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David Buckley, Angela Fraser, Charles Pettigrew, Jeffery Anderson, Xiuping Jiang
Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of known foodborne illness in the United States, but direct detection during outbreak investigations is challenging. On the other hand, sampling both hard and soft environmental surfaces can be used to improve outbreak investigations. Currently, we lack virus recovery methods for soft surfaces, such as carpet, despite evidence suggesting that carpets contribute to HuNoV outbreaks. Our aim was to compare two recovery methods, wet vacuum and swabbing, for routine carpet sampling of HuNoV against a laboratory reference method known as bottle extraction (BE)...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Hisataka Goda, Keiko Ikeda, Mitsunori Nishide, Tamiko Nagao, A Hajime Koyama
Virucidal effects of chlorous acid on enveloped and non-enveloped viruses were characterized. The virucidal activity was prominent against the enveloped viruses. However, some viruses among non-enveloped viruses, such as human rhinovirus and feline calicivirus, showed significant sensitivity to the reagent while the other, poliovirus and coxsackievirus, showed weak sensitivity, suggesting the presence of two classes of sensitivity among non-enveloped viruses against the reagent. In addition, characterization of the mode of inactivation by the reagent revealed that this inactivation of virus is strongly dependent on virus species, contaminated proteins and composition of solvent system...
April 27, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yoshimoto Tanaka, Kan Fujino, Gerald Andrew Larkins, Atsushi Osawa, Yuji Hayashi, Satoshi Taharaguchi
Zoonosis becomes a popular word. Highly pathogenic influenza virus (HPI), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) recently occurred at around Africa, Meddle-East and South-East Asia area, whose virus is classified as airborne. Sterilization capability was investigated by using chemical reactor of PACT device. Test on airborne infection was carried out by Feline Calicivirus Vaccine (FCV) strain F9, which is also surrogated human norovirus. It was found that PACT device could sterilize instantly FCV when passing through the plasma space of PACT device...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
David Polo, Julien Schaeffer, Peter Teunis, Vincent Buchet, Françoise S Le Guyader
Oysters, being filter feeders, can accumulate some human pathogens such as norovirus, a highly infectious calicivirus, most common cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Accumulated virus decays over a period of days to weeks, possibly rendering contaminated oysters safe again. Sensitive molecular methods have been set up for shellfish analysis but without answering the question of infectious virus detection. Using the Tulane virus (TV), a norovirus surrogate that recognizes the same ligand as human norovirus in oyster tissues, the genome and infectious virus decay rates were estimated using inverse linear regression in a Bayesian framework for genome copies...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Irene Melegari, Fulvio Marsilio, Federica Di Profio, Vittorio Sarchese, Ivano Massirio, Andrea Palombieri, Anna Rita D'Angelo, Gianvito Lanave, Georgia Diakoudi, Alessandra Cavalli, Vito Martella, Barbara Di Martino
Caliciviruses of the Sapovirus genus have been recently detected in dogs. Canine sapoviruses (SaVs) have been identified in the stools of young or juvenile animals with gastro-enteric disease at low prevalence (2.0-2.2%), but whether they may have a role as enteric pathogens and to which extent dogs are exposed to SaVs remains unclear. Here, we report the expression in a baculovirus system of virus like-particles (VLPs) of a canine SaV strain, the prototype virus Bari/4076/2007/ITA. The recombinant antigen was used to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
April 23, 2018: Virus Research
David Buckley, Muthu Dharmasena, Angela Fraser, Charles Pettigrew, Jeffery Anderson, Xiuping Jiang
Carpets and other soft surfaces have been associated with prolonged and reoccurring human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks. Environmental hygiene programs are important to prevent and control HuNoV outbreaks. Despite our knowledge of HuNoV transmission via soft surfaces, no commercially available disinfectants have been evaluated on carpets. Our aim was to adapt a current standardized method for virucidal testing by assessing two disinfection technologies, silver dihydrogen citrate (SDC) and steam vapor, against one HuNoV surrogate, feline calicivirus (FCV), on wool and nylon carpets...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Hamada A Aboubakr, Sunil K Mor, LeeAnn Higgins, Anibal Armien, Mohammed M Youssef, Peter J Bruggeman, Sagar M Goyal
Possible mechanisms that lead to inactivation of feline calicivirus (FCV) by cold atmospheric-pressure plasma (CAP) generated in 99% argon-1% O2 admixture were studied. We evaluated the impact of CAP exposure on the FCV viral capsid protein and RNA employing several cultural, molecular, proteomic and morphologic characteristics techniques. In the case of long exposure (2 min) to CAP, the reactive species of CAP strongly oxidized the major domains of the viral capsid protein (VP1) leading to disintegration of a majority of viral capsids...
