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Retinal regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426967/an-intrinsic-epigenetic-barrier-for-functional-axon-regeneration
#1
Yi-Lan Weng, Ran An, Jessica Cassin, Jessica Joseph, Ruifa Mi, Chen Wang, Chun Zhong, Seung-Gi Jin, Gerd P Pfeifer, Alfonso Bellacosa, Xinzhong Dong, Ahmet Hoke, Zhigang He, Hongjun Song, Guo-Li Ming
Mature neurons in the adult peripheral nervous system can effectively switch from a dormant state with little axonal growth to robust axon regeneration upon injury. The mechanisms by which injury unlocks mature neurons' intrinsic axonal growth competence are not well understood. Here, we show that peripheral sciatic nerve lesion in adult mice leads to elevated levels of Tet3 and 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Functionally, Tet3 is required for robust axon regeneration of DRG neurons and behavioral recovery...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416692/immunomodulation-accelerated-neuronal-regeneration-following-selective-rod-photoreceptor-cell-ablation-in-the-zebrafish-retina
#2
David T White, Sumitra Sengupta, Meera T Saxena, Qingguo Xu, Justin Hanes, Ding Ding, Hongkai Ji, Jeff S Mumm
Müller glia (MG) function as inducible retinal stem cells in zebrafish, completely repairing the eye after damage. The innate immune system has recently been shown to promote tissue regeneration in which classic wound-healing responses predominate. However, regulatory roles for leukocytes during cellular regeneration-i.e., selective cell-loss paradigms akin to degenerative disease-are less well defined. To investigate possible roles innate immune cells play during retinal cell regeneration, we used intravital microscopy to visualize neutrophil, macrophage, and retinal microglia responses to induced rod photoreceptor apoptosis...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381675/alternative-formation-of-red-shifted-channelrhodopsins-noncovalent-incorporation-with-retinal-based-enamine-type-schiff-bases-and-mutated-channelopsin
#3
Takashi Okitsu, Take Matsuyama, Takahiro Yamashita, Toru Ishizuka, Hiromu Yawo, Yasushi Imamoto, Yoshinori Shichida, Akimori Wada
Red-shifted channelrhodopsins (ChRs) are attractive for optogenetic tools. We developed a new type of red-shifted ChRs that utilized noncovalent incorporation of retinal and 3,4-dehydroretinal-based enamine-type Schiff bases and mutated channelopsin, C1C2-K296G. These ChRs exhibited absorption maxima that were shifted 10-30 nm toward longer wavelengths than that of C1C2-ChR regenerated with all-trans-retinal.
2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371543/upregulation-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-triggers-transdifferentiation-of-retinal-pigmented-epithelial-cells-in-xenopus-laevis-a-link-between-inflammatory-response-and-regeneration
#4
Hanako Naitoh, Yukari Suganuma, Yoko Ueda, Takahiko Sato, Yosuke Hiramuki, Atsuko Fujisawa-Sehara, Shigeru Taketani, Masasuke Araki
In adult Xenopus eyes, when the whole retina is removed, retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells become activated to be retinal stem cells and regenerate the whole retina. In the present study, using a tissue culture model, we examined whether upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (Mmps) triggers retinal regeneration. Soon after retinal removal, Xmmp9 and Xmmp18 were strongly upregulated in the tissues of the RPE and the choroid. In the culture, Mmp expression in the RPE cells corresponded with their migration from the choroid...
April 2, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367115/identification-of-mesencephalic-astrocyte-derived-neurotrophic-factor-as-a-novel-neuroprotective-factor-for-retinal-ganglion-cells
#5
Feng-Juan Gao, Ji-Hong Wu, Ting-Ting Li, Shan-Shan Du, Qiang Wu
Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), a newly discovered secreted neurotrophic factor, has been proven to not only protect dopaminergic neurons and other cell types but also regulate neuroinflammation and the immune response to promote tissue repair and regeneration. However, to date, there is no information regarding the relationship between MANF and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the eye. In the current study, we first determined the expression of MANF in the retina and vitreous. Then, we examined the effect of MANF on RGCs using both in vivo and in vitro models and simultaneously explored the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms of MANF...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365209/special-commentary-early-clinical-development-of-cell-replacement-therapy-considerations-for-the-national-eye-institute-audacious-goals-initiative
#6
REVIEW
Leonard A Levin, Joan W Miller, Donald J Zack, Martin Friedlander, Lois E H Smith
The National Eye Institute launched the Audacious Goals Initiative (AGI) in 2013 with the aim "to restore vision through the regeneration of neurons and neural connections in the eye and visual system." An AGI Town Hall held at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Annual Meeting in 2016 brought together basic, translational, and clinical scientists to address the clinical implications of the AGI, with a particular emphasis on diseases amenable to regenerative medicine and strategies to deal with barriers to progess...
