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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688615/comparative-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-bococizumab-following-a-single-subcutaneous-injection-using-drug-substance-manufactured-at-two-sites-or-administration-via-two-different-devices
#1
Ellen Q Wang, Anna Plotka, Joanne Salageanu, Daniel Baltrukonis, Khurshid Mridha, Robert Frederich, Beth E Sullivan
The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of bococizumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor, were compared following a single 150-mg subcutaneous dose administered to healthy subjects (n = 156-158/arm) via: (1) a prefilled syringe (PFS) using drug substance (DS) manufactured by Pfizer, (2) a PFS using DS manufactured by Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, (3) a prefilled pen using DS manufactured by Pfizer (NCT02458209). Blood samples were collected for 12 weeks postdose...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687421/baricitinib-a-review-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
Zaina T Al-Salama, Lesley J Scott
Baricitinib (Olumiant® ) is an oral, targeted synthetic DMARD that inhibits JAK1 and JAK2, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This novel, small molecule is approved for use as monotherapy, or in combination with methotrexate, for the treatment of adults with moderate to severe active RA who responded inadequately to or were intolerant of ≥ 1 DMARD. In pivotal multinational trials, once-daily baricitinib 4 mg, with/without methotrexate (± another csDMARD), improved the signs and symptoms of RA, disease activity and physical function in DMARD-naive patients and in patients with an inadequate response to methotrexate, csDMARDs or TNF inhibitors; baricitinib treatment also slowed structural joint damage in DMARD-naive patients and in those with an inadequate response to methotrexate and csDMARDs...
April 23, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686668/emerging-concepts-of-adaptive-immunity-in-leprosy
#3
REVIEW
Soumi Sadhu, Dipendra Kumar Mitra
Leprosy is a chronic intracellular infection caused by the acid-fast bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae . The disease chiefly affects the skin, peripheral nerves, mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, and the eyes. The damage to peripheral nerves results in sensory and motor impairment with characteristic deformities and disability. Presently, the disease remains concentrated in resource-poor countries in tropical and warm temperate regions with the largest number of cases reported from India. Even though innate immunity influences the clinical manifestation of the disease, it is the components of adaptive immune system which seem to tightly correlate with the characteristic spectrum of leprosy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681933/retrospective-assessment-of-antibiotics-prescribing-at-public-primary-healthcare-facilities-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#4
Fikru Worku, Dagmawit Tewahido
Background. Antibiotic overprescribing is the major driving force for the emergence of antibiotics resistance. The aim of this study was to assess antibiotics prescribing at primary healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. The study was conducted in six public health centers found in Addis Ababa City. Data was collected retrospectively from a total of 900 prescriptions and selected medical charts of patients in the health centers in 2016. Data was entered and analyzed using EPI Info 7 and SPSS 20, respectively...
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681249/endemic-infection-of-the-common-mynah-acridotheres-tristis-with-trichomonas-gallinae-the-agent-of-avian-trichomonosis
#5
Hassan Ali Farooq, Hammad Ahmad Khan, Abdulwahed Fahad Alrefaei, Kevin Morris Tyler
Avian trichomonosis is an architypal disease of wild columbids and those birds that predate them. Increasingly though, it has been reported in passerines; a recent and ongoing epidemic in the chaffinches and greenfinches of Europe and outbreaks amongst house finches, American goldfinches and purple finches in North America. The parasite, Trichomonas gallinae, causes lesions in the upper respiratory tract which can cause mortality associated with dehydration and emaciation. This paper reports for the first time, the widespread, endemic and often asymptomatic infection of common mynah (Acridotheres tristis) around the Faisalabad District, Pakistan...
April 23, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675258/livedo-reticularis-a-cutaneous-clue-to-an-underlying-endocrine-crisis
#6
Natasha Shrikrishnapalasuriyar, Mirena Noyvirt, Philip Evans, Bethan Gibson, Elin Foden, Atul Kalhan
A 54-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with a presumed allergic reaction to a single dose of amoxicillin given for a suspected upper respiratory tract infection. She complained of chest tightness although there was no wheeze or stridor. On examination, she was pyrexial, tachycardic, hypertensive and had a diffuse mottled rash on her lower limbs. Her initial investigations showed raised inflammatory markers. She was treated in the intensive care for a presumed anaphylactic reaction with an underlying sepsis...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674796/prescriber-and-dispenser-perceptions-about-antibiotic-use-in-acute-uncomplicated-childhood-diarrhea-and-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-in-new-delhi-qualitative-study
#7
Anita Kotwani, P C Joshi, Urmila Jhamb, Kathleen Holloway
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore the prescribing practices, knowledge, and attitudes of primary care doctors and community pharmacists, regarding antibiotic use in acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and diarrhea in children to better understand causes of misuse and identify provider suggestions to change such behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two focus group discussions (FGDs) each were conducted with primary care government doctors (GDs), private general practitioners (GPs), pediatricians, and community pharmacists in Delhi...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674425/impact-of-gut-colonization-with-butyrate-producing-microbiota-on-respiratory-viral-infection-following-allo-hct
#8
Bastiaan W Haak, Eric R Littmann, Jean-Luc Chaubard, Amanda J Pickard, Emily Fontana, Fatima Adhi, Yangtsho Gyaltshen, Lilan Ling, Sejal M Morjaria, Jonathan U Peled, Marcel R van den Brink, Alexander I Geyer, Justin R Cross, Eric G Pamer, Ying Taur
Respiratory viral infections are frequent in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT), and can potentially progress to lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The intestinal microbiota contributes to resistance against viral and bacterial pathogens in the lung. However, whether intestinal microbiota composition and associated changes in microbe-derived metabolites contribute to the risk of LRTI following upper respiratory tract viral infection remains unexplored in the setting of allo-HCT...
