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Hélène D Moreau, Matthieu Piel, Raphaël Voituriez, Ana-Maria Lennon-Duménil
The function of most immune cells depends on their ability to migrate through complex microenvironments, either randomly to patrol for the presence of antigens or directionally to reach their next site of action. The actin cytoskeleton and its partners are key conductors of immune cell migration as they control the intrinsic migratory properties of leukocytes as well as their capacity to respond to cues present in their environment. In this review we focus on the latest discoveries regarding the role of the actomyosin cytoskeleton in optimizing immune cell migration in complex environments, with a special focus on recent insights provided by physical modeling...
May 17, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Agustinus R Uria, Jörn Piel, Toshiyuki Wakimoto
Microbial symbionts are recognized as the important sources of numerous sponge-derived metabolites with potent biological activities. The limitation to cultivate the majority of potential symbionts has hampered attempts to explore and exploit their natural products for further development toward medical applications. Metagenomics-guided approaches have enabled cloning of natural product biosynthesis genes from uncultured microbial symbionts. Subsequent activation of biosynthesis genes in easily culturable bacteria could lead to the sustainable production of rare sponge-derived compounds...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Brandon I Morinaka, Anna L Vagstad, Jörn Piel
The identification of the polytheonamide (poy) gene cluster led to the discovery of the enzyme PoyD, a member of the radical S-adenosylmethionine superfamily capable of introducing d-amino acids into a ribosomally synthesized peptide. This enzyme was used as a starting point to identify additional radical S-adenosylmethionine peptide epimerases in other cyanobacterial genomes, which show different epimerization patterns compared to PoyD. During the course of studying these enzymes by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, we developed a two-step strategy to (1) detect epimerase activity and (2) localize where epimerization occurs based on an in vivo deuterium labeling strategy...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Benjamin Tadsen, Franko Greiner, Alexander Piel
A cloud of nanodust particles is created in a reactive argon-acetylene plasma. It is then transformed into a dusty magnetized argon plasma. Plasma parameters are obtained with the dust-density wave diagnostic introduced by Tadsen et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 113701 (2015)10.1063/1.4934927]. A change from an open to a cylindrically enclosed nanodust cloud, which was observed earlier, can now be explained by a stronger electric confinement if a vertical magnetic field is present. Using two-dimensional extinction measurements and the inverse Abel transform to determine the dust density, a redistribution of the dust with increasing magnetic induction is found...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Idrissa S Chuma, Emmanuel K Batamuzi, D Anthony Collins, Robert D Fyumagwa, Luisa K Hallmaier-Wacker, Rudovick R Kazwala, Julius D Keyyu, Inyasi A Lejora, Iddi F Lipende, Simone Lüert, Filipa M D Paciência, Alexander Piel, Fiona A Stewart, Dietmar Zinner, Christian Roos, Sascha Knauf
We investigated Treponema pallidum infection in 8 nonhuman primate species (289 animals) in Tanzania during 2015-2017. We used a serologic treponemal test to detect antibodies against the bacterium. Infection was further confirmed from tissue samples of skin-ulcerated animals by 3 independent PCRs (polA, tp47, and TP_0619). Our findings indicate that T. pallidum infection is geographically widespread in Tanzania and occurs in several species (olive baboons, yellow baboons, vervet monkeys, and blue monkeys)...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Anna Lechanteur, Vincent Sanna, Amandine Duchemin, Brigitte Evrard, Denis Mottet, Géraldine Piel
In recent year, cationic liposomes have gained a lot of attention for siRNA delivery. Despite this, intracellular barriers as endosomal escape and cytosolic delivery of siRNA still represent a challeng, as well as the cytotoxicity due to cationic lipids. To address these issues, we developed four liposomal formulations, composed of two different cationic lipids (DOTAP and DC-Cholesterol) and different ratio of co-lipids (cholesterol and DOPE). The objective is to dissect these impacts on siRNA efficacy and cytotoxicity...
