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Retinal regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782973/enhanced-retinal-pigment-epithelium-rpe-regeneration-using-curcumin-alginate-hydrogels-in-vitro-evaluation
#1
Jong Ho Park, Eun Yeong Shin, Myeong Eun Shin, Min Joung Choi, Cristiano Carlomagno, Jeong Eun Song, Gilson Khang
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays a significant role in retaining structural integrity of eye. Factors such as reduction in cell regeneration due to aging and physical injury pose a major hurdle in RPE regeneration. In this study, we exploited the use of alginate (AGT) incorporated with Curcumin (CCI) forming a hydrogel based system CCI/AGT. The fabricated hydrogel could anchor RPE cell in it. In vitro cell analysis revealed that the CCI/AGT hydrogel shows good biocompatibility, enhanced cell growth ability and higher ECM formation compared to the pure AGT hydrogel...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768445/nogo-receptor-1-is-expressed-by-nearly-all-retinal-ganglion-cells
#2
Alexander M Solomon, Teleza Westbrook, Greg D Field, Aaron W McGee
A variety of conditions ranging from glaucoma to blunt force trauma lead to optic nerve atrophy. Identifying signaling pathways for stimulating axon growth in the optic nerve may lead to treatments for these pathologies. Inhibiting signaling by the nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1) promotes the re-extension of axons following a crush injury to the optic nerve, and while NgR1 mRNA and protein expression are observed in the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer and inner nuclear layer, which retinal cell types express NgR1 remains unknown...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766041/report-on-the-national-eye-institute-s-audacious-goals-initiative-creating-a-cellular-environment-for-neuroregeneration
#3
Marie E Burns, Beth Stevens
The cellular environment of the CNS is non-permissive for growth and regeneration. In the retina, transplantation of stem cells has been limited by inefficient survival and integration into existing circuits. In November 2016, as part of the National Eye Institute's Audacious Goals Initiative (AGI), a diverse collection of investigators gathered for a workshop devoted to articulating the gaps in knowledge, barriers to progress, and ideas for new approaches to understanding cellular environments within the retina and how these environments may be manipulated...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753729/controlled-microenvironments-to-evaluate-chemotactic-properties-of-cultured-m%C3%A3-ller-glia
#4
Juan Pena, Nihan Dulger, Tanya Singh, Jing Zhou, Robert Majeska, Stephen Redenti, Maribel Vazquez
Emerging therapies have begun to evaluate the abilities of Müller glial cells (MGCs) to protect and/or regenerate neurons following retina injury. The migration of donor cells is central to many reparative strategies, where cells must achieve appropriate positioning to facilitate localized repair. Although chemical cues have been implicated in the MGC migratory responses of numerous retinopathies, MGC-based therapies have yet to explore the extent to which external biochemical stimuli can direct MGC behavior...
May 10, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744761/microstructural-retinal-regeneration-after-internal-limiting-membrane-flap-surgery-for-repair-of-large-macular-holes-a-1-year-follow-up-study
#5
Max Vieregge, Christophe Valmaggia, Hendrik P N Scholl, Josef Guber
PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term change in functional and structural outcomes after successful repair of large macular holes (MH) with internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap techniques. METHODS: Eleven consecutive patients were reviewed over a 1-year time period after the successful repair of large MH with ILM flap techniques. SD-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images were taken to assess the anatomical outcome after surgery, while the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was tested using Snellen charts to evaluate the functional outcome...
