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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137606/outbreak-of-caliciviruses-in-the-singapore-military-2015
#1
Freddy Jun Xian Neo, Jimmy Jin Phang Loh, Peijun Ting, Wei Xin Yeo, Christine Qiu Han Gao, Vernon Jian Ming Lee, Boon Huan Tan, Ching Ging Ng
BACKGROUND: From 31 August to 9 September 2015, a total of 150 military personnel at a military institution in Singapore were infected with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) with an attack rate of approximately 3%. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of the outbreak, investigate its origins, and discuss measures to prevent future occurrences. METHODS: After the AGE outbreak was declared on 31 August 2015, symptom surveys, hygiene inspections, and the testing of water, food, and stool samples were initiated...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121060/the-effects-of-demographic-social-and-environmental-characteristics-on-pathogen-prevalence-in-wild-felids-across-a-gradient-of-urbanization
#2
Jesse S Lewis, Kenneth A Logan, Mat W Alldredge, Scott Carver, Sarah N Bevins, Michael Lappin, Sue VandeWoude, Kevin R Crooks
Transmission of pathogens among animals is influenced by demographic, social, and environmental factors. Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can impact patterns of disease dynamics in wildlife populations, increasing the potential for spillover and spread of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, human, and domestic animal populations. We evaluated the effects of multiple ecological mechanisms on patterns of pathogen exposure in animal populations. Specifically, we evaluated how ecological factors affected the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasma), Bartonella spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113097/structure-and-function-of-caliciviral-rna-polymerases
#3
REVIEW
Ji-Hye Lee, Mi Sook Chung, Kyung Hyun Kim
Caliciviruses are a leading agent of human and animal gastroenteritis and respiratory tract infections, which are growing concerns in immunocompromised individuals. However, no vaccines or therapeutics are yet available. Since the rapid rate of genetic evolution of caliciviruses is mainly due to the error-prone nature of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), this article focuses on recent studies of the structures and functions of RdRp from caliciviruses. It also provides recent advances in the interactions of RdRp with virion protein genome-linked (VPg) and RNA and the structural and functional features of its precursor...
November 6, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093089/rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-virus-2-gi-2-is-replacing-endemic-strains-of-rhdv-in-the-australian-landscape-within-18-months-of-its-arrival
#4
Jackie E Mahar, Robyn N Hall, David Peacock, John Kovaliski, Melissa Piper, Roslyn Mourant, Nina Huang, Susan Campbell, Xingnian Gu, Andrew Read, Nadya Urakova, Tarnya Cox, Edward C Holmes, Tanja Strive
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2; Lagovirus GI.2) is a pathogenic calicivirus that affects European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and various hare (Lepus) species. GI.2 was first detected in France in 2010 and subsequently caused epidemics in wild and domestic lagomorph populations throughout Europe. In May 2015 GI.2 was detected in Australia. Within 18 months of its initial detection GI.2 had spread to all Australian states and territories and rapidly became the dominant circulating strain, replacing Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV/GI...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024672/conventional-and-real-time-rt-pcr-assays-for-the-detection-and-differentiation-of-variant-rabbit-hemorrhagic-disease-virus-rhdvb-and-its-recombinants
#5
K P Dalton, J L Arnal, A A Benito, G Chacón, J M Martín Alonso, F Parra
Since its emergence, variant RHDV (RHDVb/RHDV2) has spread throughout the Iberian Peninsula aided by the apparent lack of cross protection provided by classic (genogroup 1; G1) strain derived vaccines. In addition to RHDVb, full-length genome sequencing of RHDV strains has recently revealed the circulation of recombinant viruses on the Iberian Peninsula. These recombinant viruses contain the RHDVb structural protein encoding sequences and the non-structural coding regions of either pathogenic RHDV-G1 strains or non-pathogenic (np) rabbit caliciviruses...