April 19, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673075/limited-pathogenicity-and-transmissibility-of-korean-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n6-clade-2-3-4-4-in-ferrets
#9
J-Y Noh, D-H Lee, S-S Yuk, J-H Kwon, E-O Tseren-Ochir, W-T Hong, J-H Jeong, S Jeong, C-S Song
The pathogenicity and transmissibility of a reassortant clade 2.3.4.4 avian influenza A (H5N6) virus were evaluated in ferrets. Virus excretion was detected in the upper respiratory tract, but the ferrets did not show any clinical signs of infection. Transmission did not occur between cohoused or respiratory droplet-contact ferrets.
April 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672552/induction-of-salivary-antibody-levels-in-dutch-adolescents-after-immunization-with-monovalent-meningococcal-serogroup-c-or-quadrivalent-meningococcal-serogroup-a-c-w-and-y-conjugate-vaccine
#10
Mariëtte B van Ravenhorst, Gerco den Hartog, Fiona R M van der Klis, Debbie M van Rooijen, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Guy A M Berbers
BACKGROUND: Meningococcal infection starts with colonisation of the upper respiratory tract. Mucosal immunity is important for protection against acquisition and subsequent meningococcal carriage. In this study, we assessed salivary antibody levels against meningococcal serogroup A (MenA), W (MenW) and Y (MenY) after vaccination with a quadrivalent MenACWY conjugated vaccine. We also compared salivary meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) antibody levels after monovalent MenC and quadrivalent MenACWY conjugated vaccination...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670379/assessment-of-an-accessorized-pre-filled-syringe-for-home-administered-benralizumab-in-severe-asthma
#11
Gary T Ferguson, Adel H Mansur, Joshua S Jacobs, Jacques Hebert, Corbin Clawson, Wenli Tao, Yanping Wu, Mitchell Goldman
Background: Patients prefer at-home subcutaneous administration of biologics across different diseases, yet no biologic is approved for at-home use for severe, uncontrolled asthma. Objective: We assessed at-home functionality, reliability, and performance of an accessorized pre-filled syringe (APFS) for subcutaneous benralizumab administration, an anti-eosinophil monoclonal antibody indicated for add-on maintenance treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667896/a-phase-1-study-to-assess-the-pharmacokinetics-safety-and-tolerability-of-fremanezumab-doses-225-mg-675-mg-and-900-mg-in-japanese-and-caucasian-healthy-subjects
#12
Orit Cohen-Barak, Sivan Weiss, Michele Rasamoelisolo, Nicola Faulhaber, Paul P Yeung, Pippa S Loupe, Esther Yoon, Mohit D Gandhi, Ofer Spiegelstein, Ernesto Aycardi
Objectives The primary and secondary objectives of this phase 1 study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile, safety, and immunogenicity of fremanezumab subcutaneous (sc) doses tested in phase 2 and 3 trials (225 mg, 675 mg and 900 mg) following single administration in Japanese (n = 32) and Caucasian (n = 32) healthy subjects. Methods Japanese and matched Caucasian healthy subjects were enrolled into one of four cohorts and were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 225, 675, or 900 mg fremanezumab, or placebo...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665907/-influencing-factors-of-nosocomial-infection-after-chemotherapy-in-adult-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-and-its-control-strategy
#13
Shu-Tan Li, Liu Tang, Xiao-Min Chen, Xiao-Ming Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influencing factors of nosocomial infection in adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and its control strategies. METHODS: The clinical data of 109 patients with AML treated in our hospital from June 2014 to June 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical factors were analyzed retrospectively, and the influencing factors of infection after chemotherapy were explored. RESULTS: A total of 109 patients received chemotherapy for 267 case-times, the infection occurred in 168 case-times, the nosocomial infection rate was 62...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664460/a-novel-variant-in-atm-gene-causes-ataxia-telangiectasia-revealed-by-whole-exome-sequencing
#14
Noufa A Alonazi, Khalid J Hundallah, Amal M Al Hashem, Sarar Mohamed
Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by variants in ATM gene and characterized by progressive neurologic impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and oculo-cutaneous telangiectasia. Immunodeficiency with a recurrent sinopulmonary infections are observed in patients with A-T. Here, we report a novel stop codon variant, c.5944 C>T (p.Gln1982*), revealed by whole-exome sequencing in a 9-year old boy. He presented with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, failure to thrive, developmental delay, ataxic gait, and bulbar telangiectasia...
