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Retinal regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800637/biologically-active-recombinant-human-erythropoietin-expressed-in-hairy-root-cultures-and-regenerated-plantlets-of-nicotiana-tabacum-l
#1
Poornima Devi Gurusamy, Holger Schäfer, Siva Ramamoorthy, Michael Wink
Hairy root culture is a potential alternative to conventional mammalian cell culture to produce recombinant proteins due to its ease in protein recovery, low costs and absence of potentially human pathogenic contaminants. The current study focussed to develop a new platform of a hairy root culture system from Nicotiana tabacum for the production of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO), which is regularly produced in mammalian cells. The human EPO construct was amplified with C-terminal hexahistidine tag from a cDNA of Caco-2 cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795960/advances-in-experimental-optic-nerve-regeneration
#2
Bo Young Chun, Dean M Cestari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances in experimental studies of optic nerve regeneration to better understand the pathophysiology of axon regrowth and provide insights into the future treatment of numerous optic neuropathies. RECENT FINDINGS: The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system and cannot regenerate if injured. There are several steps that regenerating axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) must take following optic nerve injury that include: maximizing the intrinsic growth capacity of RGCs, overcoming the extrinsic growth-inhibitory environment of the optic nerve, and optimizing the reinnervation of regenerated axons to their targets in the brain...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795779/core-shell-fibrous-scaffold-as-a-vehicle-for-sustained-release-of-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-derived-factor-pedf-for-photoreceptor-differentiation-of-conjunctiva-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Fatemeh Nasehi, Mohsen Karshenas, Samad Nadri, Ghasem Barati, Ahdiye Salim
Coaxial electrospinning technique was introduced as a flexible and promising technique for the fabrication of core-shell fibrous scaffold from poly ethylene glycol/poly caprolactone (PEG/PCL), where retinal pigmented epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) was encapsulated in the core, for photoreceptor differentiation of conjunctiva mesenchymal stem cells (CJMSCs) seed on scaffolds. The morphology and structure of fibers were characterized using SEM and TEM and photoreceptor differentiation was examined by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746305/stimulation-of-functional-neuronal-regeneration-from-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-in-adult-mice
#4
Nikolas L Jorstad, Matthew S Wilken, William N Grimes, Stefanie G Wohl, Leah S VandenBosch, Takeshi Yoshimatsu, Rachel O Wong, Fred Rieke, Thomas A Reh
Many retinal diseases lead to the loss of retinal neurons and cause visual impairment. The adult mammalian retina has little capacity for regeneration. By contrast, teleost fish functionally regenerate their retina following injury, and Müller glia (MG) are the source of regenerated neurons. The proneural transcription factor Ascl1 is upregulated in MG after retinal damage in zebrafish and is necessary for regeneration. Although Ascl1 is not expressed in mammalian MG after injury, forced expression of Ascl1 in mouse MG induces a neurogenic state in vitro and in vivo after NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) damage in young mice...
July 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728472/the-identification-of-interferon-%C3%AE-as-a-key-supportive-factor-for-retinal-differentiation-of-murine-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Barbora Hermankova, Jan Kossl, Eliska Javorkova, Pavla Bohacova, Michaela Hajkova, Alena Zajicova, Magdalena Krulova, Vladimir Holan
Retinal disorders represent the main cause of decreased quality of vision and even blindness worldwide. The loss of retinal cells causes irreversible damage of the retina and there are currently no effective treatment protocols for most retinal degenerative diseases. A promising approach for the treatment of retinal disorders is represented by stem cell-based therapy. The perspective candidates are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which can differentiate into multiple cell types and produce a number of trophic and growth factors...
July 20, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719353/effect-of-triptolide-on-retinal-ganglion-cell-survival-in-an-optic-nerve-crush-model
#6
Y-F Li, Y-F Zou, X-F Chen, W Zhang
Optic nerve crush model could be used to investigate the mechanism of neuronal survival and axonal regeneration in central nervous system. Triptolide, a Chinese herb extract with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities, has shown neuron protective functions in nervous system. In this study, we investigated the changes in retinal ganglion cell survival and axonal regeneration after administration of triptolide in optic nerve crush model. Triptolide treatment tended to promote retinal ganglion cell survival rather than optic nerve regeneration as well as inhibit the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716559/optic-nerve-regeneration-in-mammals-regenerated-or-spared-axons
#7
REVIEW
Dietmar Fischer, Alan R Harvey, Vincent Pernet, Vance P Lemmon, Kevin K Park
Intraorbital optic nerve crush in rodents is widely used as a model to study axon regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system. Recent studies using appropriate genetic manipulations have revealed remarkable abilities of mature retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons to regenerate after optic nerve injury, with some studies demonstrating that axons can then go on to re-innervate a number of central visual targets with partial functional restoration. However, one confounding factor inherent to optic nerve crush injury is the potential incompleteness of the initial lesion, leaving spared axons that later on could erroneously be interpreted as regenerating distal to the injury site...