2018: PloS One
Scott A Dee, Fernando V Bauermann, Megan C Niederwerder, Aaron Singrey, Travis Clement, Marcelo de Lima, Craig Long, Gilbert Patterson, Maureen A Sheahan, Ana M M Stoian, Vlad Petrovan, Cassandra K Jones, Jon De Jong, Ju Ji, Gordon D Spronk, Luke Minion, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Jeff J Zimmerman, Raymond R R Rowland, Eric Nelson, Paul Sundberg, Diego G Diel
The goal of this study was to evaluate survival of important viral pathogens of livestock in animal feed ingredients imported daily into the United States under simulated transboundary conditions. Eleven viruses were selected based on global significance and impact to the livestock industry, including Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV), Influenza A Virus of Swine (IAV-S), Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Nipah Virus (NiV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus (VESV)...
2018: PloS One
Joylson de Jesus Pereira, Natasha Baumworcel, Júlia Monassa Fioretti, Cinthya Fonseca Domingues, Laís Fernandes de Moraes, Robson Dos Santos Souza Marinho, Maria Clara Rodrigues Vieira, Ana Maria Viana Pinto, Tatiana Xavier de Castro
The aim of this study was to perform the molecular characterization of conserved and variable regions of feline calicivirus capsid genome in order to investigate the molecular diversity of variants in Brazilian cat population. Twenty-six conjunctival samples from cats living in five public short-term animal shelters and three multicat life-long households were analyzed. Fifteen cats had conjunctivitis, three had oral ulceration, eight had respiratory signs (cough, sneeze and nasal discharge) and nine were asymptomatic...
February 28, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Hitoshi Nakanishi, Masaru Furuya, Takehisa Soma, Yoshiki Hayashiuchi, Ryusaku Yoshiuchi, Makoto Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki Tani, Kazumi Sasai
Objectives Feline gingivostomatitis (FGS) is a painful chronic inflammatory disease of the oral cavity. The purpose of the study was to examine the frequency of detection of certain common feline bacteria and viruses to determine any potential associations with FGS. Methods A multicentre case-control study design was conducted. In total, 72 control cats and 32 cats with FGS were included in the study. Oral swabs were cultured for bacterial identification and a PCR assay was carried out to examine the infection of feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), Chlamydia felis, Mycoplasma felis and Bordetella bronchiseptica...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Osamu Nogariya, Nozomi Shionoiri, Yoshiaki Maeda, Atsushi Arakaki
UV-C treatment has been shown to be a powerful way to inactivate non-enveloped viruses in water samples. However, little is known about how the viruses were inactivated by UV-C radiation. In this study, we investigated the inactivation mechanism of a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) non-enveloped virus, feline calicivirus (FCV), as a surrogate for the human norovirus, using UV-C radiation with different wavelengths. Integrated molecular analyses using RT-qPCR, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and mass spectrometry were employed to evaluate the extent of ssRNA genome and protein degradation...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Ana C Alcalá, Kriss Pérez, Ruth Blanco, Rosabel González, Juan E Ludert, Ferdinando Liprandi, Esmeralda Vizzi
Background: The role of rotavirus as main etiologic agent of diarrhea has been well documented worldwide, including in Venezuela. However, information about the prevalence of gastrointestinal viruses such as calicivirus, adenovirus and astrovirus is limited and the contribution of other agents as Aichi virus and klassevirus is largely unknown. To explore the etiological spectrum of diarrhea associated with agents other than rotaviruses, 227 stool samples from children under 5 years old with acute gastroenteritis, collected in Valencia (Venezuela) from 2001 to 2005, and previously tested as rotavirus-negative, were analyzed for caliciviruses, adenoviruses, astroviruses, Aichi viruses, klasseviruses, picobirnaviruses and enteroviruses by specific RT-PCRs...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Leonard N Binn, Erica A Norby, Ruth H Marchwicki, Richard G Jarman, Paul B Keiser, Jun Hang
BACKGROUND: Vesiviruses (family Caliciviridae) had been shown capable of invading a variety of host species, raising concern of their zoonotic potential. Since the 1980's, several canine caliciviruses (CaCV) isolates have been reported and are phylogenetically related to the vesiviruses with features distinct from both Vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV) and Feline calicivirus (FCV) species in phylogeny, serology and cell culture specificities. Etiological studies of canine diseases in dogs used for military services and laboratory studies were conducted in 1963-1978 at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research...
