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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238042/entotheonella-bacteria-as-source-of-sponge-derived-natural-products-opportunities-for-biotechnological-production
#1
Agneya Bhushan, Eike E Peters, Jörn Piel
Marine sponges belong to the oldest animals existing today. Apart from their role in recycling of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean, they are also an important source of a wide variety of structurally diverse bioactive natural products. Over the past few decades, a multitude of compounds from sponges have been discovered exhibiting diverse, pharmacologically promising activities. However, in many cases the low substance quantities present in the sponge tissue would require the collection of large amounts of sponge material, thus impeding further drug development...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215332/fluorescence-exclusion-measurement-of-volume-in-live-cells
#2
C Cadart, E Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, L Venkova, O Thouvenin, V Racine, M Le Berre, S Monnier, M Piel
Volume is a basic physical property of cells; however, it has been poorly investigated in cell biology so far, mostly because it is difficult to measure it precisely. Recently, large efforts were made to experimentally measure mammalian cell size and used mass, density, or volume as proxies for cell size. Here, we describe a method enabling cell volume measurements for single living cells. The method is based on the principle of fluorescent dye exclusion and can be easily implemented in cell biology laboratories...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198609/an-unusual-flavin-dependent-halogenase-from-the-metagenome-of-the-marine-sponge-theonella-swinhoei-wa
#3
Duncan R M Smith, Agustinus R Robert Uria, Eric J N Helfrich, Daniela Milbredt, Karl-Heinz van-Pee, Joern Piel, Rebecca J M Goss
Uncultured bacteria from sponges have been demonstrated to be responsible for the generation of many potent, bioactive natural products including halogenated metabolites.1 The identification of gene clusters from the metagenomes of such bacterial communities enables the discovery of enzymes that mediate new and useful chemistries and allows insight to be gained into the biogenesis of potentially pharmacologically important natural products. Here we report a new pathway to the keramamides (krm); the first functional evidence for the existence of a distinct producer in the Theonella swinhoei WA chemotype is revealed, and a key enzyme on the pathway, a unique flavin dependent halogenase with a broad substrate specificity, and with potential as a useful new biocatalytic tool is described...
February 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174679/engineering-remotely-triggered-liposomes-to-target-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#4
Alexandra Sneider, Rahul Jadia, Brandon Piel, Derek VanDyke, Christopher Tsiros, Prakash Rai
Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) continues to present a challenge in the clinic, as there is still no approved targeted therapy. TNBC is the worst sub-type of breast cancer in terms of prognosis and exhibits a deficiency in estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) receptors. One possible option for the treatment of TNBC is chemotherapy. The issue with many chemotherapy drugs is that their effectiveness is diminished due to poor water solubility, and the method of administration directly or with a co-solvent intravenously can lead to an increase in toxicity...
2017: Oncomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159350/clinical-and-ethical-challenges-managing-acute-psychosis-in-pregnancy
#5
Carmen Croicu, Jennifer Piel, Suzanne B Murray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117406/insights-into-the-planktothrix-genus-genomic-and-metabolic-comparison-of-benthic-and-planktic-strains
#6
Claire Pancrace, Marie-Anne Barny, Reiko Ueoka, Alexandra Calteau, Thibault Scalvenzi, Jacques Pédron, Valérie Barbe, Joern Piel, Jean-François Humbert, Muriel Gugger
Planktothrix is a dominant cyanobacterial genus forming toxic blooms in temperate freshwater ecosystems. We sequenced the genome of planktic and non planktic Planktothrix strains to better represent this genus diversity and life style at the genomic level. Benthic and biphasic strains are rooting the Planktothrix phylogenetic tree and widely expand the pangenome of this genus. We further investigated in silico the genetic potential dedicated to gas vesicles production, nitrogen fixation as well as natural product synthesis and conducted complementary experimental tests by cell culture, microscopy and mass spectrometry...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065305/micromanipulation-of-daughter-cells-for-the-study-of-cytokinetic-abscission
#7
J Lafaurie-Janvore, C Lafaurie, M Piel
The last step of cytokinesis, abscission, consists in the severing of the intercellular bridge connecting the two daughter cells. Because daughter cells move randomly on regular cell culture substrates, the use of adhesive micropatterns facilitates the observation of the intercellular bridge and its severing. Here we propose general rules to design micropatterns optimized to study this process. In particular, these micropatterns allow a good stabilization of the daughter cells and a predictable positioning of the intercellular bridge...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049838/insights-into-the-lifestyle-of-uncultured-bacterial-natural-product-factories-associated-with-marine-sponges
#8
Gerald Lackner, Eike Edzard Peters, Eric J N Helfrich, Jörn Piel
The as-yet uncultured filamentous bacteria "Candidatus Entotheonella factor" and "Candidatus Entotheonella gemina" live associated with the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei Y, the source of numerous unusual bioactive natural products. Belonging to the proposed candidate phylum "Tectomicrobia," Candidatus Entotheonella members are only distantly related to any cultivated organism. The Ca E. factor has been identified as the source of almost all polyketide and modified peptides families reported from the sponge host, and both Ca Entotheonella phylotypes contain numerous additional genes for as-yet unknown metabolites...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042613/targeting-cancer-using-polymeric-nanoparticle-mediated-combination-chemotherapy
#9
Aniket Gad, Janel Kydd, Brandon Piel, Prakash Rai
Cancer forms exhibiting poor prognosis have been extensively researched for therapeutic solutions. One of the conventional modes of treatment, chemotherapy shows inadequacy in its methodology due to imminent side-effects and acquired drug-resistance by cancer cells. However, advancements in nanotechnology have opened new frontiers to significantly alleviate collateral damage caused by current treatments via innovative delivery techniques, eliminating pitfalls encountered in conventional treatments. Properties like reduced drug-clearance and increased dose efficacy by the enhanced permeability and retention effect deem nanoparticles suitable for this application...
