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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045961/-effects-of-recent-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-on-incidence-of-the-perioperative-respiratory-adverse-events-in-children-a-prospective-cohort-study
#1
C Q Li, D X Wang, T Cheng, X Y Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of the recent upper respiratory tract infections (URI) on the incidence of perioperative respiratory adverse events in children scheduled to undergo general anesthesia and elective surgery. METHODS: In the study, 232 children undergoing general anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for elective ophthalmic surgeries at Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China, from Nov. 1, 2015 to May 10, 2016 were enrolled. On the day of the surgery, the parents of the children were preoperatively asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding the baseline characteristics and medical history of the children, including gender, age, height, weight, history of URI within the last 2 weeks before anesthesia, history of premature, long-term passive smoking exposure, habitual sleep snoring, and history of asthma...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033599/primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-mechanisms-and-management
#2
REVIEW
Nadirah Damseh, Nada Quercia, Nisreen Rumman, Sharon D Dell, Raymond H Kim
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of motile cilia that is predominantly inherited in an autosomal-recessive fashion. It is associated with abnormal ciliary structure and/or function leading to chronic upper and lower respiratory tract infections, male infertility, and situs inversus. The estimated prevalence of primary ciliary dyskinesia is approximately one in 10,000-40,000 live births. Diagnosis depends on clinical presentation, nasal nitric oxide, high-speed video-microscopy analysis, transmission electron microscopy, genetic testing, and immunofluorescence...
2017: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032949/correction-of-hyperleucinemia-in-msud-patients-on-leucine-free-dietary-therapy
#3
Anna I Scott, Kristina Cusmano-Ozog, Gregory M Enns, Tina M Cowan
PURPOSE: Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is a rare disorder of branched-chain amino acid catabolism associated with encephalopathy from accumulation of leucine. Leucine is closely monitored during normal growth and particularly during acute illness. As most hospitals do not have access to rapid plasma amino acid quantification, the initial management is often empirical. A model describing the reduction of plasma leucine in hyperleucinemic patients on leucine-free formula would help to guide management and optimize testing frequency...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031288/case-report-old-world-mucosal-leishmaniasis-report-of-five-imported-cases-to-the-hospital-for-tropical-diseases-london-united-kingdom
#4
Trupti A Patel, Glenis K Scadding, David E Phillips, Diana N Lockwood
Old World species of Leishmania typically cause visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Mucosal involvement is typically seen with infection by Leishmania species found in South America, usually after the healing of cutaneous leishmaniasis. We present five imported cases of mucosal leishmaniasis caused by Old World Mediterranean Leishmania infantum exclusively affecting the nasal mucosa or vocal cord. In only one case was there a recollection of a preceding cutaneous lesion compatible with cutaneous Leishmaniasis...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030631/viscosity-is-an-important-factor-of-resistance-to-alcohol-based-disinfectants-by-pathogens-present-in-mucus
#5
Ryohei Hirose, Takaaki Nakaya, Yuji Naito, Tomo Daidoji, Yohei Watanabe, Hiroaki Yasuda, Hideyuki Konishi, Yoshito Itoh
Alcohol-based disinfectants play an important role in the prevention of healthcare-acquired infection (HAI). We investigated whether pathogens present in mucus acquire resistance to alcohol-based disinfectants, and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Both the resistance of influenza A virus and Escherichia coli to alcohol-based disinfectants or ultraviolet irradiation and the diffusion rate of ethanol were determined in artificial mucus or sputum samples obtained from 27 individuals with acute upper respiratory infection...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026886/clinical-characteristics-of-acute-drug-induced-dystonia-in-pediatric-patients
#6
Hyun Woong Park, Jae Ryung Kwak, Ji Sook Lee
OBJECTIVE: Dystonia is a movement disorder in which muscles contract uncontrollably. Acute drug-induced dystonia (DID) can be diagnosed through detailed history taking and physical examination. This study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics of DID in children, which could help emergency physicians diagnose these conditions more efficiently. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of children aged below 18 years diagnosed with drug-related dystonia after discharge from the emergency department over 10 years...
September 2017: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026809/spontaneously-resolved-macrocystic-lymphatic-malformations-predictive-variables-and-outcomes
#7
Michael J Phang, Douglas J Courtemanche, Marija Bucevska, Claudia Malic, Jugpal S Arneja
INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic malformations are benign, low-flow vascular malformations that typically present at or near birth. Due to morbidity associated with operative treatment, nonoperative treatment with injection of sclerosant has become the mainstay of therapy. Over the past 15 years, several patients at our centre with macrocystic (>2 cm cyst size) lymphatic malformations have seen their lesions resolve spontaneously while awaiting treatment. In this study, we review features of these patients that may contribute to spontaneous resolution...
