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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677578/tobacco-outlet-density-and-tobacco-knowledge-beliefs-purchasing-behaviours-and-price-among-adolescents-in-scotland
#1
Helena Tunstall, Niamh K Shortt, Claire L Niedzwiedz, Elizabeth A Richardson, Richard J Mitchell, Jamie R Pearce
Despite long-term falls in global adult smoking prevalence and over 50 years of tobacco control policies, adolescent smoking persists. Research suggests greater densities of tobacco retail outlets in residential neighbourhoods are associated with higher adolescent smoking rates. Policies to reduce retail outlets have therefore been identified by public health researchers as a potential 'new frontier' in tobacco control. Better understanding of the pathways linking density of tobacco retailers and smoking behaviour could support these policies...
February 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677140/flow-channel-influence-of-a-collision-based-piezoelectric-jetting-dispenser-on-jet-performance
#2
Can Zhou, Guiling Deng, Junhui Li, Ji'an Duan
To improve the jet performance of a bi-piezoelectric jet dispenser, mathematical and simulation models were established according to the operating principle. In order to improve the accuracy and reliability of the simulation calculation, a viscosity model of the fluid was fitted to a fifth-order function with shear rate based on rheological test data, and the needle displacement model was fitted to a nine-order function with time based on real-time displacement test data. The results show that jet performance is related to the diameter of the nozzle outlet and the cone angle of the nozzle, and the impacts of the flow channel structure were confirmed...
April 20, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677104/morphological-evolution-of-vertically-standing-molybdenum-disulfide-nanosheets-by-chemical-vapor-deposition
#3
Song Zhang, Jiajia Liu, Karla Hernandez Ruiz, Rong Tu, Meijun Yang, Qizhong Li, Ji Shi, Haiwen Li, Lianmeng Zhang, Takashi Goto
In this study, we demonstrated the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of vertically standing molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) nanosheets, with an unconventional combination of molybdenum hexacarbonyl (Mo(CO)₆) and 1,2-ethanedithiol (C₂H₆S₂) as the novel kind of Mo and S precursors respectively. The effect of the distance between the precursor’s outlet and substrates (denoted as d ) on the growth characteristics of MoS₂, including surface morphology and nanosheet structure, was investigated. Meanwhile, the relationship between the structure characteristics of MoS₂ nanosheets and their catalytic performance for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was elucidated...
April 20, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676892/multiple-pathways-to-bacterial-load-reduction-by-stormwater-best-management-practices-tradeoffs-in-performance-volume-and-treated-area
#4
Jordyn Wolfand, Colin D Bell, Alexandria B Boehm, Terri Hogue, Richard G Luthy
Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are implemented to reduce microbial pollution in runoff, but their removal efficiencies differ. Enhanced BMPs, such as those with media amendments, can increase removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in runoff from 0.25-log10 to above 3-log10 ; however, their implications for watershed-scale management are poorly understood. In this work, a computational model was developed to simulate watershed-scale bacteria loading and BMP performance, using the Ballona Creek Watershed (Los Angeles County, CA) as a case study...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675856/adreno-muscarinic-synergy-in-the-male-human-urinary-outflow-tract
#5
Sebastian Walther, Frank Strittmatter, Martin Hennenberg, Christian Gratzke, Christian G Stief, Alexander Roosen
AIM: To examine putative interaction between adrenergic and muscarinic contractile activation in the human urinary outflow tract. METHODS: Tissue from the trigone and prostatic urethra was obtained from 12 cystectomy and 16 prostatectomy specimen. Contractions were elicited by exposure to exogenous agonists before and after inhibition of Rho kinase and protein kinase c (PKC). Immunofluorescence and Western-blot studies were performed using antibodies to muscarinic M3-receptors (M3-R) and alpha1A-adrenoreceptors (alpha1A-AR)...
April 20, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673939/long-term-spatial-and-temporal-microbial-community-dynamics-in-a-large-scale-drinking-water-distribution-system-with-multiple-disinfectant-regimes
#6
Sarah Potgieter, Ameet Pinto, Makhosazana Sigudu, Hein du Preez, Esper Ncube, Stephanus Venter
Long-term spatial-temporal investigations of microbial dynamics in full-scale drinking water distribution systems are scarce. These investigations can reveal the process, infrastructure, and environmental factors that influence the microbial community, offering opportunities to re-think microbial management in drinking water systems. Often, these insights are missed or are unreliable in short-term studies, which are impacted by stochastic variabilities inherent to large full-scale systems. In this two-year study, we investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of the microbial community in a large, full scale South African drinking water distribution system that uses three successive disinfection strategies (i...