January 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017551/comparative-efficacy-of-the-leucofeligen%C3%A2-felv-rcp-and-purevax%C3%A2-rcp-felv-vaccines-against-infection-with-circulating-feline-calicivirus
#6
T Almeras, P Schreiber, S Fournel, V Martin, C S Nicolas, C Fontaine, C Lesbros, S Gueguen
BACKGROUND: Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common virus, found worldwide, mainly responsible for chronic ulceroproliferative faucitis and periodontitis. This virus has a high mutation rate, leading to the presence of numerous FCV strains in the field. The objectives of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two vaccines (Leucofeligen™ FeLV/RCP and Purevax™ RCP FeLV), which differ by their nature (live vs. inactivated) and the vaccinal strains, against circulating FCV strains...
October 10, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986291/molecular-detection-of-feline-calicivirus-in-clinical-samples-a-study-comparing-its-detection-by-rt-qpcr-directly-from-swabs-and-after-virus-isolation
#7
Marina L Meli, Alice Berger, Barbara Willi, Andrea M Spiri, Barbara Riond, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
Feline caliciviruses (FCVs) are non-enveloped RNA viruses that exhibit high genetic variation. Two reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) FCV assays (S1 and S2) were evaluated using samples from 300 field cats. The direct detection of FCV in swabs and after propagation in cell culture, as well as the influence of storage conditions, was assessed. FCV-RNA detectability on dry swabs was similar after storage at either 4°C or -20°C, but viral burdens were maintained for a longer time period when viral transport medium was used...
January 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983731/viral-metagenomics-of-six-bat-species-in-close-contact-with-humans-in-southern-china
#8
Xue-Yan Zheng, Min Qiu, Wei-Jie Guan, Jin-Ming Li, Shao-Wei Chen, Ming-Ji Cheng, Shu-Ting Huo, Zhong Chen, Yi Wu, Li-Na Jiang, Qing Chen
Accumulating studies have shown that bats could harbor various important pathogenic viruses that could be transmitted to humans and other animals. Extensive metagenomic studies of different organs/tissues from bats have revealed a large number of novel or divergent viruses. To elucidate viral diversity and epidemiological and phylogenetic characteristics, six pooled fecal samples from bats were generated (based on bat species and geographic regions characteristic for virome analysis). These contained 500 fecal samples from six bat species, collected in four geographic regions...
October 5, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864657/recovery-optimization-and-survival-of-the-human-norovirus-surrogates-feline-calicivirus-and-murine-norovirus-on-carpet
#9
David Buckley, Angela Fraser, Guohui Huang, Xiuping Jiang
Carpets have been implicated in prolonged and reoccurring outbreaks of human noroviruses (HuNoV), the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Viral recovery from environmental surfaces, such as carpet, remains undeveloped. Our aim was to determine survival of HuNoV surrogates on an understudied environmental surface, carpet. First, we measured the zeta potential and absorption capacity of wool and nylon carpet fibers, we then developed a minispin column elution (MSC) method, and lastly we characterized the survival of HuNoV surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV), over 60 days under 30 and 70% relative humidity (RH) on two types of carpet and one glass surface...
November 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815386/genomic-characterization-of-a-novel-calicivirus-fhmcv-2012-from-baitfish-in-the-usa
#10
Sunil Kumar Mor, Nicholas B D Phelps, Terry Fei Fan Ng, Kuttichantran Subramaniam, Alexander Primus, Anibal G Armien, Rebekah McCann, Corey Puzach, Thomas B Waltzek, Sagar M Goyal
During regulatory sampling of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), a novel calicivirus was isolated from homogenates of kidney and spleen inoculated into bluegill fry (BF-2) cells. Infected cell cultures exhibiting cytopathic effects were screened by PCR-based methods for selected fish viral pathogens. Illumina HiSeq next generation sequencing of the total RNA revealed a novel calicivirus genome that showed limited protein sequence similarity to known homologs in a BLASTp search. The complete genome of this fathead minnow calicivirus (FHMCV) is 6564 nt long, encoding a polyprotein of 2114 aa in length...