September 2016: Int J Nanomed Nanosurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029254/pegylated-and-functionalized-aliphatic-polycarbonate-polyplex-nanoparticles-for-intravenous-administration-of-hdac5-sirna-in-cancer-therapy
#10
Antoine Frère, Alexandra Baroni, Elodie Hendrick, Anne-Sophie Delvigne, François Orange, Olivier Peulen, George R Dakwar, Jérôme Diricq, Philippe Dubois, Brigitte Evrard, Katrien Remaut, Kevin Braeckmans, Stefaan C De Smedt, Julie Laloy, Jean-Michel Dogné, Georges Feller, Laetitia Mespouille, Denis Mottet, Géraldine Piel
Guanidine and morpholine functionalized aliphatic polycarbonate polymers are able to deliver efficiently histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) siRNA into the cytoplasm of cancer cells in vitro leading to a decrease of cell proliferation were previously developed. To allow these biodegradable and biocompatible polyplex nanoparticles to overcome the extracellular barriers and be effective in vivo after an intravenous injection, polyethylene glycol chains (PEG750 or PEG2000) were grafted on the polymer structure. These nanoparticles showed an average size of about 150 nm and a slightly positive ζ-potential with complete siRNA complexation...
January 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004835/genomes-of-coral-dinoflagellate-symbionts-highlight-evolutionary-adaptations-conducive-to-a-symbiotic-lifestyle
#11
M Aranda, Y Li, Y J Liew, S Baumgarten, O Simakov, M C Wilson, J Piel, H Ashoor, S Bougouffa, V B Bajic, T Ryu, T Ravasi, T Bayer, G Micklem, H Kim, J Bhak, T C LaJeunesse, C R Voolstra
Despite half a century of research, the biology of dinoflagellates remains enigmatic: they defy many functional and genetic traits attributed to typical eukaryotic cells. Genomic approaches to study dinoflagellates are often stymied due to their large, multi-gigabase genomes. Members of the genus Symbiodinium are photosynthetic endosymbionts of stony corals that provide the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Their smaller genome sizes provide an opportunity to interrogate evolution and functionality of dinoflagellate genomes and endosymbiosis...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003404/learning-forensic-assessment-research-and-practice
#12
Jennifer L Piel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992028/measurement-of-the-area-of-venous-ulcers-using-two-software-programs
#13
Thaís Dresch Eberhardt, Suzinara Beatriz Soares de Lima, Luis Felipe Dias Lopes, Eline de Lima Borges, Teresinha Heck Weiller, Graziele Gorete Portella da Fonseca
Objective: to compare the measurement area of venous ulcers using AutoCAD(r) and Image Tool software. Method: this was an assessment of reproducibility tests conducted in a angiology clinic of a university hospital. Data were collected from 21 patients with venous ulcers, in the period from March to July of 2015, using a collection form and photograph of wounds. Five nurses (evaluators) of the hospital skin wound study group participated. The wounds were measured using both software programs...
December 19, 2016: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966282/enzyme-from-an-uncultivated-sponge-bacterium-catalyzes-s-methylation-in-a-ribosomal-peptide
#14
Maximilian Helf, Aurelia Jud, Jörn Piel
Amino acid modifications are essential for the structural diversity and bioactivity of ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide natural products (RiPPs). A particularly large and virtually untapped pool of unusual RiPPs and associated modifying enzymes is provided by uncultivated bacteria. An example is the chemically rich sponge symbiont 'Candidatus Entotheonella factor' that produces the hypermodified polytheonamides of the poorly studied proteusin RiPP family. In addition to the polytheonamide genes, 'E...
