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Molecular and biotechnology Mycotoxins

Simona L Bavaro, Antonia Susca, Jens C Frisvad, Maria Tufariello, Agathi Chytiri, Giancarlo Perrone, Giovanni Mita, Antonio F Logrieco, Gianluca Bleve
Table olives are one of the most important fermented food in the Mediterranean countries. Apart from lactic acid bacteria and yeasts that mainly conduct the olive fermentation, molds can develop on the brine surface, and can have either deleterious or useful effects on this process. From the food safety point of view, occurring molds could also produce mycotoxins, so, it is important to monitor and control them. In this respect, identification of molds associated to two Italian and two Greek fermented black table olives cultivars, was carried out...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Walter P Pfliegler, Tünde Pusztahelyi, István Pócsi
The application of yeasts has great potential in reducing the economic damage caused by toxigenic fungi in the agriculture. Some yeasts may act as biocontrol agents inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi. These species may also gain importance in the preservation of agricultural products and in the reduction of their mycotoxin contamination, yet the extent of mycotoxin production in the presence of biocontrol agents is relatively less understood. The application of yeasts in various technological processes may have a direct inhibitory effect on the toxin production of certain molds, which is independent of their growth suppressing effect...
July 2015: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Jennifer Gerke, Gerhard H Braus
Fungal genomics revealed a large potential of yet-unexplored secondary metabolites, which are not produced during vegetative growth. The discovery of novel bioactive compounds is increasingly gaining importance. The high number of resistances against established antibiotics requires novel drugs to counteract increasing human and animal mortality rates. In addition, growth of plant pathogens has to be controlled to minimize harvest losses. An additional critical issue is the post-harvest production of deleterious mycotoxins...
October 2014: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sabine Albermann, Pia Linnemannstöns, Bettina Tudzynski
The rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi is known to produce a wide range of secondary metabolites, such as the pigments bikaverin and fusarubins, the mycotoxins fusarins and fusaric acid, and the phytohormones gibberellic acids (GAs), which are applied as plant growth regulators in agri- and horticulture. The development of high-producing strains is a prerequisite for the efficient biotechnological production of GAs. In this work, we used different molecular approaches for strain improvement to directly affect expression of early isoprenoid genes as well as GA biosynthetic genes...
April 2013: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jin-Long Liu, Zu-Quan Hu, Shu Xing, Sheng Xue, He-Ping Li, Jing-Bo Zhang, Yu-Cai Liao
Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum infection is a devastating disease of wheat, maize, and other cereals. A previously isolated chicken single-chain Fv antibody (scFv), CWP2, that conferred durable resistance in planta was subjected to directed evolution by error-prone PCR and DNA shuffling, generating a mutated library. Panning of the mutated library against cell wall-bound proteins (CWPs) from F. graminearum by phage display enriched phage clones that were used for a further round of DNA shuffling to construct a combinatorial library comprising 3 × 10(6) variants...
October 2012: Molecular Biotechnology
Giancarlo Perrone, Gaetano Stea, Filomena Epifani, János Varga, Jens C Frisvad, Robert A Samson
Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger 'aggregate' represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus acidus, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus costaricaensis, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus, Aspergillus piperis, and Aspergillus vadensis. Aspergillus awamori, first described by Nakazawa, has been compared taxonomically with other black aspergilli and recently it has been treated as a synonym of A...
November 2011: Fungal Biology
Christiane Wallwey, Shu-Ming Li
Ergot alkaloids are toxins and important pharmaceuticals which are produced biotechnologically on an industrial scale. They have been identified in two orders of fungi and three families of higher plants. The most important producers are fungi of the genera Claviceps, Penicillium and Aspergillus (all belonging to the Ascomycota). Chemically, ergot alkaloids are characterised by the presence of a tetracyclic ergoline ring, and can be divided into three classes according to their structural features, i.e. amide- or peptide-like amide derivatives of D-lysergic acid and the clavine alkaloids...
March 2011: Natural Product Reports
Jesper M Mogensen, Kristian F Nielsen, Robert A Samson, Jens C Frisvad, Ulf Thrane
BACKGROUND: Fumonisins are economically important mycotoxins which until recently were considered to originate from only a few Fusarium species. However recently a putative fumonisin gene cluster was discovered in two different Aspergillus niger strains followed by detection of an actual fumonisin B2 (FB2) production in four strains of this biotechnologically important workhorse. RESULTS: In the present study, a screening of 5 A. niger strains and 25 assumed fumonisin producing Fusarium strains from 6 species, showed that all 5 A...
2009: BMC Microbiology
Pengjun Shi, Guoyu Yao, Peilong Yang, Ning Li, Huiying Luo, Yingguo Bai, Yaru Wang, Bin Yao
An endo-1,3-beta-D: -glucanase gene, designated as bglS27, was cloned from Streptomyces sp. S27 and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The full-length gene contains 1,362 bp and encodes a protein of 453 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 42.7 kDa. The encoded protein comprises a catalytic module of glycosyl hydrolase family 16, a short glycine linker region, and a family 13 carbohydrate-binding module. The purified recombinant enzyme (BglS27) showed optimal activity at 65 degrees C and pH 5...
