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prisoner health

Anna Torriente, Alexander Tadion, Lee-Nah Hsu
Prisons and other closed settings are high-risk environments for HIV and tuberculosis (TB) transmission. Prisoners often experience overcrowded living conditions and violence-including sexual assault-increasing their vulnerability to HIV and TB. However, high infection rates in prisons affect both prisoners and prison employees. Both groups, in interacting with their families and their communities, represent a potential risk of HIV transmission outside the prison setting. National HIV and TB strategies should therefore include measures to prevent transmission and increase access to HIV-related services in prisons...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
Gitau Mburu, Enrique Restoy, Evaline Kibuchi, Paula Holland, Anthony D Harries
Adherence to treatment is a key element for global TB control. Public health laws can be used to enforce isolation, adherence, and completion of TB treatment. However, the practical application of public health laws can potentially range from voluntary measures to involuntary detention approaches. This paper explores the potential risks and impacts of using detention approaches to enforce TB treatment adherence. In August 2015, we conducted a literature search regarding the application of public health laws to enforce adherence to TB treatment globally, and specifically in Kenya...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
L Lafferty, C Treloar, J Guthrie, G M Chambers, T Butler
Prisoner populations are characterized by high rates of hepatitis C (HCV), up to thirty times that of the general population in Australia. Within Australian prisons, less than 1% of eligible inmates access treatment. Public health strategies informed by social capital could be important in addressing this inequality in access to HCV treatment. Twenty-eight male inmates participated in qualitative interviews across three correctional centres in New South Wales, Australia. All participants had recently tested as HCV RNA positive or were receiving HCV treatment...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
L M M Iglecias, M A M Puga, M A Pompílio, S A Teles, J Croda, L A Lima, B V Lago, R M B Martins, A R C Motta-Castro
BACKGROUND: Due to environmental and social conditions inherent to incarceration, tuberculosis (TB) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are major diseases among prison inmates. OBJECTIVE: To determine overall and occult HBV infection (OBI) prevalence rates, risk factors and genotype distribution among inmates with active TB. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 216 inmates with active TB recruited at the largest prisons in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Central Brazil...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
C Lincoln, J Crilly, P Scuffham, J Timms, K Becker, N van Buuren, A Fisher, D Murphy, D Green
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Tawandra L Rowell-Cunsolo, Nabila El-Bassel, Carl L Hart
Black Americans are incarcerated at disproportionate rates, largely due to racial differences in the application of drug laws. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence rates among Black Americans are also disproportionately high. Moreover, availability of and access to HIV prevention services in correctional settings are limited. Recognizing that Blacks are at an elevated risk of contracting HIV, and that incarceration worsens health outcomes, this paper addresses the importance of implementing comprehensive prison-based HIV programs and prevention interventions to improve the health of this vulnerable population...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Teklay Gebrecherkos, Baye Gelaw, Belay Tessema
BACKGROUND: In correctional settings tuberculosis is a public health concern. The incarcerated population is at greater risk for tuberculosis (TB) than the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and associated risk factors in prison settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among prisoners of North Gondar zone where all inmates with a history of cough for ≥ 2 weeks were included...
October 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
Cecilia Varela-Martínez, Zaida E Yadon, Diana Marín, Einar Heldal
Objective To 1) describe and compare the trends of tuberculosis (TB) case notification rates (CNRs) and treatment outcomes in the two largest cities in Honduras (San Pedro Sula and Tegucigalpa) for the period 2005-2014 and 2) identify possible related socioeconomic and health sector factors. Methods This retrospective ecological operational research study used aggregated data from the National TB Program (socioeconomic and health sector information and individual data from the 2014 TB case notification report)...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Larry Applewhite, Derrick Arincorayan, Barry Adams
This exploratory study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in soldiers who sought behavioral health support during a combat deployment. We conducted a secondary analysis of data extracted from two studies on the basis of retrospective reviews of behavioral health records of soldiers deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Of 162 clinical samples, 135 (83%) reported at least one type of childhood adversity. ACE scores ranged from 0 to 9 with a mean of 3 (standard deviation = 2.4) and mode of 0...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Bernard Gallagher, Anne H Berman, Justyna Bieganski, Adele D Jones, Liliana Foca, Ben Raikes, Johanna Schiratzki, Mirjam Urban, Sara Ullman
Although international research is increasing in volume and importance, there remains a dearth of knowledge on similarities and differences in "national human research ethics" (NHREs), that is, national ethical guidelines (NEGs), Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), and research stakeholder' ethical attitudes and behaviors (EABs). We begin to address this situation by reporting upon our experiences in conducting a multinational study into the mental health of children who had a parent/carer in prison. The study was conducted in 4 countries: Germany, Great Britain, Romania, and Sweden...
October 2, 2016: Ethics & Behavior
Kathleen Brewer-Smyth, Monica Cornelius, Ryan T Pohlig
The staggering prevalence of obesity and obesity-related health conditions takes exorbitant tolls on health care resources. This cross-sectional study with private evaluations of 636 adult inmates in a southern state prison was conducted with regressions comparing obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30) to nonobese individuals to define obesity risk factors. Obese individuals more likely were female, were victims of childhood sexual abuse, suffered greater severity of childhood sexual abuse, attempted suicide, reported drug dependency, were non-Caucasian, and were older than nonobese...
