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Retinal regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342012/diffuse-chorioretinopathy-without-serous-detachment-associated-with-cardiac-transplantation
#1
Michael F Marmor
PURPOSE: To analyze an unusual case of widespread chorioretinopathy after cardiac transplantation for its potential etiology and clinical significance. METHODS: Clinical examinations included widefield and macular color and fundus autofluorescence photography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography, full-field electroretinography, and Goldmann visual fields. PATIENT: A 44-year-old Hispanic woman was referred to rule out retinitis pigmentosa...
January 16, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340649/optic-nerve-regeneration-after-crush-remodels-the-injury-site-molecular-insights-from-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#2
David T Stark, David M G Anderson, Jacky M K Kwong, Nathan Heath Patterson, Kevin L Schey, Richard M Caprioli, Joseph Caprioli
Purpose: Mammalian central nervous system axons fail to regenerate after injury. Contributing factors include limited intrinsic growth capacity and an inhibitory glial environment. Inflammation-induced optic nerve regeneration (IIR) is thought to boost retinal ganglion cell (RGC) intrinsic growth capacity through progrowth gene expression, but effects on the inhibitory glial environment of the optic nerve are unexplored. To investigate progrowth molecular changes associated with reactive gliosis during IIR, we developed an imaging mass spectrometry (IMS)-based approach that identifies discriminant molecular signals in and around optic nerve crush (ONC) sites...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241535/strict-independence-of-parallel-and-poly-synaptic-axon-target-matching-during-visual-reflex-circuit-assembly
#3
Tania A Seabrook, Onkar S Dhande, Nao Ishiko, Victoria P Wooley, Phong L Nguyen, Andrew D Huberman
The use of sensory information to drive specific behaviors relies on circuits spanning long distances that wire up through a range of axon-target recognition events. Mechanisms assembling poly-synaptic circuits and the extent to which parallel pathways can "cross-wire" to compensate for loss of one another remain unclear and are crucial to our understanding of brain development and models of regeneration. In the visual system, specific retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) project to designated midbrain targets connected to downstream circuits driving visuomotor reflexes...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239312/endogenous-retinal-neural-stem-cell-reprogramming-for-neuronal-regeneration
#4
REVIEW
Romain Madelaine, Philippe Mourrain
In humans, optic nerve injuries and associated neurodegenerative diseases are often followed by permanent vision loss. Consequently, an important challenge is to develop safe and effective methods to replace retinal neurons and thereby restore neuronal functions and vision. Identifying cellular and molecular mechanisms allowing to replace damaged neurons is a major goal for basic and translational research in regenerative medicine. Contrary to mammals, the zebrafish has the capacity to fully regenerate entire parts of the nervous system, including retina...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234527/sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-modulates-cntf-induced-axonal-growth-and-neuroprotection-in-the-mouse-visual-system
#5
Sandrine Joly, Deniz Dalkara, Vincent Pernet
The lack of axonal regeneration and neuronal cell death causes permanent neurological deficits in the injured CNS. Using the classical CNS injury model of optic nerve crush in mice, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was found to stimulate retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axonal growth, but in an incomplete fashion. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms impairing CNTF-induced axonal regeneration is paramount to promote visual recovery. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the contribution of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) to the neuroprotective and regenerative effects of CNTF...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225722/cellular-senescence-in-age-related-macular-degeneration-can-autophagy-and-dna-damage-response-play-a-role
#6
REVIEW
Janusz Blasiak, Malgorzata Piechota, Elzbieta Pawlowska, Magdalena Szatkowska, Ewa Sikora, Kai Kaarniranta
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main reason of blindness in developed countries. Aging is the main AMD risk factor. Oxidative stress, inflammation and some genetic factors play a role in AMD pathogenesis. AMD is associated with the degradation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, photoreceptors, and choriocapillaris. Lost RPE cells in the central retina can be replaced by their peripheral counterparts. However, if they are senescent, degenerated regions in the macula cannot be regenerated...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218308/opportunities-for-crispr-cas9-gene-editing-in-retinal-regeneration-research
#7
REVIEW
Leah J Campbell, David R Hyde
While retinal degeneration and disease results in permanent damage and vision loss in humans, the severely damaged zebrafish retina has a high capacity to regenerate lost neurons and restore visual behaviors. Advancements in understanding the molecular and cellular basis of this regeneration response give hope that strategies and therapeutics may be developed to restore sight to blind and visually-impaired individuals. Our current understanding has been facilitated by the amenability of zebrafish to molecular tools, imaging techniques, and forward and reverse genetic approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207059/therapeutic-effect-of-adipose%C3%A2-derived-stem-cell-transplantation-on-optic-nerve-injury-in-rats
#8
Xu Li, Shanyao Zhao, Liangjun Wang
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are mesenchymal stem cells in adipose tissue. ADSCs may differentiate into cells and tissues of different embryonic germ layers under specific inducing conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated that Schwann cells transformed from ADSCs can express nerve growth factors, generate nerve fibers and promote axonal regeneration in models of peripheral nerve injury. Stem cell transplantation is one of the potential techniques for the treatment of retinal ganglion cell injury...
