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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222761/coupling-fluxes-enzymes-and-regulation-in-genome-scale-metabolic-models
#1
Paul A Jensen
Genome-scale models have expanded beyond their metabolic origins. Multiple modeling frameworks are required to combine metabolism with enzymatic networks, transcription, translation, and regulation. Mathematical programming offers a powerful set of tools for tackling these "multi-modality" models, although special attention must be paid to the connections between modeling types. This chapter reviews common methods for combining metabolic and discrete logical models into a single mathematical programming framework...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222760/computational-prediction-of-synthetic-lethals-in-genome-scale-metabolic-models-using-fast-sl
#2
Karthik Raman, Aditya Pratapa, Omkar Mohite, Shankar Balachandran
In this chapter, we describe Fast-SL, an in silico approach to predict synthetic lethals in genome-scale metabolic models. Synthetic lethals are sets of genes or reactions where only the simultaneous removal of all genes or reactions in the set abolishes growth of an organism. In silico approaches to predict synthetic lethals are based on Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), a popular constraint-based analysis method based on linear programming. FBA has been shown to accurately predict the viability of various genome-scale metabolic models...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222040/prohibitin-a-new-player-in-immunometabolism-and-in-linking-obesity-and-inflammation-with-cancer
#3
Yang Xin Zi Xu, Sudharsana Rao Ande, Suresh Mishra
Immunometabolism, which has important implications in cancer biology, has emerged as a major regulator of different immune cell types. Various factors that integrate metabolic switches within immune cells with signal directed program that promote or inhibit their functions remain largely unidentified. Furthermore, sex differences are known to exist in immune functions and cancer incidences in the body and sex steroid hormones are integral component of these differences. However, factors that mediate such differences, and the potential link between the two fundamental aspects of immune cell biology that contributes to sex differences in health and disease remain unexplored...
December 5, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221569/functional-analysis-of-the-igf-system-in-milk
#4
REVIEW
Andreas Hoeflich, Zianka Meyer
The development of milk during evolution is considered a more recent step to provide the neonate with adequate amounts of energy, nutrients, and specific hormonal signals thereby, granting a fast and efficient rate of postnatal growth and development. Since the insulin- or the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) systems were evolved much earlier, it can be assumed that the functionality of the IGF-system has been integrated into the novel matrix milk containing casein and whey proteins from the beginnings. In fact, IGFs and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are abundantly present in milk, which is particularly true for fore-milk or colostrum and the potential effects of milk-borne IGF-compounds on the consuming organisms have in fact been addressed by several studies...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220641/coronary-vascular-disease-event-risk-and-metabolic-syndrome-prevalence-in-patients-enrolled-in-an-assertive-treatment-community-program
#5
Luis Ramudo Cela, María José Ávila González, Juan Carlos Yáñez Rubal, Lucía María Díaz Platas, María Isabel Martín Herranz, Juan Carlos Díaz Del Valle
OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk of coronary vascular disease event (CVDE) and the prevalence metabolic syndrome (MS) and its cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in patients with severe mental illnesses enrolled in an assertive treatment community program (ATC) in Spain. METHOD: We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study with all of the patients included in an ATC program in 2016 in a health area with 547,328 inhabitants in Galicia, Spain. We identified the CVRF in all the individuals, and calculated MS and 10-year CVDE...
November 2, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220291/emerging-targeted-and-immune-based-therapies-in-sarcoma
#6
Seth M Pollack, Matthew Ingham, Matthew B Spraker, Gary K Schwartz
Soft tissue and bone sarcomas are malignancies of mesenchymal origin, and more than 50 subtypes are defined. For most sarcomas, locally advanced or unresectable disease is still treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Recently, our understanding of subtype-specific cancer biology has expanded, and it has revealed distinct molecular alterations responsible for tumor initiation and progression. These findings have motivated the development of targeted therapies that are being evaluated in subtype-specific or biomarker-driven clinical trials...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217485/developmental-origins-of-adult-health-and-disease-the-metabolic-role-of-bdnf-from-early-life-to-adulthood
#7
REVIEW
Despina D Briana, Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner
Accumulating evidence suggests that the origins of adult disease may occur during fetal life. Thus, the concept of "developmental programming" has been introduced and supported by epidemiological and experimental data. This concept supports the idea that the nutritional and hormonal status during pregnancy could interfere in metabolism control. The mechanisms responsible for this "developmental programming" remain poorly documented. Current research indicates that neurotrophins and particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a crucial role in this process...