December 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790989/a-proposal-for-a-structural-model-of-the-feline-calicivirus-protease-bound-to-the-substrate-peptide-under-physiological-conditions
#11
Masaru Yokoyama, Tomoichiro Oka, Hirotaka Takagi, Hirotatsu Kojima, Takayoshi Okabe, Tetsuo Nagano, Yukinobu Tohya, Hironori Sato
Feline calicivirus (FCV) protease functions to cleave viral precursor proteins during productive infection. Previous studies have mapped a protease-coding region and six cleavage sites in viral precursor proteins. However, how the FCV protease interacts with its substrates remains unknown. To gain insights into the interactions, we constructed a molecular model of the FCV protease bound with the octapeptide containing a cleavage site of the capsid precursor protein by homology modeling and docking simulation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783534/frequency-of-hepatitis-e-virus-rotavirus-and-porcine-enteric-calicivirus-at-various-stages-of-pork-carcass-processing-in-two-pork-processing-plants
#12
Tineke H Jones, Victoria Muehlhauser
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus (RV), and porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) infections are common in swine and raises concerns about the potential for zoonotic transmission through undercooked meat products. Enteric viruses can potentially contaminate carcasses during meat processing operations. There is a lack of information on the prevalence and control of enteric viruses in the pork processing chain. This study compared the incidence and levels of contamination of hog carcasses with HEV, RV and PEC at different stages of the dressing process...
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766060/noroviruses-and-sapoviruses-associated-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-pediatric-patients-in-thailand-increased-detection-of-recombinant-norovirus-gii-p16-gii-13-strains
#13
Pattara Khamrin, Kattareeya Kumthip, Kanittapon Supadej, Aksara Thongprachum, Shoko Okitsu, Satoshi Hayakawa, Hiroshi Ushijima, Niwat Maneekarn
Enteric caliciviruses, including noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs), are recognized as important etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) with considerable genetic diversity. In order to gain an overview of the molecular epidemiology of human NoVs and SaVs in children hospitalized with AGE in Chiang Mai, Thailand, a total of 889 fecal specimens were collected from 2012 to 2014 and screened for NoVs and SaVs. Out of 889 fecal specimens, 154 (17.3%) and 6 (0.7%) were positive for NoV GII isolates and SaV, respectively...
November 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763035/a-motif-in-the-f-homomorph-of-rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-virus-polymerase-is-important-for-the-subcellular-localisation-of-the-protein-and-its-ability-to-induce-redistribution-of-golgi-membranes
#14
Nadya Urakova, Andrew C Warden, Peter A White, Tanja Strive, Michael Frese
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus that infects and frequently kills rabbits. Previously, we showed that the RHDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is associated with distinct, but yet uncharacterised subcellular structures and is capable of inducing a redistribution of Golgi membranes. In this study, we identified a partially hidden hydrophobic motif that determines the subcellular localisation of recombinant RHDV RdRp in transfected cells. This novel motif, 189LLWGCDVGVAVCAAAVFHNICY210, is located within the F homomorph, between the conserved F3 and A motifs of the core RdRp domain...
August 1, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757394/broad-spectrum-non-nucleoside-inhibitors-for-caliciviruses
#15
Natalie E Netzler, Daniel Enosi Tuipulotu, Auda A Eltahla, Jennifer H Lun, Salvatore Ferla, Andrea Brancale, Nadya Urakova, Michael Frese, Tanja Strive, Jason M Mackenzie, Peter A White
Viruses of the Caliciviridae cause significant and sometimes lethal diseases, however despite substantial research efforts, specific antivirals are lacking. Broad-spectrum antivirals could combat multiple viral pathogens, offering a rapid solution when no therapies exist. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is an attractive antiviral target as it is essential for viral replication and lacks mammalian homologs. To focus the search for pan-Caliciviridae antivirals, the RdRp was probed with non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNIs) developed against hepatitis C virus (HCV) to reveal both allosteric ligands for structure-activity relationship enhancement, and highly-conserved RdRp pockets for antiviral targeting...
