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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779058/genetics-of-resistant-hypertension-the-missing-heritability-and-opportunities
#1
REVIEW
Samantha K Teixeira, Alexandre C Pereira, Jose E Krieger
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Blood pressure regulation in humans has long been known to be a genetically determined trait. The identification of causal genetic modulators for this trait has been unfulfilling at the least. Despite the recent advances of genome-wide genetic studies, loci associated with hypertension or blood pressure still explain a very low percentage of the overall variation of blood pressure in the general population. This has precluded the translation of discoveries in the genetics of human hypertension to clinical use...
May 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778902/perspectives-on-the-past-present-and-future-of-cancer-nanomedicine
#2
Yu Seok Youn, You Han Bae
The justification of cancer nanomedicine relies on enhanced permeation (EP) and retention (R) effect and the capability of intracellular targeting due primarily to size after internalization (endocytosis) into the individual target cells. The EPR effect implies improved efficacy. Affinity targeting for solid tumors only occur after delivery to individual cells, which help internalization and/or retention. The design principles have been supported by animal results in numerous publications, but hardly translated...
May 17, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778623/hypothesis-driven-versus-hypothesis-free-approaches-to-the-identification-of-genes-for-cleft-lip-and-palate
#3
Alexandre R Vieira
Much progress has been made in understanding the genetic contributions to isolated forms of cleft lip and palate, however this effort is yet to be translated to enhanced genetic counseling or prevention strategies. Interest in the topic was renewed with the ability to perform genome-wide genotyping and after a few of those relatively larger scale studies, many are considering more targeted efforts and to focus on specific genes and/or loci. Here we discuss this crossroad and suggest targeted approaches and rethought clinical descriptions are a better way to move the field forward...
May 16, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778418/correlation-between-translational-and-rotational-kinematic-abnormalities-and-osteoarthritis-like-damage-in-two-in-vivo-sheep-injury-models
#4
Mehdi Shekarforoush, Jillian E Beveridge, David A Hart, Cyril B Frank, Nigel G Shrive
The relations between kinematic abnormalities and post traumatic osteoarthritis have not yet been clearly elucidated. This study was conducted to determine the finite helical axes parameters and the tibiofemoral translation vector in the knee joints of two surgically induced injury sheep models: anterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament transection (ACL/MCL Tx) (n = 5) and lateral meniscectomy (n = 5). We hypothesized that morphological damage in the experimental joints would be correlated to alterations in these kinematic variables...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777730/understanding-facial-expressivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-inside-out-review-of-the-biological-basis-and-clinical-implications
#5
REVIEW
Stephen I Deutsch, C Teal Raffaele
Deficits in decoding and understanding facially expressed emotions occur commonly in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which contribute to the impairment of social communication that serves as one of its core diagnostic criteria. Research suggests that abnormalities of visual scanning of the face, activation of key nodes within the "social brain" by facially expressed emotions, functional connectivity within and between nodes of the "social brain", and transduction of specific neurotransmitter/neuromodulatory signals contribute to the pathogenesis of these deficits in at least some persons with ASD...
May 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777685/thiamine-preserves-mitochondrial-function-in-a-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-preventing-inactivation-of-the-2-oxoglutarate-dehydrogenase-complex
#6
Garik V Mkrtchyan, Muammer Üçal, Andrea Müllebner, Sergiu Dumitrescu, Martina Kames, Rudolf Moldzio, Marek Molcanyi, Samuel Schaefer, Adelheid Weidinger, Ute Schaefer, Juergen Hescheler, Johanna Catharina Duvigneau, Heinz Redl, Victoria I Bunik, Andrey V Kozlov
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Based on the fact that traumatic brain injury is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction we aimed at localization of mitochondrial defect and attempted to correct it by thiamine. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Interventional controlled experimental animal study was used. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to lateral fluid percussion traumatic brain injury. Thiamine was administered 1 h prior to trauma; cortex was extracted for analysis 4 h and 3 d after trauma...
May 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777595/a-ring-based-compensator-imrt-system-optimized-for-low-and-middle-income-countries-design-and-treatment-planning-study
#7
Jonathon Van Schelt, Daniel Smith, Nicholas Fong, Dolla Toomeh, Patricia A Sponseller, Derek W Brown, Meghan W Macomber, Nina A Mayr, Shilpen Patel, Adam Shulman, G V Subrahmanyam, K Govindarajan, Eric C Ford
PURPOSE: We propose a novel compensator-based IMRT system designed to provide a simple, reliable, and cost-effective adjunct technology, with the goal of expanding global access to advanced radiotherapy techniques. The system would employ easily-reusable tungsten bead compensators that operate independent of a gantry (e.g. mounted in a ring around the patient). Thereby the system can be retrofitted to existing linac and cobalt teletherapy units. This study explores the quality of treatment plans from the proposed system and the dependence on associated design parameters...