December 4, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216485/the-association-between-rehabilitation-programs-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-chronic-inpatients-with-schizophrenia
#8
Yi-Chun Lin, Chien-Liang Lai, Hung-Yu Chan
The correlation between different rehabilitation programs and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in people with schizophrenia is unclear. We tested the association in chronic inpatients with schizophrenia of a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan. Patients with schizophrenia and age from 20 to 65 years old were included. The criteria of metabolic syndrome were according to the adapted Adult Treatment Protocol for Asians. According to different types of rehabilitations, patients were divided into work group, occupational therapy group and daily activities group...
December 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216328/comparative-analysis-of-idf-atpiii-and-cds-in-the-diagnosis-of-metabolic-syndrome-among-adult-inhabitants-in-jiangxi-province-china
#9
Lengmei Cheng, Wei Yan, Liping Zhu, Yiying Chen, Jie Liu, Yan Xu, Lu Ji, Junrong He
BACKGROUND: Currently, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) has attracted widespread public attention. However, there is a war regarding the applicability of the diagnosis in different populations regarding the distinct criteria for the diagnosis of MS. Data about the prevalence rate of MS and its components in Jiangxi Province are limited. Thus, our goals were to compare the consistency rates and applicability of three criteria, i.e., those of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment PanelⅢ (ATPⅢ), and the Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216229/factors-associated-with-pre-diabetes-in-tehranian-men-and-women-a-structural-equations-modeling
#10
Parisa Amiri, Sara Jalali-Farahani, Mehrdad Karimi, Reza Taherian, Sara Kazempour-Ardebili, Firoozeh Hosseini-Esfahani, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of sex-specific related factors with pre-diabetes in Tehranian non-diabetic adults. METHODS: This study has been conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) between 2008-2010. A total of 5568 (55.4% female) non-diabetic adults, aged ≥20 years, selected from among participants of the TLGS, were recruited for the study. Data on socio-behavioral factors, family history of diabetes and cardio-metabolic risk factors were included in the hypothesized model to test their direct and indirect associations with pre-diabetes in men and women separately, using structural equation modeling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215646/follow-up-status-during-the-first-5-years-of-life-for-metabolic-disorders-on-the-federal-recommended-uniform-screening-panel
#11
Lisa Feuchtbaum, Juan Yang, Robert Currier
PurposeTo investigate the 5-year follow-up status for newborns diagnosed with metabolic disorders designated as "primary disorders" on the federal Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP).MethodsFollow-up status and demographic characteristics are described for 426 newborns diagnosed with one of 20 primary metabolic disorders on the RUSP between 2005 and 2009. Newborn screening program data were linked to birth certificate data. Follow-up status is described for each year through age 5 and by disorder type...
December 7, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215608/h19-lncrna-alters-methylation-and-expression-of-hnf4%C3%AE-in-the-liver-of-metformin-exposed-fetuses
#12
Jie Deng, Martin Mueller, Tingting Geng, Yuanyuan Shen, Ya Liu, Peng Hou, Ramanaiah Ramillapalli, Hugh S Taylor, Michael Paidas, Yingqun Huang
Metformin is the most widely used anti-diabetic medication worldwide. However, human and animal studies suggest that prenatal metformin exposure may increase the risk of metabolic disorders in adult offspring, yet the underpinning mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that metformin-exposed mouse fetuses exhibit elevated expression of the H19 long noncoding RNA, which induces hypomethylation and increased expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α). As a transcription factor essential for morphological and functional differentiation of hepatocytes, HNF4α also has an indispensable role in the regulation of expression of gluconeogenic genes...
December 7, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214851/weight-and-veterans-environments-study-waves-i-and-ii-rationale-methods-and-cohort-characteristics
#13
Shannon N Zenk, Elizabeth Tarlov, Lisa M Powell, Coady Wing, Stephen A Matthews, Sandy Slater, Howard S Gordon, Michael Berbaum, Marian L Fitzgibbon
PURPOSE: To present the rationale, methods, and cohort characteristics for 2 complementary "big data" studies of residential environment contributions to body weight, metabolic risk, and weight management program participation and effectiveness. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Continental United States. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3 261 115 veterans who received Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care in 2009 to 2014, including 169 910 weight management program participants and a propensity score-derived comparison group...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213153/reference-values-of-amino-acids-acylcarnitines-and-succinylacetone-by-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-use-in-newborn-screening-in-southwest-colombia
#14
Nora Céspedes, Angela Valencia, Carlos Alberto Echeverry, Maria Isabel Arce-Plata, Cristóbal Colón, Daisy E Castiñeiras, Paula Margarita Hurtado, Jose Angel Cocho, Sócrates Herrera, Myriam Arévalo-Herrera
Introduction: Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) represent an important public health problem due to current diagnosis and treatment limitations, poor life quality of affected patients, and consequent untimely child death. In contrast to classical methods, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has allowed simultaneous evaluation of multiple metabolites associated with IEM offering higher sensitivity, low false positive rates and high throughput. Aims: Determine concentration levels for amino acids and acylcarnitines in blood of newborns from Colombia, to establish reference values for further use in diagnosis of IEM...
