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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343644/identification-of-genes-required-for-mycobacterium-abscessus-growth-in-vivo-with-a-prominent-role-of-the-esx-4-locus
#1
Laura Laencina, Violaine Dubois, Vincent Le Moigne, Albertus Viljoen, Laleh Majlessi, Justin Pritchard, Audrey Bernut, Laura Piel, Anne-Laure Roux, Jean-Louis Gaillard, Bérengère Lombard, Damarys Loew, Eric J Rubin, Roland Brosch, Laurent Kremer, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Fabienne Girard-Misguich
Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) and an opportunistic human pathogen, is responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from pulmonary to skin and soft tissue infections. This intracellular organism can resist the bactericidal defense mechanisms of amoebae and macrophages, an ability that has not been observed in other RGM. M. abscessus can up-regulate several virulence factors during transient infection of amoebae, thereby becoming more virulent in subsequent respiratory infections in mice...
January 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314825/mixed-copolymer-adlayers-allowing-reversible-thermal-control-of-single-cell-aspect-ratio
#2
Fabrice Dalier, Galina V Dubacheva, Marie Coniel, Drazen Zanchi, Anouk Galtayries, Matthieu Piel, Emmanuelle Marie, Christophe Tribet
Dynamic guidance of living cells is achieved by fine tuning and spatiotemporal modulation on artificial polymer layers enabling reversible peptide display. Adjustment of surface composition and interactions is obtained by coadsorption of mixed poly(lysine) derivatives, grafted with either repellent PEG, RGD adhesion peptides, or T-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) strands. Deposition of mixed adlayers provides a straightforward mean to optimize complex substrates, which is here implemented to achieve 1) thermal control of ligand accessibility and 2) adjustment of relative adhesiveness between adjacent micropatterns, while preserving cell attachment during thermal cycles...
January 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298306/dna-recovery-from-wild-chimpanzee-tools
#3
Fiona A Stewart, Alexander K Piel, Lydia Luncz, Joanna Osborn, Yingying Li, Beatrice H Hahn, Michael Haslam
Most of our knowledge of wild chimpanzee behaviour stems from fewer than 10 long-term field sites. This bias limits studies to a potentially unrepresentative set of communities known to show great behavioural diversity on small geographic scales. Here, we introduce a new genetic approach to bridge the gap between behavioural material evidence in unhabituated chimpanzees and genetic advances in the field of primatology. The use of DNA analyses has revolutionised archaeological and primatological fields, whereby extraction of DNA from non-invasively collected samples allows researchers to reconstruct behaviour without ever directly observing individuals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275242/maternal-cumulative-exposure-to-extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-and-pregnancy-outcomes-in-the-elfe-cohort
#4
L Migault, C Piel, C Carles, F Delva, A Lacourt, E Cardis, C Zaros, R de Seze, I Baldi, G Bouvier
OBJECTIVES: To study the relations between maternal cumulative exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) and the risk of moderate prematurity and small for gestational age within the Elfe cohort. METHODS: The Elfe study included 18,329 infants born at 33weeks of gestation or more in France in 2011 and was designed to follow the children until 20years of age. Gestational age and anthropometric data at birth were collected in medical records and small for gestational age was defined according to a French customized growth standard...
December 20, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243017/diabetes-self-care-behaviors-among-marshallese-adults-living-in-the-united-states
#5
Holly Felix, Brett Rowland, Christopher R Long, Marie-Rachelle Narcisse, Michelle Piel, Peter A Goulden, Pearl A McElfish
Marshallese experience high rates of type 2 diabetes. Proper management of diabetes requires multiple self-care behaviors, yet little is known about Marshallese's diabetes-related self-care behaviors. Survey data from 111 Marshallese adults with diabetes were used to examine relationships between self-care behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics. The most common self-care behavior was attending annual doctor visits, while the least common was maintaining a normal weight. Age group, education level, and having a regular doctor were significantly associated with engaging in self-care behaviors...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230567/cancer-nanomedicine-a-review-of-recent-success-in-drug-delivery
#6
REVIEW
Stephanie Tran, Peter-Joseph DeGiovanni, Brandon Piel, Prakash Rai
Cancer continues to be one of the most difficult global healthcare problems. Although there is a large library of drugs that can be used in cancer treatment, the problem is selectively killing all the cancer cells while reducing collateral toxicity to healthy cells. There are several biological barriers to effective drug delivery in cancer such as renal, hepatic, or immune clearance. Nanoparticles loaded with drugs can be designed to overcome these biological barriers to improve efficacy while reducing morbidity...