November 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204649/aav2-mediated-transduction-of-the-mouse-retina-after-optic-nerve-injury
#9
Robert W Nickells, Heather M Schmitt, Margaret E Maes, Cassandra L Schlamp
Purpose: Gene therapy of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) has promise as a powerful therapeutic for the rescue and regeneration of these cells after optic nerve damage. However, early after damage, RGCs undergo atrophic changes, including gene silencing. It is not known if these changes will deleteriously affect transduction and transgene expression, or if the therapeutic protein can influence reactivation of the endogenous genome. Methods: Double-transgenic mice carrying a Rosa26-(LoxP)-tdTomato reporter, and a mutant allele for the proapoptotic Bax gene were reared...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202717/ten-years-follow-up-after-surgery-for-a-foveal-detachment-due-to-optic-disc-pit-a-case-report-of-outer-retinal-layer-healing
#10
Audrey Giocanti-Aurégan, Elige A Chbat, Christophe G H Morel, Bruno R Morin, John G Conrath, François C Devin
BACKGROUND: To report a case of complete progressive visual recovery and healing of outer retinal layers after vitrectomy for foveal detachment associated with optic disc pit. CASE PRESENTATION: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) follow-up was performed on a 15-year-old boy with deep optic disc pit and foveal detachment, before and for 10 years after vitrectomy with gas. The foveal detachment was successfully reattached with complete reapplication of the retina...
December 4, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196317/an-image-based-mirna-screen-identifies-mirna-135s-as-regulators-of-cns-axon-growth-and-regeneration-by-targeting-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-4
#11
Eljo Y van Battum, Marieke G Verhagen, Vamshidhar R Vangoor, Yuki Fujita, Alwin A H A Derijck, Eoghan O'Duibhir, Giuliano Giuliani, Thijs de Gunst, Youri Adolfs, Daphne Lelieveld, David Egan, Roel Q J Schaapveld, Toshihide Yamashita, R Jeroen Pasterkamp
During embryonic development, axons extend over long distances to establish functional connections. In contrast, axon regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is limited, in part by a reduced intrinsic capacity for axon growth. Therefore, insight into the intrinsic control of axon growth may provide new avenues for enhancing CNS regeneration. Here, we performed one of the first miRNome-wide functional miRNA screens to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) with robust effects on axon growth. High-content screening identified miR-135a and miR-135b as potent stimulators of axon growth and cortical neuron migration in vitro and in vivo in male and female mice...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193451/retinoic-acid-signaling-regulates-the-proliferative-and-neurogenic-capacity-of-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-derived-progenitor-cells-in-the-avian-retina
#12
Levi Todd, Lilianna Suarez, Colin Quinn, Andy J Fischer
In the retina, Müller glia have the potential to become progenitor cells with the ability to proliferate and regenerate neurons. However, the ability of Müller glia-derived progenitor cells (MGPCs) to proliferate and produce neurons is limited in higher vertebrates. Using the chick model system, we investigate how retinoic acid (RA)-signaling influences the proliferation and the formation of MGPCs. We observed an upregulation of cellular RA binding proteins (CRABP) in the Müller glia of damaged retinas where the formation of MGPCs is known to occur...
November 27, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190028/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-methods-for-studying-retinal-ganglion-cell-survival-and-optic-nerve-regeneration
#13
Yuqin Yin, Larry I Benowitz
Glaucoma is marked by a progressive degeneration of the optic nerve and delayed loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the projection neurons of the eye. Because RGCs are not replaced and because surviving RGCs cannot regenerate their axons, the visual loss in glaucoma is largely irreversible. Here, we describe methods to evaluate treatments that may be beneficial for treating glaucoma using in vitro cell culture models (immunopanning to isolate neonatal RGCs, dissociated mature retinal neurons, retinal explants) and in vivo models that test potential treatments or investigate underlying molecular mechanisms in an intact system...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189905/complementary-research-models-and-methods-to-study-axonal-regeneration-in-the-vertebrate-retinofugal-system
#14
REVIEW
Ilse Bollaerts, Lien Veys, Emiel Geeraerts, Lien Andries, Lies De Groef, Tom Buyens, Manuel Salinas-Navarro, Lieve Moons, Inge Van Hove
Due to the lack of axonal regeneration, age-related deterioration in the central nervous system (CNS) poses a significant burden on the wellbeing of a growing number of elderly. To overcome this regenerative failure and to improve the patient's life quality, the search for novel regenerative treatment strategies requires valuable (animal) models and techniques. As an extension of the CNS, the retinofugal system, consisting of retinal ganglion cells that send their axons along the optic nerve to the visual brain areas, has importantly contributed to the current knowledge on mechanisms underlying the restricted regenerative capacities and to the development of novel strategies to enhance axonal regeneration...