July 14, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700926/the-energetics-of-chromophore-binding-in-the-visual-photoreceptor-rhodopsin
#8
He Tian, Thomas P Sakmar, Thomas Huber
The visual photoreceptor rhodopsin is a prototypical G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that stabilizes its inverse agonist ligand, 11-cis-retinal (11CR), by a covalent, protonated Schiff base linkage. In the visual dark adaptation, the fundamental molecular event after photobleaching of rhodopsin is the recombination reaction between its apoprotein opsin and 11CR. Here we present a detailed analysis of the kinetics and thermodynamics of this reaction, also known as the "regeneration reaction". We compared the regeneration of purified rhodopsin reconstituted into phospholipid/detergent bicelles with rhodopsin reconstituted into detergent micelles...
July 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695619/m%C3%A3-ller-glia-and-phagocytosis-of-cell-debris-in-retinal-tissue
#9
REVIEW
Ruth Bejarano-Escobar, Hortensia Sánchez-Calderón, Josué Otero-Arenas, Gervasio Martín-Partido, Javier Francisco-Morcillo
Müller cells are the predominant glial cell type in the retina of vertebrates. They play a wide variety of roles in both the developing and the mature retina that have been widely reported in the literature. However, less attention has been paid to their role in phagocytosis of cell debris under physiological, pathological or experimental conditions. Müller glia have been shown to phagocytose apoptotic cell bodies originated during development of the visual system. They also engulf foreign molecules that are injected into the eye, cone outer segments and injured photoreceptors...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691584/fibrin-gel-as-a-scaffold-for-photoreceptor-cells-differentiation-from-conjunctiva-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-retina-tissue-engineering
#10
Mostafa Soleimannejad, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Masoud Soleimani, Samad Nadri, Seyed Mohammad Tavangar, Ramak Roohipoor, Meysam Yazdankhah, Neda Bayat, Mohammad Riazi-Esfahani, Jafar Ai
Stem cell-based therapies are attraction approaches for regenerative medicine for treating retinal diseases. One of the limitations in cell therapy is cell death following post-injection whit preventing functional integration with retinal tissue. Fibrin gel, a bio-polymeric material with excellent biocompatibility, provides numerous advantages as a tissue engineering scaffold and a stem cell carrier. Therefore, current research is focusing on developing fibrin hydrogel scaffolds to protect stem cells during delivery and to stimulate endogenous regeneration through interactions of transplanted stem cells and retinal tissue...
July 10, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672005/fatty-acid-transport-protein-1-regulates-retinoid-metabolism-and-photoreceptor-development-in-mouse-retina
#11
Aurélie Cubizolle, Laurent Guillou, Bertrand Mollereau, Christian P Hamel, Philippe Brabet
In retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), RPE65 catalyzes the isomerization of all-trans-retinyl fatty acid esters to 11-cis-retinol in the visual cycle and controls the rhodopsin regeneration rate. However, the mechanisms by which these processes are regulated are still unclear. Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1) is involved in fatty acid uptake and lipid metabolism in a variety of cell types. FATP1 co-localizes with RPE65 in RPE and inhibits its isomerase activity in vitro. Here, we further investigated the role of FATP1 in the visual cycle using transgenic mice that overexpress human FATP1 specifically in the RPE (hFATP1TG mice)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664762/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-based-therapy-for-age-related-macular-degeneration
#12
Peter Bracha, Nicholas A Moore, Thomas A Ciulla
In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), stem cells could possibly replace or regenerate disrupted pathologic retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and produce supportive growth factors and cytokines such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor.  Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-derived RPE was first subretinally transplanted in a neovascular AMD patient in 2014. Areas covered: Induced PSCs are derived from the introduction of transcription factors to adult cells under specific cell culture conditions, followed by differentiation into RPE cells...