March 29, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359344/the-retina-visual-cycle-is-driven-by-cis-retinol-oxidation-in-the-outer-segments-of-cones
#7
Shinya Sato, Rikard Frederiksen, M Carter Cornwall, Vladimir J Kefalov
Vertebrate rod and cone photoreceptors require continuous supply of chromophore for regenerating their visual pigments after photoactivation. Cones, which mediate our daytime vision, demand a particularly rapid supply of 11-cis retinal chromophore in order to maintain their function in bright light. An important contribution to this process is thought to be the chromophore precursor 11-cis retinol, which is supplied to cones from Müller cells in the retina and subsequently oxidized to 11-cis retinal as part of the retina visual cycle...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351499/retina-tissue-engineering-by-conjunctiva-mesenchymal-stem-cells-encapsulated-in-fibrin-gel-hypotheses-on-novel-approach-to-retinal-diseases-treatment
#8
Mostafa Soleimannejad, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Samad Nadri, Mohammad Riazi-Esfahani, Masoud Soleimani, Seyed Mohammad Tavangar, Jafar Ai
BACKGROUND: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age related macular degeneration (AMD) are two retinal diseases that progress by photoreceptor cells death. In retinal transplantation studies, stem and progenitor cells inject into the sub retinal space or vitreous and then these cells can be migrate to the site of retinal degeneration and locate in the host retina and restitute vision. PRESENTATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS: Our hypothesis suggests that using human conjunctiva stem cells (as the source for increasing the number of human stem cells progenitor cells in retina dysfunction diseases) with fibrin gel and also assessing its relating in vitro (cellular and molecular processes) and in vivo (vision tests and pathology) could be a promising strategy for treatment of AMD and RP disorders...
April 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324115/regenerative-responses-and-axon-pathfinding-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-chronically-injured-mice
#9
Benjamin J Yungher, Márcio Ribeiro, Kevin K Park
Purpose: Enhanced regeneration of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons can be achieved by modification of numerous neuronal-intrinsic factors. However, axon growth initiation and the pathfinding behavior of these axons after traumatic injury remain poorly understood outside of acute injury paradigms, despite the clinical relevance of more chronic settings. We therefore examined RGC axon regeneration following therapeutic delivery that is postponed until 2 months after optic nerve crush injury...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323869/tyrosine-mutated-aav2-mediated-shrna-silencing-of-pten-promotes-axon-regeneration-of-adult-optic-nerve
#10
ZhengRu Huang, ZiZhong Hu, Ping Xie, QingHuai Liu
Activating PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway via deleting phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) has been confirmed to enhance intrinsic growth capacity of neurons to facilitate the axons regeneration of central nervous system after injury. Considering conditional gene deletion is currently not available in clinical practice, we exploited capsid residue tyrosine 444 to phenylalanine mutated single-stranded adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) as a vector delivering short hairpin RNA to silence PTEN to promote retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survival and axons regeneration in adult rat optic nerve axotomy paradigm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318721/-physiology-of-the-visual-retinal-signal-from-phototransduction-to-the-visual-cycle
#11
REVIEW
C Salesse
The retinal photoreceptors (rods and cones) are responsible for light absorption and transduction of the signal, which is transmitted to the other retinal nerve cells and then to the brain. The chromophore of visual pigments of rods and cones is a particular isomer of a vitamin A derivative. Light absorption by this chromophore leads to its isomerization and to a phototransduction cascade, which results in photoreceptor hyperpolarization and cessation of glutamate secretion at their synaptic terminals. Phototransduction of cones and rods differs in their signal amplification and inactivation, which is consistent with their respective functions...
March 17, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316878/report-on-the-national-eye-institute-audacious-goals-initiative-replacement-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-endogenous-cell-sources
#12
Monica L Vetter, Peter F Hitchcock
This report emerges from a workshop convened by the National Eye Institute (NEI) as part of the "Audacious Goals Initiative" (AGI). The workshop addressed the replacement of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from exogenous and endogenous sources, and sought to identify the gaps in our knowledge and barriers to progress in devising cellular replacement therapies for diseases where RGCs die. Here, we briefly review relevant literature regarding common diseases associated with RGC death, the genesis of RGCs in vivo, strategies for generating transplantable RGCs in vitro, and potential endogenous cellular sources to regenerate these cells...
March 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315291/perspectives-of-stem-cell-based-therapy-for-age-related-retinal-degenerative-diseases
#13
Vladimir Holan, Barbora Hermankova, Jan Kossl
Retinal degenerative diseases, which include age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma, mostly affect the elderly population, and are the most common cause of decreased quality of vision or even blindness. So far, there is no satisfactory treatment protocol to prevent, stop or cure these disorders. A great hope and promise for patients suffering from retinal diseases is represented by stem cell-based therapy which could replace diseased or missing retinal cells, and support regeneration...