April 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661986/maxillary-sinus-mucocele-with-orbital-complications
#15
Nicola Lombardo, Pierpaolo Ferrise, Giovanna Lucia Piazzetta, Donatella Bruzzichessi, Domenico Testa, Pasquale Viola, Corrado Pelaia, Gaetano Motta
INTRODUCTION: Maxillary sinus mucocele is an unusual clinic entity (incidence of 3-10%), represented by mucous secretion lined by respiratory stratified pavemented epithelium and its origin is mainly secondary to infections, inflammations, surgery, trauma or neoplasia. CASE REPORT: We present a case of maxillary sinus mucocele. Subject of the study is a 74 aged patient referring positive anamnesis for nasal cavity surgery. His symptoms appeared six months ago and he complainted vertical ocular diplopia and ocular tension sensation, without rhinologic complaints...
April 9, 2018: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661119/combined-fatal-systemic-chlamydia-sp-and-aeromonas-sobria-infection-in-juvenile-siamese-crocodiles-crocodylus-siamensis
#16
Pacharee Thongkamkoon, Nopporn Tohmee, Erin K Morris, Laksanee Inamnuay, Eric D Lombardini
Chlamydial infections in crocodiles have been described in several countries and in several different species. These are typically associated with severe pharyngitis and conjunctivitis, with death occurring secondary to compromise of the upper respiratory tract due to obstruction of the trachea. A population of ranched Siamese crocodiles in central Thailand experienced an epizootic of sudden death in juvenile animals. The affected animals had fulminant systemic disease primarily involving the liver and spleen but also affecting the kidneys, heart, and the whole of the respiratory tract...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655418/withdrawn-nsaid-and-antitussives-in-patients-with-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-related-cough-a-good-combination
#17
Alessandro Zanasi, Luigi Lanata, Federico Saibene, Massimiliano Mazzolini
The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published in Eur Respir J. 46 (2015) PA3852, http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.congress-2015.PA3852. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.
October 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655388/the-prevalence-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-mainland-china-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Jiancong Wang, Fangfei Liu, Ermira Tartari, Jianan Huang, Stephan Harbarth, Didier Pittet, Walter Zingg
OBJECTIVETo assess the prevalence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in mainland China.DESIGNSystematic review and meta-analysis.SETTINGAdults and children from secondary and tertiary acute-care hospitals in mainland China.METHODSWe searched PubMed, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wan Fang for multicenter point-prevalence surveys of acute-care hospitals in mainland China from January 2006 to August 2016. All reports related to HAI, using a point-prevalence methodology and published either in English or Chinese were eligible...
April 15, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652926/assessment-of-costs-associated-with-adverse-events-in-patients-with-cancer
#19
William Wong, Yeun Mi Yim, Ashley Kim, Martin Cloutier, Marjolaine Gauthier-Loiselle, Patrick Gagnon-Sanschagrin, Annie Guerin
Adverse event (AE)-related costs represent an important component of economic models for cancer care. However, since previous studies mostly focused on specific AEs, treatments, or cancer types, limited information is currently available. Therefore, this study assessed the incremental healthcare costs associated with a large number of AEs among patients diagnosed with some of the most prevalent types of cancer. Data were obtained from a large US claims database. Adult patients were included if diagnosed with and treated for one of the following cancer types: breast, digestive organs and peritoneum, genitourinary organs (including bladder and ovary and other uterine adnexa), lung, lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue, and skin...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651984/ifn-%C3%AE-prevents-influenza-virus-spread-from-the-upper-airways-to-the-lungs-and-limits-virus-transmission
#20
Jonas Klinkhammer, Daniel Schnepf, Liang Ye, Marilena Schwaderlapp, Hans Henrik Gad, Rune Hartmann, Dominique Garcin, Tanel Mahlakõiv, Peter Staeheli
Host factors restricting the transmission of respiratory viruses are poorly characterized. We analyzed the contribution of type I and type III interferon (IFN) using a mouse model in which the virus is selectively administered to the upper airways, mimicking a natural respiratory virus infection. Mice lacking functional IFN-λ receptors ( Ifnlr1-/- ) no longer restricted virus dissemination from the upper airways to the lungs. Ifnlr1-/- mice shed significantly more infectious virus particles via the nostrils and transmitted the virus much more efficiently to naïve contacts compared with wild-type mice or mice lacking functional type I IFN receptors...
April 13, 2018: ELife
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