November 30, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188796/in-situ-regeneration-of-retinal-pigment-epithelium-by-gene-transfer-of-e2f2-a-potential-strategy-for-treatment-of-macular-degenerations
#15
D Kampik, M Basche, U F O Luhmann, K M Nishiguchi, J A E Williams, J Greenwood, S E Moss, H Han, S Azam, Y Duran, S J Robbie, J W B Bainbridge, D F Larkin, A J Smith, R R Ali
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) interacts closely with photoreceptors to maintain visual function. In degenerative diseases such as Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, RPE cell loss is followed by photoreceptor cell death. RPE cells can proliferate under certain conditions, suggesting an intrinsic regenerative potential, but so far this has not been utilised therapeutically. Here, we used E2F2 to induce RPE cell replication and thereby regeneration...
November 30, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176876/neuroprotection-and-neuroregeneration-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-after-intravitreal-carbon-monoxide-release
#16
Julia Stifter, Felix Ulbrich, Ulrich Goebel, Daniel Böhringer, Wolf Alexander Lagrèze, Julia Biermann
PURPOSE: Retinal ischemia induces apoptosis leading to neurodegeneration and vision impairment. Carbon monoxide (CO) in gaseous form showed cell-protective and anti-inflammatory effects after retinal ischemia-reperfusion-injury (IRI). These effects were also demonstrated for the intravenously administered CO-releasing molecule (CORM) ALF-186. This article summarizes the results of intravitreally released CO to assess its suitability as a neuroprotective and neuroregenerative agent. METHODS: Water-soluble CORM ALF-186 (25 μg), PBS, or inactivated ALF (iALF) (all 5 μl) were intravitreally applied into the left eyes of rats directly after retinal IRI for 1 h...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160102/improving-the-infection-of-bone-marrow-derived-cells-with-an-integrase-defective-lentiviral-vector
#17
S Louise Pay, Xiaoping Qi, Jeffrey F Willard, Juliana Godoy, Kavya Sankhavaram, Ranier Horton, Sayak K Mitter, Judith Quigley, Chang Lung-Ji, Maria B Grant, Michael E Boulton
In lentiviral vector (LV) applications where transient transgene expression is sufficient, integrase-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) are beneficial for reducing the potential for off-target effects associated with insertional mutagenesis. We previously demonstrated that human RPE65 mRNA expression from an integrating lentiviral vector (ILV) induces endogenous Rpe65 and Cralbp mRNA expression in murine bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs), initiating programming of the cells to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-like cells...
November 21, 2017: Human Gene Therapy Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155720/m%C3%A3-ller-glia-cell-activation-in-a-laser-induced-retinal-degeneration-and-regeneration-model-in-zebrafish
#18
Federica M Conedera, Petra Arendt, Carolyn Trepp, Markus Tschopp, Volker Enzmann
A fascinating difference between teleost and mammals is the lifelong potential of the teleost retina for retinal neurogenesis and regeneration after severe damage. Investigating the regeneration pathways in zebrafish might bring new insights to develop innovative strategies for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in mammals. Herein, we focused on the induction of a focal lesion to the outer retina in adult zebrafish by means of a 532 nm diode laser. A localized injury allows investigating biological processes that take place during retinal degeneration and regeneration directly at the area of damage...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152454/recent-advances-in-retinal-stem-cell-therapy
#19
Sujoy Bhattacharya, Rajashekhar Gangaraju, Edward Chaum
Purpose of review: Progress in stem cell research for blinding diseases over the past decade is now being applied to patients with retinal degenerative diseases and soon perhaps, glaucoma. However, the field still has much to learn about the conversion of stem cells into various retinal cell types, and the potential delivery methods that will be required to optimize the clinical efficacy of stem cells delivered into the eye. Recent findings: Recent groundbreaking human clinical trials have demonstrated both the opportunities and current limitations of stem cell transplantation for retinal diseases...
September 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133431/restoration-of-dendritic-complexity-functional-connectivity-and-diversity-of-regenerated-retinal-bipolar-neurons-in-adult-zebrafish
#20
Timothy E McGinn, Diana M Mitchell, Peter C Meighan, Natalie Partington, Dylan C Leoni, Christina E Jenkins, Michael D Varnum, Deborah L Stenkamp
Adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are capable of regenerating retinal neurons that have been lost due to mechanical, chemical, or light damage. In the case of chemical damage, there is evidence that visually-mediated behaviors are restored following regeneration, consistent with recovery of retinal function. However, the extent to which regenerated retinal neurons attain appropriate morphologies and circuitry after such tissue-disrupting lesions has not been investigated. Adult zebrafish of both sexes were subjected to intravitreal injections of ouabain, which destroys the inner retina...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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