagocytosis-of-cell-debris-in-retinal-tissue
#19
REVIEW
Ruth Bejarano-Escobar, Hortensia Sánchez-Calderón, Josué Otero-Arenas, Gervasio Martín-Partido, Javier Francisco-Morcillo
Müller cells are the predominant glial cell type in the retina of vertebrates. They play a wide variety of roles in both the developing and the mature retina that have been widely reported in the literature. However, less attention has been paid to their role in phagocytosis of cell debris under physiological, pathological or experimental conditions. Müller glia have been shown to phagocytose apoptotic cell bodies originated during development of the visual system. They also engulf foreign molecules that are injected into the eye, cone outer segments and injured photoreceptors...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691584/fibrin-gel-as-a-scaffold-for-photoreceptor-cells-differentiation-from-conjunctiva-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-retina-tissue-engineering
#20
Mostafa Soleimannejad, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Masoud Soleimani, Samad Nadri, Seyed Mohammad Tavangar, Ramak Roohipoor, Meysam Yazdankhah, Neda Bayat, Mohammad Riazi-Esfahani, Jafar Ai
Stem cell-based therapies are attraction approaches for regenerative medicine for treating retinal diseases. One of the limitations in cell therapy is cell death following post-injection whit preventing functional integration with retinal tissue. Fibrin gel, a bio-polymeric material with excellent biocompatibility, provides numerous advantages as a tissue engineering scaffold and a stem cell carrier. Therefore, current research is focusing on developing fibrin hydrogel scaffolds to protect stem cells during delivery and to stimulate endogenous regeneration through interactions of transplanted stem cells and retinal tissue...
July 10, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
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