December 11, 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211855/a-rabbit-model-of-progressive-chronic-right-ventricular-pressure-overload
#7
Sara Roldan Ramos, Guido Pieles, Wei Hui, Cameron Slorach, Andrew N Redington, Mark K Friedberg
OBJECTIVES: Right ventricular (RV) failure from increased pressure loading is a frequent consequence of acquired and congenital heart diseases. However, the mechanisms involved in their pathophysiology are still unclear, and few data exist on RV pressure-loading models and early versus late effects on RV and left ventricular responses. We characterized a rabbit model of chronic RV pressure overload and early-late effects on biventricular function. METHODS: Twenty-one New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into 3 groups: (i) sham, (ii) pulmonary artery (PA) banding (PAB) for 3 weeks (PAB3W) and (iii) PAB for 6 weeks (PAB6W)...
December 2, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207257/forcing-entry-into-the-nucleus
#8
Alexis Lomakin, Guilherme Nader, Matthieu Piel
Nuclear pore complexes tightly regulate nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, controlling the nuclear concentration of several transcription factors. In a recent issue of Cell, Elosegui-Artola et al. (2017) show that nuclear deformation modulates the nuclear entry rates of YAP/TAZ via nuclear pore stretching, clarifying how forces affect gene transcription.
December 4, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194875/heterologous-expression-biosynthetic-studies-and-ecological-function-of-the-selective-gq-signaling-inhibitor-fr900359
#9
Max Crüsemann, Raphael Reher, Isabella Schamari, Alexander O Brachmann, Tsubasa Ohbayashi, Markus Kuschak, Davide Malfacini, Alexander Seidinger, Marta Pinto-Carbó, René Richarz, Tatjana Reuter, Stefan Kehraus, Asis Hallab, Misty Attwood, Helgi B Schiöth, Peter Mergaert, Yoshitomo Kikuchi, Till F Schäberle, Evi Kostenis, Daniela Wenzel, Christa E Müller, Jörn Piel, Aurélien Carlier, Leo Eberl, Gabriele Maria Koenig
The cyclic depsipeptide FR900359 (FR), isolated from the tropical plant Ardisia crenata, displays a strong and selective inhibition of Gq proteins, making it an indispensable pharmacological tool to study Gq-related processes, as well as a promising drug candidate. Gq inhibition is a novel mode of action for defense chemicals and crucial for the ecological function of FR, as shown by in vivo experiments on mice, affinity to insect Gq proteins and insect toxicity studies. The uncultured endosymbiont of A. crenata, 'Candidatus Burkholderia crenata' was sequenced, revealing the FR nonribosomal peptide synthetase (frs) gene cluster...
December 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185525/primate-archaeology-evolves
#10
REVIEW
Michael Haslam, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Tomos Proffitt, Adrian Arroyo, Tiago Falótico, Dorothy Fragaszy, Michael Gumert, John W K Harris, Michael A Huffman, Ammie K Kalan, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, William McGrew, Eduardo B Ottoni, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido, Alex Piel, Jill Pruetz, Caroline Schuppli, Fiona Stewart, Amanda Tan, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Lydia V Luncz
Since its inception, archaeology has traditionally focused exclusively on humans and our direct ancestors. However, recent years have seen archaeological techniques applied to material evidence left behind by non-human animals. Here, we review advances made by the most prominent field investigating past non-human tool use: primate archaeology. This field combines survey of wild primate activity areas with ethological observations, excavations and analyses that allow the reconstruction of past primate behaviour...