March 30, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673764/mathematical-modeling-of-full-feed-depletion-split-flow-lateral-transport-thin-self-adjustable-channels-ffd-splitt-sa
#7
Albert Szparaga, Tomasz Kowalkowski, Bogusław Buszewski
The article contains a description of both the mathematical modeling of particles separation in self-adjustable channel for Split Flow Thin Cell Fractionation (SPLITT), and the channel design concept. The channel is designed to work in full feed depletion mode (FFD-SPLITT). By using different diameters of outlets, the channel has the ability to self-adjust the flow rates at the outlets. Moreover, in order to increase the throughput of the sample only one splitter, positioned at the end of the separation cell, was used...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672873/space-time-analyses-of-alcohol-outlets-and-related-motor-vehicle-crashes-associations-at-city-and-census-block-group-levels
#8
Robert Lipton, William R Ponicki, Paul J Gruenewald, Andrew Gaidus
OBJECTIVES: Past research has linked alcohol outlet densities to drinking, drunken driving and alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). Because impaired drivers travel some distances from drinking places to crash locations, spatial relationships between outlets and crashes are complex. We investigate these relationships at three geographic levels: Census block groups (CBGs), adjacent (nearby) areas, and whole cities. METHODS: We examined risks for all injury MVCs as well as 'had been drinking' (HBD) and single-vehicle nighttime (SVN) subgroups using data from the Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System (SWITRS) across CBGs among 50 California cities from 2001 to 2008...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672730/the-importance-of-costoclavicular-space-on-possible-compression-of-the-subclavian-artery-in-the-thoracic-outlet-region-a-radio-anatomical-study
#9
Tevfik Kaplan, Ayhan Comert, Ali Firat Esmer, Gökçe Kaan Ataç, Halil Ibrahim Acar, Bulent Ozkurt, Ibrahim Tekdemir, Serdar Han
OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to identify possible compression points along the transit route of the subclavian artery and to provide a detailed anatomical analysis of areas that are involved in the surgical management of the thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). The results of the current study are based on measurements from cadavers, computed tomography (CT) scans and dry adult first ribs. METHODS: The width and length of the interscalene space and the width of the costoclavicular passage were measured on 18 cervical dissections in 9 cadavers, on 50 dry first ribs and on CT angiography sections from 15 patients whose conditions were not related to TOS...
April 16, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671672/pathophysiological-effect-of-bladder-outlet-obstruction-on-the-urothelium
#10
Grzegorz Niemczyk, Katarzyna Czarzasta, Piotr Radziszewski, Paweł Włodarski, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska
Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms are major urological issues that significantly affect patient's quality of life and may lead to severe complications. The prevalence of both is increasing each year, raising the burden to health system. Therefore, casual and symptomatic treatment should be of great importance. However, management of symptoms is often difficult as their pathophysiology is multifactorial and not well elucidated. Recently urothelium has gathered much attention as one of the potential causal agents...
April 19, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669210/sodium-hydroxide-production-from-seawater-desalination-brine-process-design-and-energy-efficiency
#11
Fengmin Du, David Warsinger, Tamanna Urmi, Gregory P Thiel, Amit Kumar, John H Lienhard
The ability to increase pH is a crucial need for desalination pretreatment (especially in reverse osmosis) and for other industries, but processes used to raise pH often incur significant emissions and non-renewable resource use. Alternatively, waste brine from desalination can be used to create sodium hydroxide, via appropriate concentration and purification pretreatment steps, for input into the chlor-alkali process. In this work, an efficient process train (with variations) is developed and modeled for sodium hydroxide production from seawater desalination brine using membrane chlor-alkali electrolysis...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668672/optimization-of-no-oxidation-by-h2o2-thermal-decomposition-at-moderate-temperatures
#12
Hai-Qian Zhao, Zhong-Hua Wang, Xing-Cun Gao, Cheng-Hao Liu, Han-Bing Qi
H2O2 was adopted to oxidize NO in simulated flue gas at 100-500°C. The effects of the H2O2 evaporation conditions, gas temperature, initial NO concentration, H2O2 concentration, and H2O2:NO molar ratio on the oxidation efficiency of NO were investigated. The reason for the narrow NO oxidation temperature range near 500°C was determined. The NO oxidation products were analyzed. The removal of NOx using NaOH solution at a moderate oxidation ratio was studied. It was proven that rapid evaporation of the H2O2 solution was critical to increase the NO oxidation efficiency and broaden the oxidation temperature range...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667709/the-outlet-patch-gastric-heterotopia-of-the-colo-rectum-and-anus
#13
Abul Ala Syed Rifat Mannan, Michael Vieth, Armen Khararjian, Binny Khandakar, Dora Lam-Himlin, David Heydt, Feriyl Bhaijee, Henry J Venbrux, Kathleen Byrnes, Lysandra Voltaggio, Norman Barker, Songyang Yuan, Elizabeth Montgomery
AIMS: Gastric heterotopia (GH) has been described throughout the gastrointestinal tract. However, the colorectal region is an extremely rare location for it. We describe the clinicopathologic features of GH of the colon, rectum, and anus. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 33 cases in 20 males and 13 females (median age 54 years; range, 4 months to 73 years). Sites included the rectum (N=26), anus (N=4), ileocecal junction (N=1), ascending colon (N=1) and descending colon (N=1)...