February 23, 2018: Virology Journal
Eun-Hyo Cho, Mahmoud Soliman, Mia Madel Alfajaro, Ji-Yun Kim, Ja-Young Seo, Jun-Gyu Park, Deok-Song Kim, Yeong-Bin Baek, Mun-Il Kang, Sang-Ik Park, Jacques Le Pendu, Kyoung-Oh Cho
Some viruses within the Caliciviridae family initiate their replication cycle by attachment to cell surface carbohydrate moieties, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), and/or terminal sialic acids (SAs). Although bovine nebovirus (BNeV), one of the enteric caliciviruses, is an important causative agent of acute gastroenteritis in cattle, its attachment factors and possibly other cellular receptors remain unknown. Using a comprehensive series of protein-ligand biochemical assays, we sought to determine whether BNeV recognizes cell surface HBGAs and/or SAs as attachment factors...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Virology
Yunjeong Kim, Kyeong-Ok Chang
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a small non-enveloped virus containing a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome of approximately 7.7 kb. FCV is a highly infectious pathogen of cats and typically causes moderate, self-limiting acute oral and upper respiratory tract diseases or chronic oral diseases. In addition, in recent years, virulent, systemic FCV (vs-FCV) strains causing severe systemic diseases with a high mortality rate of up to 67% have been reported in cats. Although FCV vaccines are commercially available, their efficacy is limited due to antigenic diversity of FCV strains and short duration of immunity...
April 2018: Antiviral Research
Randall W Renshaw, Jennifer Griffing, Jaime Weisman, Lisa M Crofton, Melissa A Laverack, Robert P Poston, Gerald E Duhamel, Edward J Dubovi
Four of eleven affected dogs died despite aggressive treatment during a 2015 focal outbreak of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis following a stay in a pet housing facility. Routine diagnostic investigations failed to identify a specific cause. Virus isolation from fresh necropsy tissues yielded a calicivirus with sequence homology to a vesivirus within the group colloquially known as the vesivirus 2117 strains that were originally identified as contaminants in CHO cell bioreactors. In situ hybridization and reverse transcription-PCR assays of tissues from the four deceased dogs confirmed the presence of canine vesivirus (CaVV) nucleic acids that localized to endothelial cells of arterial and capillary blood vessels...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Tomoichiro Oka, Garrett T Stoltzfus, Chelsea Zhu, Kwonil Jung, Qiuhong Wang, Linda J Saif
Noroviruses (NoVs) and Sapoviruses (SaVs) are enteric caliciviruses that have been detected in multiple mammalian species, including humans. Currently, efficient cell culture systems have been established only for murine NoVs and porcine SaV Cowden strain. Establishment of an efficient in vitro cell culture system for other NoVs and SaVs remains challenging; however, human NoV (HuNoV) replication in 3D cultured Caco-2 cells and a clone of Caco-2 cells, C2BBe1, human enteroids and in human B cells has been reported...
2018: PloS One
Zhengchun Lu, Emily D Ledgerwood, Meleana M Hinchman, Robert Dick, John S L Parker
Host cell surface receptors are required for attachment, binding, entry, and infection by nonenveloped viruses. Receptor binding can induce conformational changes in the viral capsid and/or the receptor that couple binding with downstream events in the virus life cycle (intracellular signaling, endocytosis and trafficking, and membrane penetration). Virus-receptor interactions also influence viral spread and pathogenicity. The interaction between feline calicivirus (FCV) and its receptor, feline junctional adhesion molecule A (fJAM-A), on host cells is required for infection and induces irreversible, inactivating conformational changes in the capsid of some viral strains...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
Farzaneh Pourasgari, Jérôme Kaplon, Alireza Sanchooli, Céline Fremy, Shahla Karimi-Naghlani, Vahid Otarod, Katia Ambert-Balay, Naheed Mojgani, Pierre Pothier
In this study, bovine enteric caliciviruses (BECs) were detected in 49.4% of a total of 253 stool specimens for diarrheic calves collected from 42 industrial dairy farms from March 2010 to February 2012. Genogroup III norovirus (NoVsGIII) were more prevalent (39.5%) than neboviruses (NBs) (15%), and coinfections were observed in 5.1% of the samples tested. Sequence analysis of the partial polymerase gene from 13 NoVsGIII samples indicated the circulation of both genotype 1 and genotype 2 strains. Among the six NB strains sequenced, five were related to the Bo/Nebraska/80/US strain, while one was related to the Bo/Newbury1/76/UK strain...
May 2018: Archives of Virology
Eisuke Ito, Takaaki Sato, Daisuke Sano, Etsuko Utagawa, Tsuyoshi Kato
A new computational method for the detection of virus particles in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images is presented. Our approach is to use a convolutional neural network that transforms a TEM image to a probabilistic map that indicates where virus particles exist in the image. Our proposed approach automatically and simultaneously learns both discriminative features and classifier for virus particle detection by machine learning, in contrast to existing methods that are based on handcrafted features that yield many false positives and require several postprocessing steps...
January 19, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
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