October 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146819/subphenotypes-of-sickle-cell-disease-in-africa
#11
Frédéric B Piel, Thomas N Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136149/pesticide-use-in-agriculture-and-parkinson-s-disease-in-the-agrican-cohort-study
#12
Camille Pouchieu, Clément Piel, Camille Carles, Anne Gruber, Catherine Helmer, Séverine Tual, Elisabeth Marcotullio, Pierre Lebailly, Isabelle Baldi
Background and Aim: Epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in farmers exposed to pesticides, but no clear conclusion can be drawn on the type of pesticide and duration of use associated with an effect. In the French agricultural cohort AGRICAN, we assessed associations between PD and pesticide use according to the types of livestock and crops grown, including exposure to some active ingredients with duration of use. Methods: Self-reported PD and history of lifetime exposure to 13 crops and 5 types of animals and pesticide use were collected at enrolment (2005-07) among 181 842 participants...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112783/toblerols-cyclopropanol-containing-modulators-of-methylobacterial-antibiosis-generated-by-an-unusual-polyketide-synthase
#13
Reiko Ueoka, Miriam Bortfeld-Miller, Brandon Isamu Morinaka, Julia Anne Vorholt, Jörn Piel
Trans-AT polyketide synthases (PKSs) are biosynthetically versatile enzymes that generate bioactive polyketides of high structural diversity. In this study, we detected in the genome of several bacteria a cryptic, unusual trans-AT PKS gene cluster that eluded automated PKS prediction. Genomic mining of one of these strains, the model methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, revealed epoxide-cyclopropanol-containing polyketides named toblerols. The stereochemistry was determined by NMR, chemical derivatization, and the comparison of CD data with those of a synthesized model compound...
November 7, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107441/real-life-experience-with-hydroxyurea-in-sickle-cell-disease-a-multicenter-study-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-heterogeneous-descent
#14
Paolo Rigano, Lucia De Franceschi, Laura Sainati, Antonio Piga, Frédéric B Piel, Maria Domenica Cappellini, Carmelo Fidone, Nicoletta Masera, Giovanni Palazzi, Barbara Gianesin, Gian Luca Forni
We conducted the first nation-wide cohort study of sickle cell disease (SCD) in Italy, a Southern European country exposed to intense recent flux migration from endemic areas for SCD. We evaluate the impact of hydroxyurea on a total of 652 pediatric and adult patients from 33 Reference Centers for SCD (mean age 24.5±15years, 51.4% males). Hydroxyurea median treatment duration was 7years (range: <1year to 29years) at a mean therapeutic dose of 18±4.7mg/kg/day. Hydroxyurea was associated with a significant increase in mean total and fetal hemoglobin and a significant decrease in mean hemoglobin S, white blood and platelet counts, and lactate dehydrogenase levels...
October 9, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079589/lysosome-signaling-controls-the-migration-of-dendritic-cells
#15
Marine Bretou, Pablo J Sáez, Doriane Sanséau, Mathieu Maurin, Danielle Lankar, Melanie Chabaud, Carmine Spampanato, Odile Malbec, Lucie Barbier, Shmuel Muallem, Paolo Maiuri, Andrea Ballabio, Julie Helft, Matthieu Piel, Pablo Vargas, Ana-Maria Lennon-Duménil
Dendritic cells (DCs) patrol their environment by linking antigen acquisition by macropinocytosis to cell locomotion. DC activation upon bacterial sensing inhibits macropinocytosis and increases DC migration, thus promoting the arrival of DCs to lymph nodes for antigen presentation to T cells. The signaling events that trigger such changes are not fully understood. We show that lysosome signaling plays a critical role in this process. Upon bacterial sensing, lysosomal calcium is released by the ionic channel TRPML1 (transient receptor potential cation channel, mucolipin subfamily, member 1), which activates the actin-based motor protein myosin II at the cell rear, promoting fast and directional migration...