September 30, 2017: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213047/differentially-evolved-glucosyltransferases-determine-natural-variation-of-rice-flavone-accumulation-and-uv-tolerance
#15
Meng Peng, Raheel Shahzad, Ambreen Gul, Hizar Subthain, Shuangqian Shen, Long Lei, Zhigang Zheng, Junjie Zhou, Dandan Lu, Shouchuang Wang, Elsayed Nishawy, Xianqing Liu, Takayuki Tohge, Alisdair R Fernie, Jie Luo
Decoration of phytochemicals contributes to the majority of metabolic diversity in nature, whereas how this process alters the biological functions of their precursor molecules remains to be investigated. Flavones, an important yet overlooked subclass of flavonoids, are most commonly conjugated with sugar moieties by UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Here, we report that the natural variation of rice flavones is mainly determined by OsUGT706D1 (flavone 7-O-glucosyltransferase) and OsUGT707A2 (flavone 5-O-glucosyltransferase)...
December 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212859/human-hair-follicle-transcriptome-profiling-a-minimally-invasive-tool-to-assess-molecular-adaptations-upon-low-volume-high-intensity-interval-training
#16
Jing Zhang, Sarah J Wallace, Maria Y Shiu, Ingrid Smith, Shawn G Rhind, Valerie S Langlois
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has become a popular fitness training approach under both civilian and military settings. Consisting of brief and intense exercise intervals, HIIT requires less time commitment yet is able to produce the consistent targeted physical adaptations as conventional endurance training. To effectively characterize and monitor HIIT-induced cellular and molecular responses, a highly accessible yet comprehensive biomarker discovery source is desirable. Both gene differential expression (DE) and gene set (GS) analyses were conducted using hair follicle transcriptome established from pre and postexercise subjects upon a 10-day HIIT program by RNA-Seq, Comparing between pre and posttraining groups, differentially expressed protein coding genes were identified...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212794/ferroptosis-beating-on-death-s-door
#17
Rimpy Dhingra, Amir Ravandi, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum
One of the most fascinating concepts to impact contemporary biology to date is the idea that cell death is a highly regulated and programmed event. Cardiac cells can die by apoptosis or necrosis and in some instances by autophagy. Ferroptosis, is a new form of regulated cell death that is gaining considerable attention, that links de-regulated iron metabolism with peroxidative lipid injury. In this report, we highlight a recent study by Baba et al that describes ferroptosis as regulated form of cell death in the heart...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212477/nurse-health-and-lifestyle-modification-versus-standard-care-in-40-to-70-year-old-regional-adults-study-protocol-of-the-management-to-optimise-diabetes-and-metabolic-syndrome-risk-reduction-via-nurse-led-intervention-modern-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Melinda J Carrington, Paul Zimmet
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), the clustering of multiple leading risk factors, predisposes individuals to increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cardio-metabolic disease risk increases with greater remoteness where specialist services are scarce. Nurse-led interventions are effective for the management of chronic disease. The aim of this clinical trial is to determine whether a nurse-implemented health and lifestyle modification program is more beneficial than standard care to reduce cardio-metabolic abnormalities and future risk of CVD and diabetes in individuals with MetS...
December 6, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212375/evaluation-of-monocyte-to-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-ratio-in-the-presence-and-severity-of-metabolic-syndrome
#19
Ali Ugur Uslu, Yahya Sekin, Gulten Tarhan, Nuray Canakcı, Mehmet Gunduz, Mustafa Karagulle
Monocyte to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (MHR) is a systemic inflammatory marker, and recently, it has been used quite commonly for the assessment of inflammation in cardiovascular disorders. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relevance of MHR as a marker to assess metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS severity in clinical practice. A total of 147 patients with MetS who were diagnosed according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria and 134 healthy controls, matched for age and gender, were included in our retrospective study...
January 1, 2017: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211707/obesity-and-obesogenic-growth-are-both-highly-heritable-and-modified-by-diet-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model-the-african-green-monkey-chlorocebus-aethiops-sabaeus
#20
C A Schmitt, S K Service, A J Jasinska, T D Dyer, M J Jorgensen, R M Cantor, G M Weinstock, J Blangero, J R Kaplan, N B Freimer
OBJECTIVE: In humans, the ontogeny of obesity throughout the life course and the genetics underlying it has been historically difficult to study. We compared, in a non-human primate model, the lifelong growth trajectories of obese and non-obese adults, to assess the heritability of and map potential genomic regions implicated in growth and obesity. STUDY POPULATION: A total of 905 African green monkeys, or vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) (472 females, 433 males) from a pedigreed captive colony...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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