May 9, 2018: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721968/alternative-splicing-for-activation-of-coagulation-factor-xiii-a-in-the-fish-retina-after-optic-nerve-injury
#6
Kayo Sugitani, Yoshiki Koriyama, Kazuhiro Ogai, Ayako Furukawa, Satoru Kato
Factor XIII-A (FXIII-A), which has become known as cellular transglutaminase, plays important roles in mediating cross-linking reactions in various tissues. FXIII-A acts as one of the regeneration molecules in the fish retina and optic nerve after optic nerve injury and becomes activated at the site of injury within a few hours. Previous research has shown that activated FXIII-A induces neurite outgrowth from injured retinal ganglion cells and supports elongation of the regenerating optic nerve. However, the activation mechanism of FXIII-A remains unknown...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719254/let-7-microrna-mediated-regulation-of-shh-signaling-and-the-gene-regulatory-network-is-essential-for-retina-regeneration
#7
Simran Kaur, Shivangi Gupta, Mansi Chaudhary, Mohammad Anwar Khursheed, Soumitra Mitra, Akshai Janardhana Kurup, Rajesh Ramachandran
Upon injury, Müller glia cells of the zebrafish retina reprogram themselves to progenitor cells with stem cell characteristics. This necessity for retina regeneration is often compromised in mammals. We explored the significance of developmentally inevitable Sonic hedgehog signaling and found its necessity in MG reprogramming during retina regeneration. We report on stringent translational regulation of sonic hedgehog, smoothened, and patched1 by let-7 microRNA, which is regulated by Lin28a, in Müller glia (MG)-derived progenitor cells (MGPCs)...
May 1, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713644/the-therapeutic-effects-after-transplantation-of-whole-layer-olfactory-mucosa-in-rats-with-optic-nerve-injury
#8
Shun Gong, Hai Jin, Danfeng Zhang, Wei Zou, Chunhui Wang, Zhenxing Li, Rongbin Chen, Yan Dong, Lijun Hou
Background: Existing evidence suggests the potential therapy of transplanting olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) either alone or in combination with neurotrophic factors or other cell types in optic nerve injury (ONI). However, clinical use of autologous OEC in the acute stages of ONI is not possible. On the other hand, acute application of heterologous transplantation may bring the issue of immune rejection. The olfactory mucosa (OM) with OEC in the lamina propria layer is located in the upper region of the nasal cavity and is easy to dissect under nasal endoscopy, which makes it a candidate as autograft material in acute stages of ONI...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709341/inhibition-of-mir-21-ameliorates-excessive-astrocyte-activation-and-promotes-axon-regeneration-following-optic-nerve-crush
#9
Hong-Jiang Li, Yuan-Bo Pan, Zhao-Liang Sun, Yi-Yu Sun, Xi-Tao Yang, Dong-Fu Feng
Optic nerve injury is a leading cause of irreversible visual impairment worldwide and can even cause blindness. Excessive activation of astrocytes has negative effects on the repair and recovery of retinal ganglion cells following optic nerve injury. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying astrocyte activation after optic nerve injury remain largely unknown. In the present study, we explored the effects of microRNA-21 (miR-21) on axon regeneration and flash visual evoked potential (F-VEP) and the underlying mechanisms of these effects based on astrocyte activation in the rat model of optic nerve crush (ONC)...
April 27, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696141/enhancing-understanding-of-the-visual-cycle-by-applying-crispr-cas9-gene-editing-in-zebrafish
#10
REVIEW
Rebecca Ward, Husvinee Sundaramurthi, Valeria Di Giacomo, Breandán N Kennedy
During the vertebrate visual cycle, all- trans -retinal is exported from photoreceptors to the adjacent RPE or Müller glia wherein 11- cis -retinal is regenerated. The 11- cis chromophore is returned to photoreceptors, forming light-sensitive visual pigments with opsin GPCRs. Dysfunction of this process perturbs phototransduction because functional visual pigment cannot be generated. Mutations in visual cycle genes can result in monogenic inherited forms of blindness. Though key enzymatic processes are well characterized, questions remain as to the physiological role of visual cycle proteins in different retinal cell types, functional domains of these proteins in retinoid biochemistry and in vivo pathogenesis of disease mutations...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684583/a-novel-rpe65-inhibitor-cu239-suppresses-visual-cycle-and-prevents-retinal-degeneration
#11
Younghwa Shin, Gennadiy Moiseyev, Konstantin Petrukhin, Christopher L Cioffi, Parthasarathy Muthuraman, Yusuke Takahashi, Jian-Xing Ma