April 24, 2018: Nanomaterials
Yina Marcela Guaca-González, Gladys Fernanda Flórez-Restrepo, José Ignacio Moncayo-Ortíz, Jorge Santacruz-Ibarra, Adalucy Álvarez-Aldana
Introducción. Staphylococcus aureus coloniza mucosas y piel, y causa graves infecciones en el hombre y los animales. Es importante establecer el estatus de portadoras de cepas enterotoxigénicas de este microorganismo en manipuladoras de alimentos, con el fin de prevenir intoxicaciones alimentarias.Objetivo. Establecer las correlaciones entre los genes de enterotoxinas clásicas, el gen tsst-1, la producción de toxinas en cultivo y la resistencia antimicrobiana en aislamientos de S. aureus provenientes de manipuladoras de alimentos que cuidan niños en sus comunidades...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Franziska Koch, Michael Müller, Finja König, Nina Meyer, Jasmin Gattlen, Uwe Pieles, Kirsten Peters, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Stephanie Mathes, Sina Saxer
Self-assembling peptide hydrogels can be modified regarding their biodegradability, their chemical and mechanical properties and their nanofibrillar structure. Thus, self-assembling peptide hydrogels might be suitable scaffolds for regenerative therapies and tissue engineering. Owing to the use of various peptide concentrations and buffer compositions, the self-assembling peptide hydrogels might be influenced regarding their mechanical characteristics. Therefore, the mechanical properties and stability of a set of self-assembling peptide hydrogels, consisting of 11 amino acids, made from four beta sheet self-assembling peptides in various peptide concentrations and buffer compositions were studied...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Marvin V Dilworth, Mathilde S Piel, Kim E Bettaney, Pikyee Ma, Ji Luo, David Sharples, David R Poyner, Stephane R Gross, Karine Moncoq, Peter J F Henderson, Bruno Miroux, Roslyn M Bill
Despite many high-profile successes, recombinant membrane protein production remains a technical challenge; it is still the case that many fewer membrane protein structures have been published than those of soluble proteins. However, progress is being made because empirical methods have been developed to produce the required quantity and quality of these challenging targets. This review focuses on the microbial expression systems that are a key source of recombinant prokaryotic and eukaryotic membrane proteins for structural studies...
April 12, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Colleen T Skau, Robert S Fischer, Pinar Gurel, Hawa Racine Thiam, Anthony Tubbs, Michelle A Baird, Michael W Davidson, Matthieu Piel, Gregory M Alushin, Andre Nussenzweig, Patricia S Steeg, Clare M Waterman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2018: Cell
Andrew D Reisner, Jennifer L Piel
In Ohio, a criminal defendant is incompetent to stand trial only if "a present mental condition" renders him unable to understand the nature and objectives of the proceedings against him or to assist in his defense. Some forensic mental health evaluators have treated the mental-condition requirement as synonymous with, or similar to, the psychiatric condition required in the state's insanity criteria, which requires a "severe mental disease or defect." Yet the term mental condition does not appear in other areas of the state's criminal code or in the state's definition of a mental illness for purposes of civil commitment...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Wolf L Eiserhardt, Alexandre Antonelli, Dominic J Bennett, Laura R Botigué, J Gordon Burleigh, Steven Dodsworth, Brian J Enquist, Félix Forest, Jan T Kim, Alexey M Kozlov, Ilia J Leitch, Brian S Maitner, Siavash Mirarab, William H Piel, Oscar A Pérez-Escobar, Lisa Pokorny, Carsten Rahbek, Brody Sandel, Stephen A Smith, Alexandros Stamatakis, Rutger A Vos, Tandy Warnow, William J Baker
Providing science and society with an integrated, up-to-date, high quality, open, reproducible and sustainable plant tree of life would be a huge service that is now coming within reach. However, synthesizing the growing body of DNA sequence data in the public domain and disseminating the trees to a diverse audience are often not straightforward due to numerous informatics barriers. While big synthetic plant phylogenies are being built, they remain static and become quickly outdated as new data are published and tree-building methods improve...
March 30, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Frédéric B Piel, Brandon L Parkes, Hima Daby, Anna L Hansell, Paul Elliott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Scott Sherrill-Mix, Kevin McCormick, Abigail Lauder, Aubrey Bailey, Laurie Zimmerman, Yingying Li, Jean-Bosco N Django, Paco Bertolani, Christelle Colin, John A Hart, Terese B Hart, Alexander V Georgiev, Crickette M Sanz, David B Morgan, Rebeca Atencia, Debby Cox, Martin N Muller, Volker Sommer, Alexander K Piel, Fiona A Stewart, Sheri Speede, Joe Roman, Gary Wu, Josh Taylor, Rudolf Bohm, Heather M Rose, John Carlson, Deus Mjungu, Paul Schmidt, Celeste Gaughan, Joyslin I Bushman, Ella Schmidt, Kyle Bittinger, Ronald G Collman, Beatrice H Hahn, Frederic D Bushman
Classical ecology provides principles for construction and function of biological communities, but to what extent these apply to the animal-associated microbiota is just beginning to be assessed. Here, we investigated the influence of several well-known ecological principles on animal-associated microbiota by characterizing gut microbial specimens from bilaterally symmetrical animals ( Bilateria ) ranging from flies to whales. A rigorously vetted sample set containing 265 specimens from 64 species was assembled...