February 2017: Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026634/hiv-positive-patient-with-gbs-like-syndrome
#8
Samantha J Shepherd, Heather Black, Emma C Thomson, Rory N Gunson
Introduction. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is an acute demyelinating polyneuropathy which can occur post-infection. Criteria of diagnosis of GBS include areflexia with progressive bilateral weakness in arms and legs. GBS can lead to severe respiratory and cardiac complications. The fatality rate can be up to 5 % in patients, depending on the severity of the symptoms. HIV can cause a range of neurological disorders including, on rare occasions, GBS. GBS can occur at any stage of HIV infection, highlighting the complexity of diagnosis of GBS within HIV patients...
August 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024833/health-of-vlbw-infants-in-germany-at-five-years-of-age-what-do-parents-describe
#9
Juliane Spiegler, Guido Stichtenoth, Inke R König, Egbert Herting, Wolfgang Göpel
BACKGROUND: There are only few data on medical problems and utilization of health services of former very low birth weight (VLBW) children at preschool age. STUDY DESIGN: At five years of age parents of a cohort of VLBW children (N=862) received questionnaires, a medical interview and examination. The results were compared to the KIGGS cohort (Deutscher-Kinder-und Jugendgesundheitssurvey, N=777). RESULTS: Parents of the VLBW and KIGGS cohort reported a very good or good health in 95% in their children...
October 9, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021092/t-cells-and-their-cytokine-production-the-anti-inflammatory-and-immunosuppressive-effects-of-strenuous-exercise
#10
REVIEW
David M Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Deborah Dulson
Strenuous exercise bouts and heavy training are associated with a heightened anti-inflammatory state and a transient suppression of several immune components. In turn, many athletes are susceptible to illness, particularly upper respiratory symptoms (e.g. cough, sore throat, running nose). T-lymphocytes (T-cells) are important for orchestrating the immune response and can be categorised into subsets according to their phenotypical characteristics resulting from polarisation (i.e. type-1, type-2 and regulatory T-cells)...
October 8, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017451/multiplex-pcr-point-of-care-testing-versus-routine-laboratory-based-testing-in-the-treatment-of-adults-with-respiratory-tract-infections-a-quasi-randomised-study-assessing-impact-on-length-of-stay-and-antimicrobial-use
#11
Denise Andrews, Yumela Chetty, Ben S Cooper, Manjinder Virk, Stephen K Glass, Andrew Letters, Philip A Kelly, Malur Sudhanva, Dakshika Jeyaratnam
BACKGROUND: Laboratory-based respiratory pathogen (RP) results are often available too late to influence clinical decisions such as hospitalisation or antibiotic treatment due to time delay in transport of specimens and testing schedules. Ward-based i.e. point of care (POC) testing providing rapid results may alter the clinical management pathway. METHODS: FilmArray® RP polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems were placed in three in-patient and out-patient medical areas...
October 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991170/diagnostic-accuracy-of-febridx-a-rapid-test-to-detect-immune-responses-to-viral-and-bacterial-upper-respiratory-infections
#12
Wesley H Self, Jeffrey Rosen, Stephan C Sharp, Michael R Filbin, Peter C Hou, Amisha D Parekh, Michael C Kurz, Nathan I Shapiro
C-reactive protein (CRP) and myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) are associated with bacterial and viral infections, respectively. We conducted a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study of adults and children with febrile upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid CRP/MxA immunoassay to identify clinically significant bacterial infection with host response and acute pathogenic viral infection. The reference standard for classifying URI etiology was an algorithm that included throat bacterial culture, upper respiratory PCR for viral and atypical pathogens, procalcitonin, white blood cell count, and bandemia...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988576/alcohol-and-the-lung
#13
Ashish J Mehta, David M Guidot
Among the many organ systems affected by harmful alcohol use, the lungs are particularly susceptible to infections and injury. The mechanisms responsible for rendering people with alcohol use disorder (AUD) vulnerable to lung damage include alterations in host defenses of the upper and lower airways, disruption of alveolar epithelial barrier integrity, and alveolar macrophage immune dysfunction. Collectively, these derangements encompass what has been termed the "alcoholic lung" phenotype. Alcohol-related reductions in antioxidant levels also may contribute to lung disease in people with underlying AUD...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987445/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-an-inactivated-quadrivalent-influenza-vaccine-co-administered-with-a-23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-versus-separate-administration-in-adults-%C3%A2-50years-of-age-results-from-a-phase-iii-randomized-non-inferiority-trial
#14
Opokua Ofori-Anyinam, Geert Leroux-Roels, Mamadou Drame, Annelies Aerssens, Cathy Maes, Arshad Amanullah, Anne Schuind, Ping Li, Varsha K Jain, Bruce L Innis
INTRODUCTION: We compared co-administration versus separate administration of an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) in adults at high risk of complications of influenza and pneumococcal infection. METHODS: This phase III, placebo-controlled, observer-blind trial (NCT02218697) was conducted in France and Belgium during the 2014-2015 influenza season. Adults≥50years of age meeting their country's vaccination recommendations were randomized 1:1 to co-administration or separate administration...