May 19, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777566/care-provider-allocation-on-admissions-to-acute-mental-health-wards-the-development-and-validation-of-the-admission-team-score-list
#8
Sjobha R N van den Berg, Barbara Stringer, Roland van de Sande, Stasja Draisma
Currently, support tools are lacking to prioritize steps in the care coordination process to enable safe practice and effective clinical pathways in the first phase of acute psychiatric admissions. This study describes the development, validity, and reliability of an acute care coordination support tool, the Admission Team Score List (ATSL). The ATSL assists in care provider allocation during admissions. Face validity and feasibility of the ATSL were tested in 77 acute admissions. Endscores of filled out ATSL's were translated to recommended team compositions...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777131/activity-of-acetyltransferase-toxins-involved-in-salmonella-persister-formation-during-macrophage-infection
#9
Julian A Rycroft, Bridget Gollan, Grzegorz J Grabe, Alexander Hall, Angela M Cheverton, Gerald Larrouy-Maumus, Stephen A Hare, Sophie Helaine
Non-typhoidal Salmonella strains are responsible for invasive infections associated with high mortality and recurrence in sub-Saharan Africa, and there is strong evidence for clonal relapse following antibiotic treatment. Persisters are non-growing bacteria that are thought to be responsible for the recalcitrance of many infections to antibiotics. Toxin-antitoxin systems are stress-responsive elements that are important for Salmonella persister formation, specifically during infection. Here, we report the analysis of persister formation of clinical invasive strains of Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis in human primary macrophages...
May 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777022/further-studies-to-support-the-use-of-coproporphyrin-i-and-iii-as-novel-clinical-biomarkers-for-evaluating-the-potential-for-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptide-oatp-1b1-and-oatp1b3-inhibition
#10
Hong Shen, Lisa Christopher, Yurong Lai, Jiachang Gong, Hamza Kandoussi, Samira Garonzik, Vidya Perera, Tushar Garimella, W Griffith Humphreys
In a recent study, limited to South Asian Indian subjects (n=12), coproporphyrin I and III (CPI and CPIII) demonstrated properties appropriate for an OATP1B endogenous probe (Lai et al., 2016). The current studies were conducted in healthy volunteers of mixed ethnicities, including black, white, and Hispanic subjects to better understand the utility of these biomarkers in broader populations. After oral administration with 600 mg rifampin, AUC(0-24h) values were 2.8-, 3.7- and 3.6-fold higher than predose levels for CPI and 2...
May 18, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776930/modifying-the-lantibiotic-mutacin-1140-for-increased-yield-activity-and-stability
#11
Mengxin Geng, Leif Smith
Mutacin 1140 belongs to the epidermin family of type AI lantibiotics. This family has a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The binding of mutacin 1140 to lipid II leads to the inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Pharmacokinetic experiments on type AI lantibiotics are generally discouraging for clinical applications due to their short half-life. The unprotected dehydrated and protease susceptible residues outside of the lanthionine rings may play a role in their short half-life in physiological settings...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776550/hydrophilic-probe-in-mesoporous-pore-for-selective-enrichment-of-endogenous-glycopeptides-in-biological-samples
#12
Yilin Li, Chunhui Deng, Nianrong Sun
As one of the most important post-translational modifications (PTMs) of peptidome, glycopeptidome is closely related to serious disease, especially to cancer. In order to specifically discover and analyze glycopeptidome biomarkers for clinical diagnosis of cancer on early-stage, it is crucial to develop efficient technique to analyze low-abundance of endogenous glycopeptides in biological samples. In this report, a hydrophilic probe in mesoporous pore (denoted as Fe3 O4 @mSiO2 @G6P) was designed and prepared...
September 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776382/sternal-instability-measured-with-radiostereometric-analysis-a-study-of-method-feasibility-accuracy-and-precision
#13
Rikke Falsig Vestergaard, Kjeld Søballe, John Michael Hasenkam, Maiken Stilling
BACKGROUND: A small, but unstable, saw-gap may hinder bone-bridging and induce development of painful sternal dehiscence. We propose the use of Radiostereometric Analysis (RSA) for evaluation of sternal instability and present a method validation. METHODS: Four bone analogs (phantoms) were sternotomized and tantalum beads were inserted in each half. The models were reunited with wire cerclage and placed in a radiolucent separation device. Stereoradiographs (n = 48) of the phantoms in 3 positions were recorded at 4 imposed separation points...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775981/from-auto-to-allotransplantation-immunomodulatory-protocol-for-hand-and-arm-transplantation
#14
W P Andrew Lee, Jaimie T Shores, Gerald Brandacher
AIM:  To achieve a favorable risk-benefit balance for hand transplantation, an immunomodulatory protocol was developed in the laboratory and translated to clinical application. METHODS:  Following donor bone marrow infusion into transplant recipients, hand and arm allografts have been maintained on low-dose tacrolimus monotherapy. RESULTS:  Good-to-excellent functional recovery has been achieved in patients compliant with medication and therapy, thus restoring autonomous and productive lives...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775690/molecular-subtyping-of-colorectal-cancer-recent-progress-new-challenges-and-emerging-opportunities
#15
REVIEW
Wei Wang, Raju Kandimalla, Hao Huang, Lina Zhu, Ying Li, Feng Gao, Ajay Goel, Xin Wang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Similar to many other malignancies, CRC is a heterogeneous disease, making it a clinical challenge for optimization of treatment modalities in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. A more precise understanding of the biological properties that distinguish patients with colorectal tumors, especially in terms of their clinical features, is a key requirement towards a more robust, targeted-drug design, and implementation of individualized therapies...