June 30, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656312/nogo-receptor-knockdown-and-ciliary-neurotrophic-factor-attenuate-diabetic-retinopathy-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#13
Xiliang Guo, Xuezheng Liu
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). We investigated whether Nogo receptor (NgR) knockdown and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) treatment, either alone or in combination, ameliorated diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic rat model. STZ‑induced diabetic rats were administrated for a total of 12 weeks with 3 µM siRNA (5 µl) once every 6 weeks and/or 1 µg CNTF weekly. The retinal tissues were excised. We measured cell number in ganglion cell layer (GCL) using H&E staining and cell apoptosis using TUNEL assay...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643368/cell-lineage-tracing-in-the-retina-could-material-transfer-distort-conclusions
#14
Camille Boudreau-Pinsonneault, Michel Cayouette
Recent studies reported the transfer of fluorescent labels between grafted and host cells after transplantation of photoreceptor precursor cells in the mouse retina. While clearly impacting the interpretation of transplantation studies in the retina, the potential impact of material transfer in other experimental paradigms using cell-specific labels remains uncertain. Here, we briefly review the evidence supporting material transfer in transplantation studies and discuss whether it might influence retinal cell lineage tracing experiments in developmental and regeneration studies...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643176/a-promising-tool-in-retina-regeneration-current-perspectives-and-challenges-when-using-mesenchymal-progenitor-stem-cells-in-veterinary-and-human-ophthalmological-applications
#15
REVIEW
Anna Cislo-Pakuluk, Krzysztof Marycz
Visual impairment is a common ailment of the current world population, with more exposure to CCD screens and fluorescent lighting, approximately 285 billion people suffer from this deficiency and 13% of those are considered clinically blind. More common causes for visual impairment include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy (Zhu et al. Molecular Medicine Reports, 2015; Kolb et al. 2007; Machalińska et al. Current Eye Research, 34(9),748-760, 2009) among a few. As cases of retinal and optic nerve diseases rise, it is vital to find a treatment, which has led to investigation of the therapeutic potential of various stem cells types (Bull et al...
June 22, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641110/sox11-expression-promotes-regeneration-of-some-retinal-ganglion-cell-types-but-kills-others
#16
Michael W Norsworthy, Fengfeng Bei, Riki Kawaguchi, Qing Wang, Nicholas M Tran, Yi Li, Benedikt Brommer, Yiming Zhang, Chen Wang, Joshua R Sanes, Giovanni Coppola, Zhigang He
At least 30 types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) send distinct messages through the optic nerve to the brain. Available strategies of promoting axon regeneration act on only some of these types. Here we tested the hypothesis that overexpressing developmentally important transcription factors in adult RGCs could reprogram them to a "youthful" growth-competent state and promote regeneration of other types. From a screen of transcription factors, we identified Sox11 as one that could induce substantial axon regeneration...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632489/the-effects-of-platelet-gel-on-cultured-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#17
Sahar Balagholi, Shaban Alizadeh, Abouzar Bagheri, Yashar Amizadeh, Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi
The positive role of platelet gel (PG) in tissue regeneration is well known, however, other characteristics of PG still remain to be determined. We investigated cellular and molecular changes in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells when treated with different concentrations of PG named PG1, PG2, and PG3. hRPE cells were isolated from donor eyes of two newborn children, within 24 hours after their death. The cells were treated with three concentrations of PG for 7 days: 3 × 104/ml (PG1), 6 × 104/ml (PG2), and 9 × 104/ml (PG3)...
June 20, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630333/boosting-cns-axon-regeneration-by-harnessing-antagonistic-effects-of-gsk3-activity
#18
Marco Leibinger, Anastasia Andreadaki, Renate Golla, Evgeny Levin, Alexander M Hilla, Heike Diekmann, Dietmar Fischer
Implications of GSK3 activity for axon regeneration are often inconsistent, if not controversial. Sustained GSK3 activity in GSK3(S/A) knock-in mice reportedly accelerates peripheral nerve regeneration via increased MAP1B phosphorylation and concomitantly reduces microtubule detyrosination. In contrast, the current study shows that lens injury-stimulated optic nerve regeneration was significantly compromised in these knock-in mice. Phosphorylation of MAP1B and CRMP2 was expectedly increased in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons upon enhanced GSK3 activity, but, surprisingly, no GSK3-mediated CRMP2 inhibition was detected in sciatic nerves, thus revealing a fundamental difference between central and peripheral axons...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616037/correlation-between-photoreceptor-injury-regeneration-and-behavior-in-a-zebrafish-model
#19
Ya-Jie Wang, Shi-Jiao Cai, Jian-Lin Cui, Yang Chen, Xin Tang, Yu-Hao Li
Direct exposure to intensive visible light can lead to solar retinopathy, including macular injury. The signs and symptoms include central scotoma, metamorphopsia, and decreased vision. However, there have been few studies examining retinal injury due to intensive light stimulation at the cellular level. Neural network arrangements and gene expression patterns in zebrafish photoreceptors are similar to those observed in humans, and photoreceptor injury in zebrafish can induce stem cell-based cellular regeneration...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596336/regenerating-optic-pathways-from-the-eye-to-the-brain
#20
REVIEW
Bireswar Laha, Ben K Stafford, Andrew D Huberman
Humans are highly visual. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the neurons that connect the eyes to the brain, fail to regenerate after damage, eventually leading to blindness. Here, we review research on regeneration and repair of the optic system. Intrinsic developmental growth programs can be reactivated in RGCs, neural activity can enhance RGC regeneration, and functional reformation of eye-to-brain connections is possible, even in the adult brain. Transplantation and gene therapy may serve to replace or resurrect dead or injured retinal neurons...
June 9, 2017: Science
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