March 27, 2018: MBio
Camille Pouchieu, Clément Piel, Camille Carles, Anne Gruber, Catherine Helmer, Séverine Tual, Elisabeth Marcotullio, Pierre Lebailly, Isabelle Baldi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Gregory J Kato, Frédéric B Piel, Clarice D Reid, Marilyn H Gaston, Kwaku Ohene-Frempong, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti, Wally R Smith, Julie A Panepinto, David J Weatherall, Fernando F Costa, Elliott P Vichinsky
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited disorders caused by mutations in HBB, which encodes haemoglobin subunit β. The incidence is estimated to be between 300,000 and 400,000 neonates globally each year, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Haemoglobin molecules that include mutant sickle β-globin subunits can polymerize; erythrocytes that contain mostly haemoglobin polymers assume a sickled form and are prone to haemolysis. Other pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the SCD phenotype are vaso-occlusion and activation of the immune system...
March 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Thomas K F Foo, Evangelos Laskaris, Mark Vermilyea, Minfeng Xu, Paul Thompson, Gene Conte, Christopher Van Epps, Christopher Immer, Seung-Kyun Lee, Ek T Tan, Dominic Graziani, Jean-Baptise Mathieu, Christopher J Hardy, John F Schenck, Eric Fiveland, Wolfgang Stautner, Justin Ricci, Joseph Piel, Keith Park, Yihe Hua, Ye Bai, Alex Kagan, David Stanley, Paul T Weavers, Erin Gray, Yunhong Shu, Matthew A Frick, Norbert G Campeau, Joshua Trzasko, John Huston, Matt A Bernstein
PURPOSE: To build and evaluate a small-footprint, lightweight, high-performance 3T MRI scanner for advanced brain imaging with image quality that is equal to or better than conventional whole-body clinical 3T MRI scanners, while achieving substantial reductions in installation costs. METHODS: A conduction-cooled magnet was developed that uses less than 12 liters of liquid helium in a gas-charged sealed system, and standard NbTi wire, and weighs approximately 2000 kg...
March 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Pablo J Sáez, Lucie Barbier, Rafaele Attia, Hawa-Racine Thiam, Matthieu Piel, Pablo Vargas
In multicellular organisms, cell migration is a complex process. Examples of this are observed during cell motility in the interstitial space, full of extracellular matrix fibers, or when cells pass through endothelial layers to colonize or exit specific tissues. A common parameter for both situations is the fast adaptation of the cellular shape to their irregular landscape. In this chapter, we describe two methods to study cell migration in complex environments. The first one consists in a multichamber device for the visualization of cell haptotaxis toward the collagen-binding chemokine CCL21...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Camille Pouchieu, Chantal Raherison, Clément Piel, Lucile Migault, Camille Carles, Pascale Fabbro-Perray, Hugues Loiseau, Jean-Sébastien Guillamo, Pierre Lebailly, Isabelle Baldi
Inverse association between allergic conditions and glioma risk has been consistently reported in epidemiological studies with little attention paid to potential environmental confounders; the association with meningioma risk is less consistent. We examined the association between allergy history and risk of glioma and meningioma in adults using data from the CERENAT (CEREbral tumors: a NATional study) multicenter case-control study carried out in 4 areas in France in 2004-2010. Participants' histories of doctor-diagnosed allergic asthma, eczema, rhinitis/hay fever and other allergic conditions were collected at onset through a detailed questionnaire delivered in a face-to-face interview...
June 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Drew T Wagner, Zhicheng Zhang, Roy A Meoded, Alexis J Cepeda, Jörn Piel, Adrian T Keatinge-Clay
trans-Acyltransferase assembly lines possess enzymatic domains often not observed in their better characterized cis-acyltransferase counterparts. Within this repertoire of largely unexplored biosynthetic machinery is a class of enzymes called the pyran synthases that catalyze the formation of five- and six-membered cyclic ethers from diverse polyketide chains. The 1.55 Å resolution crystal structure of a pyran synthase domain excised from the ninth module of the sorangicin assembly line highlights the similarity of this enzyme to the ubiquitous dehydratase domain and provides insight into the mechanism of ring formation...
April 20, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
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