December 14, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964890/chemoenzymatic-synthesis-of-fluorogenic-phospholipids-and-evaluation-in-assays-of-phospholipases-a-c-and-d
#15
Mathilde S Piel, Günther H J Peters, Jesper Brask
Phospholipases are ubiquitous in nature and the target of significant research aiming at both their physiological roles and technical applications in e.g. the food industry. In the search for sensitive and selective phospholipase assays, we have focused on synthetic FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) substrates. This has led to the development of a facile, easily scalable and low cost synthesis of fluorogenic phospholipids featuring the dansyl/dabcyl fluorophore/quencher-pair on the fatty acid ω-position and on the phosphatidylethanolamine head group, respectively...
December 10, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958669/an-orthogonal-d2-o-based-induction-system-that-provides-insights-into-d-amino-acid-pattern-formation-by-radical-s-adenosylmethionine-peptide-epimerases
#16
Brandon I Morinaka, Marjan Verest, Michael F Freeman, Muriel Gugger, Jörn Piel
Radical S-adenosyl methionine peptide epimerases (RSPEs) are an enzyme family that accomplishes regiospecific and irreversible introduction of multiple d-configured residues into ribosomally encoded peptides. Collectively, RSPEs can generate diverse epimerization patterns in a wide range of substrates. Previously, the lack of rapid methods to localize epimerized residues has impeded efforts to investigate the function and applicative potential of RSPEs. An efficient mass spectrometry-based assay is introduced that permits characterization of products generated in E...
December 13, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942477/the-effect-of-reducing-spatial-resolution-by-in-plane-partial-volume-averaging-on-peak-velocity-measurements-in-phase-contrast-magnetic-resonance-angiography
#17
Jonathan Rodrigues, Kishore Minhas, Guido Pieles, Elisa McAlindon, Christopher Occleshaw, Nathan Manghat, Mark Hamilton
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to quantify the degree of the effect of in-plane partial volume averaging on recorded peak velocity in phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PCMRA). METHODS: Using cardiac optimized 1.5 Tesla MRI scanners (Siemens Symphony and Avanto), 145 flow measurements (14 anatomical locations; ventricular outlets, aortic valve (AorV), aorta (5 sites), pulmonary arteries (3 sites), pulmonary veins, superior and inferior vena cava)- in 37 subjects (consisting of healthy volunteers, congenital and acquired heart disease patients) were analyzed by Siemens Argus default voxel averaging technique (where peak velocity = mean of highest velocity voxel and four neighbouring voxels) and by single voxel technique (1...
October 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934926/ultrahigh-speed-si-integrated-on-chip-laser-with-tailored-dynamic-characteristics
#18
Gyeong Cheol Park, Weiqi Xue, Molly Piels, Darko Zibar, Jesper Mørk, Elizaveta Semenova, Il-Sug Chung
For on-chip interconnects, an ideal light source should have an ultralow energy consumption per bandwidth (operating en-ergy) as well as sufficient output power for error-free detection. Nanocavity lasers have been considered the most ideal for smaller operating energy. However, they have a challenge in obtaining a sufficient output power. Here, as an alternative, we propose an ultrahigh-speed microcavity laser structure, based on a vertical cavity with a high-contrast grating (HCG) mirror for transverse magnetic (TM) polarisation...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909222/associations-between-environmental-factors-and-hospital-admissions-for-sickle-cell-disease
#19
Frédéric B Piel, Sanjay Tewari, Valentine Brousse, Antonis Analitis, Anna Font, Stephan Menzel, Subarna Chakravorty, Swee Lay Thein, Baba Inusa, Paul Telfer, Marianne de Montalembert, Gary W Fuller, Klea Katsouyanni, David C Rees
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an increasing global health burden. This inherited disease is characterised by a remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity, which can only partly be explained by genetic factors. Environmental factors are likely to play an important role but studies of their impact on disease severity are limited and their results are often inconsistent. This study investigated associations between a range of environmental factors and hospital admissions of young patients with SCD in London and in Paris between 2008 and 2012...
December 1, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897311/the-evolutionary-and-clinical-implications-of-the-uneven-distribution-of-the-frequency-of-the-inherited-haemoglobin-variants-over-short-geographical-distances
#20
Anuja Premawardhena, Angela Allen, Fred Piel, Chris Fisher, Laxman Perera, Rexan Rodrigo, Gayan Goonathilaka, Lebbe Ramees, Tim Peto, Nancy Olivieri, David Weatherall
Studies of the frequency of heterozygous carriers for common inherited diseases of haemoglobin in over 7500 adolescent children in 25 districts in Sri Lanka have disclosed a highly significant variation over very short geographical distances. A further analysis of these findings, including their relationship to the past frequency and distribution of malaria, climatic variation, altitude, ethnic origin and consanguinity rates, have provided evidence regarding the evolutionary basis for the variable distribution of these conditions over short distances...
February 2017: British Journal of Haematology
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