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pediatric epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777895/asymmetry-of-cerebral-peduncles-for-predicting-motor-function-restoration-in-young-patients-before-hemispherectomy
#1
Xiu-Yu Du, Si-Chang Chen, Yu-Guang Guan, Jing-Jing Gu, Meng Zhao, Tian-Fu Li, Jun-Hong Pan, Guo-Ming Luan
OBJECTIVE: Hemispherectomy has been successfully used for medically intractable epilepsy patients. However, it is difficult to predict postoperative motor function. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the preoperative asymmetry of cerebral peduncles could be used to predict motor function restoration before hemispherectomy for young patients with medically intractable epilepsy. METHODS: The clinical record and MRI data of 53 patients were retrospectively analyzed...
May 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772401/evaluation-ofserum-free-carnitine-acylcarnitine-levels-and-left-ventricular-systolic-functions-in-children-with-idiopathic-epilepsy-receiving-valproic-acid
#2
Ilknur Kulhas Celik, Haydar Ali Tasdemir, Hülya Ince, Halil Celik, Metin Sungur
OBJECTIVES: In the study, the effect of valproic acid on serum free/acylcarnitine levels and left ventricular systolic function in pediatric patients with idiopathic epilepsy receiving valproic acid was investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients receiving valproic acid treatment for six months between January 2012 and December 2012 were evaluated. Blood samples were obtained from the participants twice (pretreatment and the sixth month of treatment) and serum-free and acylcarnitine levels (from C2 to C18:1-OH) were measured using tandem mass spectrometry...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763644/immunomodulatory-effect-of-celecoxib-on-hmgb1-tlr4-pathway-in-a-recurrent-seizures-model-in-immature-rats
#3
Mariana Morales-Sosa, Sandra Orozco-Suárez, AngélicaVega-García, Sara Caballero-Chacón, Iris A Feria-Romero
Epileptic seizures constitute an important problem in pediatric neurology during the developmental period. The frequency and nosological significance of seizures, as well as their association with epileptogenesis, may be related to underlying mechanisms such as neuroinflammation. Those mechanisms of response activate inflammatory molecules induced in the neurons, activated glial cells and endothelial cells via the key HMGB1/TLR4 pathway. In this study, the drug celecoxib (CCX) was used as a blocker of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and HMGB1/TLR-4 pathways...
May 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761351/economic-evaluation-of-stiripentol-for-dravet-syndrome-a-cost-utility-analysis
#4
Jesse Elliott, Bláthnaid McCoy, Tammy Clifford, George A Wells, Doug Coyle
BACKGROUND: Dravet syndrome is a catastrophic form of pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy with few effective treatment options. Stiripentol is approved for use in Canada for treatment of Dravet syndrome, but the associated long-term costs and benefits have not been well-studied and its cost effectiveness is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of stiripentol as an adjunctive treatment to clobazam and valproate for treatment of Dravet syndrome from the perspective of the Canadian public healthcare payer...
May 15, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760294/breath-profiles-of-children-on-ketogenic-therapy
#5
Vera Ruzsanyi, Miklós Péter Kalapos, Christine Schmidl, Daniela Karall, Sabine Scholl-Buergi, Matthias Baumann
Ketogenic diets (KD) were initially introduced to clinical practice as alimentary approaches with the aim to control drug-resistant epilepsies. Therapy control, particularly at initiation, happens through regular blood analysis and control of urine ketone levels. However, there is a lack of fast, reliable and preferably non-invasive methods of analysis. The exhaled breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which can be modified by diet. The instrumental development of VOC detection converges in the direction of low cost sensors, which can facilitate the self-monitoring of the patients in the future if reliable breath markers are available...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753573/impact-of-prior-authorization-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-children-with-epilepsy
#6
Elaine C Wirrell, Alexander J Vanderwiel, Lauren Nickels, Saskia L Vanderwiel, Katherine C Nickels
OBJECTIVE: We assessed how commonly prior authorization results in treatment delay or missed doses in children with epilepsy. METHODS: Parents of 462 children followed in a pediatric epilepsy clinic were surveyed regarding prior authorization in the preceding year. Epilepsy and insurance details were collected. If prior authorization was required, parents were asked whether it resulted in (1) delayed initiation of a newly-prescribed antiepileptic drug, and/or (2) lapse in coverage of a current medication...
April 3, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747930/baseline-and-outcome-assessment-in-pediatric-status-epilepticus
#7
REVIEW
Saba Jafarpour, Coral M Stredny, Juan Piantino, Kevin E Chapman
PURPOSE: To summarize different aspects of short and long-term outcomes associated with SE, including mortality, recurrence, subsequent epilepsy, neurocognitive dysfunction, imaging abnormalities, and health-related quality of life. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE for studies that assessed the short-term and long-term outcome of status epilepticus in pediatric population, including mortality, recurrence of seizure and status epilepticus, neurological, cognitive, or behavioral impairment, and health-related quality of life...