October 2016: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Brent R Gibson, Gary Phillips
This descriptive analysis examines data collected as part of the accreditation program of the National Commission on Correctional Health Care (NCCHC). Based on the NCCHC Standards for Health Services, the accreditation program uses external peer review to determine whether correctional institutions meet these standards in their provision of health services. Analysis of compliance patterns looked at four facility characteristics-total annual admission, capacity, average daily population, and average daily intake-for jails and prisons...
October 2016: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Marita Hefler, Robyn Hopkins, David P Thomas
OBJECTIVES: In 2013, the Northern Territory was the first Australian jurisdiction to introduce a smoke-free policy for all correctional facilities. We report on a process evaluation to identify what worked well, key challenges and unintended consequences. METHODS: We interviewed 87 people, comprising remand, medium-security and low-security prisoners; visiting family members; and prison staff (including prison management and health workers). A realist evaluation approach was used...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Ank E Nijhawan, Princess A Iroh, Larry S Brown, Daniel Winetsky, Esmaeil Porsa
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects immigrants, HIV-infected individuals, and those living in crowded settings such as homeless shelters and correctional facilities. Although the majority of jails and prisons use a tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening, limited data exist on the clinical performance and costs of the TST compared to interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) in this setting. METHODS: A prospective pilot study comparing cost between TST and an IGRA (QuantiFERON Gold In-tube, QFT-GIT) for the detection of LTBI in a convenience sample of inmates entering the Dallas County Jail (DCJ) was conducted June-October 2014...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sanford Nidich, Tom O'connor, Thomas Rutledge, Jeff Duncan, Blaze Compton, Angela Seng, Randi Nidich
CONTEXT: Trauma events are four times more prevalent in inmates than in the general public and are associated with increased recidivism and other mental and physical health issues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of Transcendental Meditation(a) (TM) on trauma symptoms in male inmates. DESIGN: One hundred eighty-one inmates with a moderate- to high-risk criminal profile were randomly assigned to either the TM program or to a usual care control group...
October 7, 2016: Permanente Journal
Gen Sander, Alessio Scandurra, Anhelita Kamenska, Catherine MacNamara, Christina Kalpaki, Cristina Fernandez Bessa, Gemma Nicolás Laso, Grazia Parisi, Lorraine Varley, Marcin Wolny, Maria Moudatsou, Nuno Henrique Pontes, Patricia Mannix-McNamara, Sandro Libianchi, Tzanetos Antypas
While the last decade has seen a growth of support for harm reduction around the world, the availability and accessibility of quality harm reduction services in prison settings is uneven and continues to be inadequate compared to the progress achieved in the broader community. This article provides a brief overview of harm reduction in prisons in Catalonia (Spain), Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, and Portugal. While each country provides a wide range of harm reduction services in the broader community, the majority fail to provide these same services or the same quality of these services, in prison settings, in clear violation of international human rights law and minimum standards on the treatment of prisoners...
October 7, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
Daniel Pratt, Patricia Gooding, Yvonne Awenat, Steve Eccles, Nicholas Tarrier
Suicide is a serious public health problem but a problem that is preventable. This complex and challenging problem is particularly prevalent amongst prisoners; associated with a five-fold increase in risk compared to the general community. Being in prison can lead people to experience fear, distrust, lack of control, isolation, and shame, which is often experienced as overwhelming and intolerable with some choosing suicide as a way to escape. Few effective psychological interventions exist to prevent suicide although cognitive behaviour therapies appear to offer some promise...
November 2016: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: British Dental Journal
Gadi Zerach, Yafit Levin, Roy Aloni, Zahava Solomon
Objectives: The aversive, long-term toll of war captivity and fathers' combat-induced posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) on adult offspring's mental health has been recently exemplified. However, studies that have examined the implication of PTSS of both fathers and mothers in the intergenerational transmission of trauma to offspring are still lacking. This prospective study assessed the unique and combined effects of former prisoners of war (ex-POWs) fathers' and mothers' PTSS in adult offspring's PTSS...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Adam L Beckman, Alyssa Bilinski, Ryan Boyko, George M Camp, A T Wall, Joseph K Lim, Emily A Wang, R Douglas Bruce, Gregg S Gonsalves
Prisoners bear much of the burden of the hepatitis C epidemic in the United States. Yet little is known about the scope and cost of treating hepatitis C in state prisons-particularly since the release of direct-acting antiviral medications. In the forty-one states whose departments of corrections reported data, 106,266 inmates (10 percent of their prisoners) were known to have hepatitis C on or about January 1, 2015. Only 949 (0.89 percent) of those inmates were being treated. Prices for a twelve-week course of direct-acting antivirals such as sofosbuvir and the combination drug ledipasvir/sofosbuvir varied widely as of September 30, 2015 ($43,418-$84,000 and $44,421-$94,500, respectively)...
October 1, 2016: Health Affairs
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