February 2010: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Mika T Tarkka, Alain Sarniguet, Pascale Frey-Klett
Interactions between bacteria and fungi are well known, but it is often underestimated how intimate and decisive such associations can be with respect to behaviour and survival of each participating organism. In this article we review recent advances in molecular bacterium-fungus interactions, combining the data of different model systems. Emphasis is given to the positive or negative consequences these interactions have on the microbe accommodating plants and animals. Intricate mechanisms of antagonism and tolerance have emerged, being as important for the biological control of plants against fungal diseases as for the human body against fungal infections...
June 2009: Current Genetics
Xingmin Li, Stefan H Millson, Raymond D Coker, Ivor H Evans
A dextranase gene from Penicillium minioluteum (strain IMI068219) has been cloned, sequenced and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae via fusion of the DNA segment encoding the mature dextranase protein with alpha-factor signal sequence, and insertion into the GAL1-controlled expression vector pYES2/CT. Galactose-induced expression yielded extracellular dextranase activity of 0.63 units/ml and cell-associated dextranase activity of 0.48 units/ml, after 24 h incubation. The dextranase construct was introduced into a strain of S...
December 2006: Biotechnology Letters
M Lourdes Abarca, Francesc Accensi, José Cano, F Javier Cabañes
Members of Aspergillus section Nigri (formerly A. niger group) are distributed worldwide and are regarded as common food spoilage fungi. Some of them are widely used and studied for industrial purposes. They are common sources of extracellular enzymes and organic acids to be used in food processing and are also used in the production of traditional foods, especially in the Orient. Products produced by strains of Aspergillus niger hold the GRAS (Generally Recognised As Safe) status from the FDA. However some species in Aspergillus section Nigri can produce ochratoxin A, a nephrotoxic mycotoxin...
July 2004: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
D Marquina, A Santos, J M Peinado
Killer yeasts secrete proteinaceous killer toxins lethal to susceptible yeast strains. These toxins have no activity against microorganisms other than yeasts, and the killer strains are insensitive to their own toxins. Killer toxins differ between species or strains, showing diverse characteristics in terms of structural genes, molecular size, mature structure and immunity. The mechanisms of recognizing and killing sensitive cells differ for each toxin. Killer yeasts and their toxins have many potential applications in environmental, medical and industrial biotechnology...
June 2002: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
E Schuster, N Dunn-Coleman, J C Frisvad, P W M Van Dijck
Aspergillus niger is one of the most important microorganisms used in biotechnology. It has been in use already for many decades to produce extracellular (food) enzymes and citric acid. In fact, citric acid and many A. niger enzymes are considered GRAS by the United States Food and Drug Administration. In addition, A. niger is used for biotransformations and waste treatment. In the last two decades, A. niger has been developed as an important transformation host to over-express food enzymes. Being pre-dated by older names, the name A...
August 2002: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
P Guillén, M Guis, G Martínez-Reina, S Colrat, S Dalmayrac, C Deswarte, M Bouzayen, J P Roustan, J Fallot, J C Pech, A Latché
Eutypine, 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-3-butene-1-ynyl) benzyl aldehyde, is a toxin produced by Eutypa lata, the causal agent of eutypa dieback of grapevines. It has previously been demonstrated that tolerance of some cultivars to this disease was correlated with their capacity to convert eutypine to the corresponding alcohol, eutypinol, which lacks phytotoxicity. We have thus purified to homogeneity a protein from Vigna radiata that exhibited eutypine-reducing activity and have isolated the corresponding cDNA. This encodes an NADPH-dependent reductase of 36 kDa that we have named Vigna radiata eutypine-reducing enzyme (VR-ERE), based on the capacity of a recombinant form of the protein to reduce eutypine into eutypinol...
November 1998: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
V Sanchis
Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by species of Aspergillus flavus group. These toxins have received increased attention from the food industry and the general public because they shown a high toxicity against humans and animal. Different methods are applying to control the aflatoxin contamination. But these conventional methods do not seem to resolve the problem. So, new methods using techniques in biotechnology are now being developed: a) Inhibit the biosynthetic and secretory process responsible for aflatoxin contamination...
February 1993: Microbiología: Publicación de la Sociedad Española de Microbiología
H Brückner, H Graf, M Bokel
Paracelsin, a hemolytic and membrane active polypeptide antibiotic of the peptaibol class which is excreted by the mold Trichoderma reesei, was obtained by a simplified and rapid isolation procedure utilizing hydrophobic adsorber resins. Investigation by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and circular dichroism revealed considerable helical portions in solution, and the very recently accomplished sequence determination of paracelsin allows the discussion of the results with regard to the closely related analogues, alamethicin and suzukacillin...
November 15, 1984: Experientia
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