April 27, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746397/impact-of-drug-interactions-on-clobazam-and-n-desmethylclobazam-concentrations-in-pediatric-patients-with-epilepsy
#8
Gabrielle R Russell, Stephanie J Phelps, Chasity M Shelton, James W Wheless
BACKGROUND: Clobazam (CLB) is approved as adjunctive treatment for seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients ≥2 years of age. It is converted to an active metabolite N-desmethylclobazam (NCLB) by CYP3A4, which is then broken down to an inactive metabolite by CYP2C19. This study characterizes the impact of CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 drug interactions on CLB and NCLB serum concentrations (Cp) and concentration/dose (Cp/D) ratios in pediatric patients with epilepsy. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review including patients >1 month of age, who received CLB between April 2012 and March 2017...
May 4, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738718/bilateral-thalamocortical-abnormalities-in-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#9
Arthur Rezayev, Henry A Feldman, Jacob Levman, Emi Takahashi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), a congenital malformation of the neocortex and one of the most common causes of medication resistant epilepsy in pediatric populations, can be studied noninvasively by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The present study aimed to quantify changes in the thalamus and thalamocortical pathways with respect to fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), volume, and other common measures. MATERIALS & METHODS: The study quantified data collected from pediatric patients with a prior diagnosis of FCD; 75 patients (35 females, 10...
May 5, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731400/treatment-of-infantile-spasms-by-pediatric-neurologists-in-japan
#10
Shin-Ichiro Hamano, Toshisaburo Nagai, Ryuki Matsuura, Yuko Hirata, Satoru Ikemoto, Atsuko Oba, Erika Hiwatari
OBJECTIVE: To clarify changes in clinical practice for infantile spasms, including West syndrome, in Japan over the past two decades. METHODS: We investigated common treatment strategies for infantile spasms among 157 pediatric neurologists from a designated training facility for pediatric neurology and/or a designated training facility for epilepsy in Japan. A questionnaire was used to investigate use of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy including daily dose, treatment duration, and tapering off period, and preferred first to fifth-line treatment choices...
May 3, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729532/how-do-we-diagnose-and-treat-epilepsy-with-myoclonic-atonic-seizures-doose-syndrome-results-of-the-pediatric-epilepsy-research-consortium-survey
#11
Katherine Nickels, Ronald Thibert, Stephanie Rau, Scott Demarest, Elaine Wirrell, Eric H Kossoff, Charuta Joshi, Srishti Nangia, Renee Shellhaas
OBJECTIVE: To obtain and assess opinions on EMAS diagnostic criteria, recommended investigations, and therapeutic options, from a large group of physicians who care for children with EMAS. METHODS: The EMAS focus group of PERC created a survey to assess the opinions of pediatric neurologists who care for children with EMAS regarding diagnosis and treatment of this condition, which was sent to members of PERC, AES, and CNS. A Likert scale was used to assess the respondents' opinions on the importance of diagnostic and exclusion criteria (five point scale), investigations (four point scale), and treatment (six point scale) of EMAS...
April 25, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724763/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-detection-with-proton-mr-spectroscopy-in-children-with-drug-resistant-epilepsy-on-the-ketogenic-diet
#12
J N Wright, R P Saneto, S D Friedman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ketogenic diet, including both classic and modified forms, is an alternative to antiepileptic medications used in the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy. We sought to evaluate the utility of proton MR spectroscopy for the detection of β-hydroxybutyrate in a cohort of children with epilepsy treated with the ketogenic diet and to correlate brain parenchymal metabolite ratios obtained from spectroscopy with β-hydroxybutyrate serum concentrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three spectroscopic datasets acquired at a TE of 288 ms in children on the ketogenic diet were analyzed with LCModel using a modified basis set that included a simulated β-hydroxybutyrate resonance...
May 3, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713355/epilepsy-syndromes-during-the-first-year-of-life-and-the-usefulness-of-an-epilepsy-gene-panel
#13
REVIEW
Eun Hye Lee
Recent advances in genetics have determined that a number of epilepsy syndromes that occur in the first year of life are associated with genetic etiologies. These syndromes range from benign familial epilepsy syndromes to early-onset epileptic encephalopathies that lead to poor prognoses and severe psychomotor retardation. An early genetic diagnosis can save time and overall cost by reducing the amount of time and resources expended to reach a diagnosis. Furthermore, a genetic diagnosis can provide accurate prognostic information and, in certain cases, enable targeted therapy...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705623/pediatric-epilepsies-misdiagnosed-as-gastrointestinal-disorders
#14
Giulia Carbonari, Giacomo Tonti, Veronica Di Pisa, Emilio Franzoni, Duccio Maria Cordelli
In the last years, several cases of pediatric epilepsies misdiagnosed and treated as gastrointestinal (GI) disorders have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate both frequency and characteristics of these erroneous diagnoses. We identified children who had received a previous misdiagnosis of GI disorder out of 858 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy at our hospital from 2010 to 2015. Misdiagnosis was observed in 21 patients (2.4%): 7 children with West syndrome, 10 with temporal lobe epilepsy, and 4 with Panayiotopoulos syndrome...