The retinoid visual cycle is an ocular retinoid metabolism specifically dedicated to support vertebrate vision. The visual cycle serves not only to generate light-sensitive visual chromophore 11-cis-retinal, but also to clear toxic byproducts of normal visual cycle (i.e. all-trans-retinal and its condensation products) from the retina, ensuring both the visual function and the retinal health. Unfortunately, various conditions including genetic predisposition, environment and aging may attribute to a functional decline of the all-trans-retinal clearance...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666392/synthetic-9-cis-beta-carotene-inhibits-photoreceptor-degeneration-in-cultures-of-eye-cups-from-rpe65rd12-mouse-model-of-retinoid-cycle-defect
#12
Ifat Sher, Adi Tzameret, Sara Peri-Chen, Victoria Edelshtain, Michael Ioffe, Alon Sayer, Ludmila Buzhansky, Ehud Gazit, Ygal Rotenstreich
The retinoid cycle enzymes regenerate the visual chromophore 11-cis retinal to enable vision. Mutations in the genes encoding the proteins of the retinoid cycle are the leading cause for recessively inherited retinal dystrophies such as retinitis pigmentosa, Leber congenital amaurosis, congenital cone-rod dystrophy and fundus albipunctatus. Currently there is no treatment for these blinding diseases. In previous studies we demonstrated that oral treatment with the 9-cis-β-carotene rich Dunaliella Bardawil algae powder significantly improved visual and retinal functions in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and fundus albipunctatus...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659842/insights-into-the-pathogenesis-of-dominant-retinitis-pigmentosa-associated-with-a-d477g-mutation-in-rpe65
#13
Elliot H Choi, Susie Suh, Christopher L Sander, Christian J Ortiz Hernandez, Elizabeth R Bulman, Nimesh Khadka, Zhiqian Dong, Wuxian Shi, Krzysztof Palczewski, Philip D Kiser
RPE65 is the essential trans-cis isomerase of the classical retinoid (visual) cycle. Mutations in RPE65 give rise to severe retinal dystrophies, most of which are associated with loss of protein function and recessive inheritance. The only known exception is a c.1430G>A (D477G) mutation that gives rise to dominant retinitis pigmentosa with delayed onset and choroidal and macular involvement. Position 477 is distant from functionally critical regions of RPE65. Hence, the mechanism of D477G pathogenicity remains unclear, although protein misfolding and aggregation mechanisms have been suggested...
April 12, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625455/release-of-different-cell-mediators-during-retinal-pigment-epithelium-regeneration-following-selective-retina-therapy
#14
Elisabeth Richert, Stefan Koinzer, Jan Tode, Kerstin Schlott, Ralf Brinkmann, Jost Hillenkamp, Alexa Klettner, Johann Roider
Purpose: To investigate the effect of selective retina therapy (SRT) on the release of AMD-relevant cell mediators, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), VEGF, and pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) using different laser spot sizes and densities. Methods: Porcine RPE-choroid explants were treated with a pulsed 532 nm Nd:YAG laser using (1) large spot sizes, (2) small spot sizes with a high-density (hd) treatment, and (3) small spot sizes with a low-density (ld) treatment...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615737/longterm-reversal-of-severe-visual-loss-by-mitochondrial-gene-transfer-in-a-mouse-model-of-leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy
#15
Hong Yu, Vittorio Porciatti, Alfred Lewin, William Hauswirth, John Guy
In many human disorders mitochondrial dysfunction is central to degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. As these cells do not regenerate, vision is irreversibly lost. Here we show reversal of visual dysfunction by a mitochondrially targeted adeno associated virus in transgenic mice harboring a G11778A mutation in the ND4 subunit of complex I persists longterm and it is associated with reduced loss of RGCs and their axons, improved oxidative phosphorylation, persistence of transferred ND4 DNA and transcription of ND4 mRNA...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593298/opn5l1-is-a-retinal-receptor-that-behaves-as-a-reverse-and-self-regenerating-photoreceptor
#16
Keita Sato, Takahiro Yamashita, Hideyo Ohuchi, Atsuko Takeuchi, Hitoshi Gotoh, Katsuhiko Ono, Misao Mizuno, Yasuhisa Mizutani, Sayuri Tomonari, Kazumi Sakai, Yasushi Imamoto, Akimori Wada, Yoshinori Shichida
Most opsins are G protein-coupled receptors that utilize retinal both as a ligand and as a chromophore. Opsins' main established mechanism is light-triggered activation through retinal 11-cis-to-all-trans photoisomerization. Here we report a vertebrate non-visual opsin that functions as a Gi-coupled retinal receptor that is deactivated by light and can thermally self-regenerate. This opsin, Opn5L1, binds exclusively to all-trans-retinal. More interestingly, the light-induced deactivation through retinal trans-to-cis isomerization is followed by formation of a covalent adduct between retinal and a nearby cysteine, which breaks the retinal-conjugated double bond system, probably at the C11 position, resulting in thermal re-isomerization to all-trans-retinal...