October 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985397/a-rare-cause-of-torticollis-grisel-syndrome
#15
Nukhet Aladag Ciftdemir, Tuba Eren, Mert Ciftdemir
Painful torticollis in children requires specific attention. Grisel syndrome is diagnosed on suspicion in patients with recent or history of ongoing upper respiratory tract infections and in patients with restriction of movement or deformity following oto-rhino-laryngologic surgery. Pediatricians should be aware of this condition because early diagnosis and intervention are critical for prognosis in Grisel syndrome.
July 18, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985369/reducing-early-career-general-practitioners-antibiotic-prescribing-for-respiratory-tract-infections-a-pragmatic-prospective-non-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Parker Magin, Amanda Tapley, Simon Morgan, Joshua S Davis, Patrick McElduff, Lucy Yardley, Kim Henderson, Anthea Dallas, Lawrie McArthur, Katie Mulquiney, Andrew Davey, Paul Little, Neil Spike, Mieke L van Driel
Background: Inappropriate antibiotic prescription and consequent antibacterial resistance is a major threat to healthcare. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of a multifaceted intervention in reducing early career general practitioners' (GPs') antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis. Methods: A pragmatic non-randomized trial employing a non-equivalent control group design nested within an existing cohort study of GP registrars' (trainees') clinical practice...
July 17, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982549/achieving-a-3-star-society-of-thoracic-surgery-lobectomy-ranking-by-using-continuing-process-improvement-lean-methodology-and-root-cause-analysis
#17
Robert J Cerfolio, Douglas J Minnich, Benjamin Wei, Caroline Watson, Malcolm M DeCamp
Our purpose is to identify the metrics used by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) to rank lobectomy and to show our process to improve. This is a review of our STS data for lobectomy and our results using the process of root cause analysis and lean methodology to improve our outcomes. The STS metrics are 30-day mortality, pneumonia, adult respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopleural fistula, pulmonary embolus, initial ventilator support greater than 48 hours, reintubation and respiratory failure, tracheostomy, myocardial infarction, or unexpected return to the operating room...
August 18, 2017: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982141/experimental-human-like-model-to-assess-the-part-of-viable-legionella-reaching-the-thoracic-region-after-nebulization
#18
Jérémie Pourchez, Lara Leclerc, Françoise Girardot, Serge Riffard, Nathalie Prevot, Séverine Allegra
The incidence of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in European countries and the USA has been constantly increasing since 1998. Infection of humans occurs through aerosol inhalation. To bridge the existing gap between the concentration of Legionella in a water network and the deposition of bacteria within the thoracic region (assessment of the number of viable Legionella), we validated a model mimicking realistic exposure through the use of (i) recent technology for aerosol generation and (ii) a 3D replicate of the human upper respiratory tract...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978704/human-metapneumovirus-induces-formation-of-inclusion-bodies-for-efficient-genome-replication-and-transcription
#19
Nicolás Cifuentes-Muñoz, Jean Branttie, Kerri Beth Slaughter, Rebecca Ellis Dutch
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) causes significant upper and lower respiratory disease to all age groups worldwide. The virus possesses a negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome of approximately 13.3 Kb encapsidated by multiple copies of the nucleoprotein (N), giving rise to helical nucleocapsids. In addition, copies of the phosphoprotein (P) and the large RNA polymerase (L) decorate the viral nucleocapsids. After viral attachment, endocytosis, and fusion mediated by the viral glycoproteins, HMPV nucleocapsids are released into the cell cytoplasm...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975099/predictive-risk-factors-of-steroid-dependent-nephrotic-syndrome-in-children
#20
Maher Ahmed Abdel-Hafez, Nagy Mohamed Abou-El-Hana, Adel Ali Erfan, Mohamed El-Gamasy, Hend Abdel-Nabi
BACKGROUND: Development of steroid dependency is one of the difficult problems in the management of children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, leading to increased morbidity, complications and cost of treatment. Thus, predicting early in the disease course will be useful in counseling parents and may improve treatment strategy. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical characteristics that can predict the development of steroid dependency early in the initial episodes of steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS)...
July 2017: Journal of Nephropathology
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