July 27, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749292/molecular-detection-of-infectious-pathogens-of-the-upper-respiratory-tract-in-captive-nondomestic-felids
#16
Valéria M Lara, Julia C Benassi, Shayne P Bisetto, Trícia M de Oliveira, Helena L Ferreira, João P Araújo Júnior, Adriano B Carregaro
Upper respiratory tract disease is a complex infectious disease process with multiple pathogens involved. Identification of infectious agents in wild animals is of great importance for wildlife conservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular detection of feline herpesvirus type 1, feline calicivirus (FCV), Bordetella bronchiseptica , Chlamydophila felis , and Mycoplasma felis using ocular and nasal swabs in three species of captive nondomestic felids. Mycoplasma felis was detected in two ocular samples of Puma concolor and in one nasal sample of one Panthera onca ...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736804/study-of-the-association-between-histo-blood-group-antigens-and-norovirus-infection-in-chinese-children
#17
Zhu-Lun Zhuang, Yu Jin, Kun-Long Yan, Wei-Xia Cheng
Human caliciviruses (HuCVs) have been recognized as a major cause of sporadic viral diarrhea in children, among which norovirus genotype GII.4 is the most prevalent genotype. Stool and saliva samples were collected from 295 children with acute diarrhea and 150 asymptomatic children at a hospital in China. The HuCV detection rate was 10.85% (32/295) among the children with acute diarrhea, and all of these 32 children were either HBGA secretors (12/32) or partial secretors (20/32). HuCV was detected in two (1...
November 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691897/intranasal-immunization-with-inactivated-feline-calicivirus-particles-confers-robust-protection-against-homologous-virus-and-suppression-against-heterologous-virus-in-cats
#18
Hiroaki Sato, Go Sehata, Nobutaka Okada, Kayo Iwamoto, Katsuo Masubuchi, Risa Kainuma, Tatsuki Noda, Tatsuhiko Igarashi, Takuo Sawada, Taichi Noro, Eiji Oishi
The protective efficacy of intranasal (IN) administration of inactivated feline calicivirus (FCV) vaccine against homologous or heterologous FCV infection was investigated. Groups of cats immunized with the experimental inactivated, non-adjuvanted FCV vaccine via either the IN or subcutaneous (SC) route were exposed to homologous or highly heterologous FCV. Both the IN and SC immunization protocols established robust protection against homologous FCV infection. Although neither immunization regimen conferred protection against the heterologous strain, clinical scores and virus titres of oral swabs were lower in cats in the IN group compared to those in the SC group, accompanying a faster neutralizing antibody response against the heterologous virus in cats in the IN group...
July 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677421/molecular-detection-of-viral-agents-in-free-ranging-and-captive-neotropical-felids-in-brazil
#19
Mariana Malzoni Furtado, Sueli Akemi Taniwaki, Iracema Nunes de Barros, Paulo Eduardo Brandão, José Luiz Catão-Dias, Sandra Cavalcanti, Laury Cullen, Claudia Filoni, Anah Tereza de Almeida Jácomo, Rodrigo Silva Pinto Jorge, Nairléia Dos Santos Silva, Leandro Silveira, José Soares Ferreira Neto
We describe molecular testing for felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (CPPV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), alphacoronavirus 1 (feline coronavirus [FCoV]), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and canine distemper virus (CDV) in whole blood samples of 109 free-ranging and 68 captive neotropical felids from Brazil. Samples from 2 jaguars ( Panthera onca) and 1 oncilla ( Leopardus tigrinus) were positive for FHV-1; 2 jaguars, 1 puma ( Puma concolor), and 1 jaguarundi ( Herpairulus yagouaroundi) tested positive for CPPV-1; and 1 puma was positive for FIV...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642746/virucidal-activity-of-fogged-chlorine-dioxide-and-hydrogen-peroxide-based-disinfectants-against-human-norovirus-and-its-surrogate-feline-calicivirus-on-hard-to-reach-surfaces
#20
Naim Montazeri, Clyde Manuel, Eric Moorman, Janak R Khatiwada, Leonard L Williams, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States. Norovirus is shed in high numbers in the feces and vomitous of infected individuals. Contact surfaces contaminated with bodily fluids harboring infectious virus particles serve as vehicles for pathogen transmission. Environmental stability of NoV and its resistance to many conventional disinfectants necessitate effective inactivation strategies to control the spread of virus. We investigated the efficacy of two commercial disinfectants, hydrogen peroxide (7...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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