October 27, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037416/the-diet-of-open-habitat-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-schweinfurthii-in-the-issa-valley-western-tanzania
#16
Alex K Piel, Paolo Strampelli, Emily Greathead, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Jim Moore, Fiona A Stewart
Comparative data on the diets of extant primates inform hypotheses about hominin resource use. Historically, data describing chimpanzee diets stem primarily from forest-dwelling communities, and we lack comparative data from chimpanzees that live in mosaic habitats that more closely resemble those reconstructed for Plio-Pleistocene hominins. We present data on the diet of a partially-habituated community of open habitat chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) from the Issa valley, western Tanzania, collected over a four-year period...
November 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037414/chimpanzee-vertebrate-consumption-savanna-and-forest-chimpanzees-compared
#17
Jim Moore, Jessica Black, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Gen'ichi Idani, Alex Piel, Fiona Stewart
There is broad consensus among paleoanthropologists that meat-eating played a key role in the evolution of Homo, but the details of where, when, and why are hotly debated. It has been argued that increased faunivory was causally connected with hominin adaptation to open, savanna habitats. If savanna-dwelling chimpanzees eat meat more frequently than do forest chimpanzees, it would support the notion that open, dry, seasonal habitats promote hunting or scavenging by hominoids. Here we present observational and fecal analysis data on vertebrate consumption from several localities within the dry, open Ugalla region of Tanzania...
November 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019346/occupational-exposure-to-pesticides-development-of-a-job-exposure-matrix-for-use-in-population-based-studies-pestipop
#18
Camille Carles, Ghislaine Bouvier, Yolande Esquirol, Camille Pouchieu, Lucile Migault, Clément Piel, Pascale Fabbro-Peray, Séverine Tual, Pierre Lebailly, Isabelle Baldi
Occupational exposure to pesticides concerns a wide population of workers not only in agriculture. The reliability of self-reported information on pesticide use is questionable because of the diversity of use. The PESTIPOP job-exposure matrix has been designed to assess pesticide occupational exposure in the general population. The matrix is composed of two axes: the first axis corresponding to jobs (combinations of occupations and industries) and the second one to pesticide exposure. The estimated exposure metric is the probability of exposure coupled with a reliability assessment (low, medium or high)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018473/qtl-analyses-in-multiple-populations-employed-for-the-fine-mapping-and-identification-of-candidate-genes-at-a-locus-affecting-sugar-accumulation-in-melon-cucumis-melo-l
#19
Jason M Argyris, Aurora Díaz, Valentino Ruggieri, Marta Fernández, Torben Jahrmann, Yves Gibon, Belén Picó, Ana M Martín-Hernández, Antonio J Monforte, Jordi Garcia-Mas
Sugar content is the major determinant of both fruit quality and consumer acceptance in melon (Cucumis melo L), and is a primary target for crop improvement. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) derived from the intraspecific cross between a "Piel de Sapo" (PS) type and the exotic cultivar "Songwhan Charmi" (SC), and several populations generated from the cross of PS × Ames 24294 ("Trigonus"), a wild melon, were used to identify QTL related to sugar and organic acid composition. Seventy-eight QTL were detected across several locations and different years, with three important clusters related to sugar content located on chromosomes 4, 5, and 7...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980083/adenovirus-infection-in-savanna-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-schweinfurthii-in-the-issa-valley-tanzania
#20
Eva Dadáková, Kristýna Brožová, Alex K Piel, Fiona A Stewart, David Modrý, Vladimír Celer, Kristýna Hrazdilová
Adenoviruses are a widespread cause of diverse human infections with recently confirmed zoonotic roots in African great apes. We focused on savanna-dwelling chimpanzees in the Issa Valley (Tanzania), which differ from those from forested sites in many aspects of behavior and ecology. PCR targeting the DNA polymerase gene detected AdV in 36.7% (69/188) of fecal samples. We detected five groups of strains belonging to the species Human mastadenovirus E and two distinct groups within the species Human mastadenovirus C based on partial hexon sequence...
October 4, 2017: Archives of Virology
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