April 26, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696042/bone-metabolism-disorder-in-epileptic-children
#15
MAaryam Nakhaee Moghadam, Alireza Teimouri, Ali Khajeh, Seyed Bahare Hoseini
Objective: There are frequent anti-epileptic drugs used in management of epilepsy. Anti-epileptic drugs may have some complications on bone and vitamin D metabolism. This study aimed to comparison the bone metabolism disorder in epileptic children with healthy child in Zahedan, eastern Iran from Jul 2014 to Jun 2015. Materials & Methods: This case-control study was performed on bone metabolism disorder in epileptic children between 2014-2015. Forty epileptic children were enrolled based on accessibility scheme and 40 participants randomly selected for control group from those referred to the pediatric ward and clinic of Ali Ebn Abi Talib Hospital and Ali Asghar Clinic in Zahedan City, Sistan & Baluchestan Province, eastern Iran...
2018: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687740/long-term-cognitive-outcome-of-children-with-parenchymal-neurocysticercosis-a-prospective-observation-study
#16
Pratibha Singhi, Prabhjot Malhi, Renu Suthar, Brijendra Deo, N K Khandelwal
To study the cognitive profile and scholastic performance of children with parenchymal neurocysticercosis. A total of 500 children with a diagnosis of neurocysticercosis and epilepsy registered in our pediatric neurocysticercosis clinic between January 1996 and December 2002 were enrolled. Patients were evaluated for their scholastic performance using their school grades. Cognitive assessment was done using Parental interview and the "Draw-a-Man" test. Poor scholastic performance was seen in 22.2% (111) children...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680921/neurosurgical-treatment-of-gangliogliomas-in-children-and-adolescents-long-term-follow-up-of-a-single-institution-series-of-32-patients
#17
Tryggve Lundar, Bernt Johan Due-Tønnessen, Radek Fric, Arild Egge, Bård Krossnes, Paulina Due-Tønnessen, Einar Stensvold, Petter Brandal
OBJECT: The object of this study was to delineate long-term results of the surgical treatment of pediatric tumors classified as ganglioglioma or gangliocytoma. METHODS: A cohort of consecutive patients 19 years or younger who had undergone primary resection of CNS tumors during the years 1980-2016 at a single institution were reviewed in this retrospective study of surgical morbidity, mortality, and academic achievement and/or work participation. Gross motor function and activities of daily living were scored using the Barthel Index (BI)...
April 22, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680919/aggravation-of-seizures-and-status-epilepticus-after-vagal-nerve-stimulation-therapy-the-first-pediatric-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Ebru Arhan, Ayşe Serdaroğlu, Tuğba Hirfanoğlu, Gökhan Kurt
BACKGROUND: We describe the first child with drug-resistant epilepsy in whom vagus nerve stimulation aggravated seizures and emerged status epilepticus after the increase in vagal nerve stimulation current output. OBJECTIVE: A 13-year-old girl presented with refractory secondary generalized focal epilepsy. Vagal nerve stimulator was implanted because of drug-resistant epilepsy. After the increase of vagal nerve stimulator current output to a relatively high level, the patient experienced seizure aggravation and status epilepticus...
April 22, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679911/the-effects-of-valproate-and-topiramate-use-on-serum-insulin-leptin-neuropeptide-y-and-ghrelin-levels-in-epileptic-children
#19
Nafiye Polat Çiçek, Tülay Kamaşak, Mine Serin, Aysenur Okten, Ahmet Alver, Ali Cansu
PURPOSE: Although some drugs used in the treatment of epilepsy are known to affect body weight, the hormonal factors responsible have not been sufficiently described. The purpose of this study was to compare insulin, leptin, neuropeptide Y and ghrelin levels in children with epilepsy receiving monotherapy with topiramate (TPM) and valproic acid (VPA), the drugs whose effects on body weight have been most discussed, with those of a control group. METHOD: 48 patients (25 VPA, 23 TPM) aged between 6 and 15...
April 11, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677701/surgical-treatment-and-long-term-outcome-of-cerebral-cavernous-malformations-related-epilepsy-in-pediatric-patients
#20
Qiao Lin, Peng-Fan Yang, Yan-Zeng Jia, Jia-Sheng Pei, Hui Xiao, Ting-Ting Zhang, Zhong-Hui Zhong, Shou-Sen Wang
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CMs) are vascular malformations affecting any part of the central nervous system. Clinical data and surgical outcomes for 27 pediatric patients with CM-related epilepsy were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of onset was 12.71 ± 4.09 years, and the mean duration of epilepsy was 2.34 ± 1.95 years. All 27 patients were treated with microsurgery for resection of the CMs, and the hemosiderin rim, and the secondary epileptogenic zone if necessary. The mean follow-up period was 6...
April 20, 2018: Neuropediatrics
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