March 17, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300160/comparison-of-proteomic-profiles-in-the-zebrafish-retina-during-experimental-degeneration-and-regeneration
#14
Karen Eastlake, Wendy E Heywood, Dhani Tracey-White, Erika Aquino, Emily Bliss, Gerardo R Vasta, Kevin Mills, Peng T Khaw, Mariya Moosajee, G Astrid Limb
Zebrafish spontaneously regenerate the retina after injury. Although the gene expression profile has been extensively studied in this species during regeneration, this does not reflect protein function. To further understand the regenerative process in the zebrafish, we compared the proteomic profile of the retina during injury and upon regeneration. Using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and label-free quantitative proteomics (quadrupole time of flight LC-MS/MS), we analysed the retina of adult longfin wildtype zebrafish at 0, 3 and 18 days after Ouabain injection...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289724/flagellar-synchronization-is-a-simple-alternative-to-cell-cycle-synchronization-for-ciliary-and-flagellar-studies
#15
Soumita Dutta, Prachee Avasthi
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an ideal model organism for studies of ciliary function and assembly. In assays for biological and biochemical effects of various factors on flagellar structure and function, synchronous culture is advantageous for minimizing variability. Here, we have characterized a method in which 100% synchronization is achieved with respect to flagellar length but not with respect to the cell cycle. The method requires inducing flagellar regeneration by amputation of the entire cell population and limiting regeneration time...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289214/photocyclic-behavior-of-rhodopsin-induced-by-an-atypical-isomerization-mechanism
#16
Sahil Gulati, Beata Jastrzebska, Surajit Banerjee, Ángel L Placeres, Przemyslaw Miszta, Songqi Gao, Karl Gunderson, Gregory P Tochtrop, Sławomir Filipek, Kota Katayama, Philip D Kiser, Muneto Mogi, Phoebe L Stewart, Krzysztof Palczewski
Vertebrate rhodopsin (Rh) contains 11-cis-retinal as a chromophore to convert light energy into visual signals. On absorption of light, 11-cis-retinal is isomerized to all-trans-retinal, constituting a one-way reaction that activates transducin (Gt) followed by chromophore release. Here we report that bovine Rh, regenerated instead with a six-carbon-ring retinal chromophore featuring a C(11)=C(12) double bond locked in its cis conformation (Rh6mr), employs an atypical isomerization mechanism by converting 11-cis to an 11,13-dicis configuration for prolonged Gt activation...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287581/culture-of-adult-transgenic-zebrafish-retinal-explants-for-live-cell-imaging-by-multiphoton-microscopy
#17
Manuela Lahne, Ryne A Gorsuch, Craig M Nelson, David R Hyde
An endogenous regeneration program is initiated by Müller glia in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) retina following neuronal damage and death. The Müller glia re-enter the cell cycle and produce neuronal progenitor cells that undergo subsequent rounds of cell divisions and differentiate into the lost neuronal cell types. Both Müller glia and neuronal progenitor cell nuclei replicate their DNA and undergo mitosis in distinct locations of the retina, i.e. they migrate between the basal Inner Nuclear Layer (INL) and the Outer Nuclear Layer (ONL), respectively, in a process described as Interkinetic Nuclear Migration (INM)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285324/novel-therapeutics-for-stargardt-disease
#18
REVIEW
Louise J Lu, Ji Liu, Ron A Adelman
DESCRIPTION OF SITUATION: Stargardt disease, an inherited macular dystrophy caused by mutations in the ABCA4 gene encoding a retinal transporter protein, is the most prevalent form of macular degeneration in children. Patients with Stargardt disease develop severe vision loss within their first or second decades of life, which progresses to irreversible decreased visual acuity in almost all cases. Presently, there are no standard treatments for Stargardt disease. However, encouraging progress has been made in the development of innovative approaches to preventing vision loss in Stargardt patients...
March 11, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282700/-choroidal-neovascularisation-other-than-typical-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#19
D Sandner
Choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) in the context of exsudative age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) can be divided into type 1 (occult) and type 2 (classical) membranes. Retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) are "rare subtypes" of chorioretinal neovascularisation and are distinguished by their distinct morphology and the sometimes worse response to therapy. Chorioretinal anastomosis, severe exsudates with serosanguinous pigment epithelial detachment and, in PCV, orange-red lesions in the papillomacular bundle can be diagnostic...
March 10, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262779/ischemic-injury-leads-to-extracellular-matrix-alterations-in-retina-and-optic-nerve
#20
Jacqueline Reinhard, Marina Renner, Susanne Wiemann, Daniel A Shakoor, Gesa Stute, H Burkhard Dick, Andreas Faissner, Stephanie C Joachim
Retinal ischemia occurs in a variety of eye diseases. Restrained blood flow induces retinal damage, which leads to progressive optic nerve degeneration and vision loss. Previous studies indicate that extracellular matrix (ECM) constituents play an important role in complex tissues, such as retina and optic nerve. They have great impact on de- and regeneration processes and represent major candidates of central nervous system glial scar formation. Nevertheless, the importance of the ECM during ischemic retina and optic nerve neurodegeneration is not fully understood yet...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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