May 15, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775632/controlled-delivery-of-a-focal-adhesion-kinase-inhibitor-results-in-accelerated-wound-closure-with-decreased-scar-formation
#16
Kun Ma, Sun Hyung Kwon, Jagannath Padmanabhan, Dominik Duscher, Artem A Trotsyuk, Yixiao Dong, Mohammed Inayathullah, Jayakumar Rajadas, Geoffrey C Gurtner
Formation of scars following wounding or trauma represents a significant healthcare burden costing the economy billions of dollars every year. Activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been shown to play a pivotal role in transducing mechanical signals to elicit fibrotic responses and scar formation during wound repair. We have previously shown that inhibition of FAK using local injections of a small molecule FAK inhibitor (FAKI) can attenuate scar development in a hypertrophic scar model. Clinical translation of FAKI therapy has been challenging, however, due to the lack of an effective drug delivery system for extensive burn injuries, blast injuries, and large excisional injuries...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775397/receptor-tyrosine-kinase-signaling-in-cancer-radiotherapy-and-its-targeting-for-tumor-radiosensitization
#17
Poushali Bhattacharya, Neena G Shetake, Badri N Pandey, Amit Kumar
PURPOSE: One of the most important implications of 'Radiation Biology' research is to improve cancer radiotherapy with minimum side effects. In this regard, combination of chemotherapy with radiation has significantly improved tumor control as well as overall survival in a variety of cancers. However, this has been achieved at the cost of significant normal tissue toxicity, due to the lack of specificity of chemotherapy. Membrane-localized receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been found to play a driving role in various hallmarks of cancer...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775080/mindfulness-meditation-and-interprofessional-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-mixed-methods-pilot-study
#18
Diana J Kelm, Jennifer L Ridgeway, Becca L Gas, Monali Mohan, David A Cook, Darlene R Nelson, Roberto P Benzo
PROBLEM: Mindfulness training includes mindfulness meditation, which has been shown to improve both attention and self-awareness. Medical providers in the intensive care unit often deal with difficult situations with strong emotions, life-and-death decisions, and both interpersonal and interprofessional conflicts. The effect of mindfulness meditation training on healthcare providers during acute care tasks such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation remains unknown. Mindfulness meditation has the potential to improve provider well-being and reduce stress in individuals involved in resuscitation teams, which could then translate into better team communication and delivery of care under stress...
May 18, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774520/implantation-of-bioresorbable-scaffolds-under-guidance-of-optical-coherence-tomography-feasibility-and-pilot-clinical-results-of-a-systematic-protocol
#19
Juan Luis Gutiérrez-Chico, Carlos Cortés, Michele Schincariol, Ula Limon, Meric Yalcinli, María-Alexandra Durán-Cortés, Milosz Jaguszewski
BACKGROUND: We hypothesise that a comprehensive optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guided implantation protocol for bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) might improve expansion and apposition, thus translating into better clinical outcomes, particularly reducing thrombotic events. METHODS: Patients considered suitable for BRS therapy in de novo coronary lesions underwent OCT. The predominant type of plaque was classified as lipidic, fibrous or calcific, undergoing tailored plaque preparation accordingly...
May 18, 2018: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774314/surgical-highlights-from-the-40-th-san-antonio-breast-cancer-symposium-5-9-december-2017-san-antonio-texas
#20
Enver Özkurt
This year San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) celebrated its 40th anniversary. As in the past years, this year's conference was held in Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Centre, San Antonio, Texas, on 5-9 December 2017. The conference highlighted many different topic on breast cancer including basic science, translational research, local therapies, systemic therapies, survivorship, early clinical trials, and surgical topics. Even though SABCS evolved towards basic science and systemic therapy based manner in recent years, there were some important topics about local therapies and surgical approach...
April 2018: European Journal of Breast Health
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