March 28, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590586/human-blue-cone-opsin-regeneration-involves-secondary-retinal-binding-with-analog-specificity
#17
Sundaramoorthy Srinivasan, Miguel A Fernández-Sampedro, Margarita Morillo, Eva Ramon, Mireia Jiménez-Rosés, Arnau Cordomí, Pere Garriga
Human color vision is mediated by the red, green, and blue cone visual pigments. Cone opsins are G-protein-coupled receptors consisting of an opsin apoprotein covalently linked to the 11-cis-retinal chromophore. All visual pigments share a common evolutionary origin, and red and green cone opsins exhibit a higher homology, whereas blue cone opsin shows more resemblance to the dim light receptor rhodopsin. Here we show that chromophore regeneration in photoactivated blue cone opsin exhibits intermediate transient conformations and a secondary retinoid binding event with slower binding kinetics...
March 27, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569173/ultrastructural-changes-and-expression-of-pcna-and-rpe65-in-sodium-iodate-induced-acute-retinal-pigment-epithelium-degeneration-model
#18
Hong-Lim Kim, Sung Min Nam, Byung-Joon Chang, Sang-Soep Nahm, Jong-Hwan Lee
Alteration in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) results in the visual dysfunction and blindness of retinal degenerative diseases. Injection of sodium iodate (NaIO3 ) generates degeneration of RPE. We analyzed the sequential ultrastructure and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and retina-specific RPE65 in NaIO3 -induced retinal degeneration model. Adult male rats were injected 1% NaIO3 (50 mg/kg) and eyes were enucleated at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days post-injection (DPI), fixed, and processed for histological analysis...
March 22, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564783/rpe-visual-cycle-and-biochemical-phenotypes-of-mutant-mouse-models
#19
Bhubanananda Sahu, Akiko Maeda
The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is a single layer of polarized epithelial cells which plays many important roles for visual function. One of such roles is production of visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal through the visual cycle. The visual cycle consists of biochemical processes for regenerating chromophore by a collective action of the RPE and photoreceptor. Photoreceptors harbor the G protein-coupled receptors, opsin which enables to receive light when it bounds to 11-cis-retinal. With absorption of a photon of light, 11-cis-retinal photoisomerizes to all-trans-retinal...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560825/uncovering-the-regeneration-strategies-of-zebrafish-organs-a-comprehensive-systems-biology-study-on-heart-cerebellum-fin-and-retina-regeneration
#20
Fang-Yu Liu, Te-Cheng Hsu, Patrick Choong, Min-Hsuan Lin, Yung-Jen Chuang, Bor-Sen Chen, Che Lin
BACKGROUND: Regeneration is an important biological process for the restoration of organ mass, structure, and function after damage, and involves complex bio-physiological mechanisms including cell differentiation and immune responses. We constructed four regenerative protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks using dynamic models and AIC (Akaike's Information Criterion), based on time-course microarray data from the regeneration of four zebrafish organs: heart, cerebellum, fin, and retina...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
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