April 18, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667198/alcohol-availability-and-onset-and-recurrence-of-alcohol-use-disorder-examination-in-a-longitudinal-cohort-with-co-sibling-analysis
#14
Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Henrik Ohlsson, Kenneth S Kendler, Won Kim Cook, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Recent reviews of associations of alcohol availability with alcohol outcomes suggest findings are highly inconsistent and highlight a lack of longitudinal and causal evidence. Effect modification (moderation or statistical interaction), which could contribute to the inconsistent picture in the existing literature, has not been systematically assessed. We examined associations of alcohol availability with onset and recurrence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) using multi-level, longitudinal population data from Sweden and test hypothesized effect modifiers to identify groups for whom increased alcohol availability may be particularly risky...
April 18, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667096/evaluation-of-the-novel-non-invasive-zero-heat-flux-tcore%C3%A2-thermometer-in-cardiac-surgical-patients
#15
José A Sastre, María J Pascual, Teresa López
Tcore™ Sensor is a novel zero-heat-flux thermometer that estimates core temperature from skin over forehead. We tested the hypothesis that this system estimates core temperature to an accuracy within 0.5 °C. 40 cardiac surgical patients were enrolled (960 measurements). Reference core temperatures were measured in nasopharynx, pulmonary artery and the arterial branch of the oxygenator of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit. 95% Bland-Altman limits of agreement for repeated measurement data was used to study the agreement between Tcore™ thermometer and the reference methods...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666009/in-vitro-validation-of-a-self-driving-aortic-turbine-venous-assist-device-for-fontan-patients
#16
Kerem Pekkan, Ibrahim Basar Aka, Ece Tutsak, Erhan Ermek, Haldun Balim, Ismail Lazoglu, Riza Turkoz
BACKGROUND: Palliative repair of single ventricle defects involve a series of open-heart surgeries where a single-ventricle (Fontan) circulation is established. As the patient ages, this paradoxical circulation gradually fails, because of its high venous pressure levels. Reversal of the Fontan paradox requires an extra subpulmonic energy that can be provided through mechanical assist devices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic performance of a totally implantable integrated aortic-turbine venous-assist (iATVA) system, which does not need an external drive power and maintains low venous pressure chronically, for the Fontan circulation...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665998/lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-including-bladder-outlet-obstruction-what-s-new-in-diagnostics
#17
REVIEW
Stavros Gravas, Iason Kyriazis, Adam P Klausner
It is well known that lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have a multifactorial etiology. Therefore, there is an increased need for improved diagnostics for the optimal assessment of patients with LUTS in order to identify the various causes of symptoms and improve disease phenotyping. Research has focused on the development of improved urodynamic technologies and the development of noninvasive tests that could replace urodynamic studies. This mini-review will present the most recently published studies on the topic including new technologies in the diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction, novel metrics for bladder sensation, analysis of filling phase rhythm, measurement of detrusor wall tension, and brain imaging during urodynamic studies...
April 14, 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665633/spatial-glyphosate-and-ampa-redistribution-on-the-soil-surface-driven-by-sediment-transport-processes-a-flume-experiment
#18
Célia P M Bento, Meindert C Commelin, Jantiene E M Baartman, Xiaomei Yang, Piet Peters, Hans G J Mol, Coen J Ritsema, Violette Geissen
This study investigates the influence of small-scale sediment transport on glyphosate and AMPA redistribution on the soil surface and on their off-site transport during water erosion events. Both a smooth surface (T1) and a surface with "seeding lines on the contour" (T2) were tested in a rainfall simulation experiment using soil flumes (1 × 0.5 m) with a 5% slope. A dose of 178 mg m-2 of a glyphosate-based formulation (CLINIC® ) was applied on the upper 0.2 m of the flumes. Four 15-min rainfall events (RE) with 30-min interval in between and a total rainfall intensity of 30 mm h-1 were applied...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664124/a-comparison-of-the-treatment-recommendations-for-neurogenic-lower-urinary-tract-dysfunction-in-the-national-institute-for-health-and-care-excellence-european-association-of-urology-and-international-consultations-on-incontinence-guidelines
#19
Ashley Jaggi, Marcus Drake, Emad Siddiqui, Francis Fatoye
AIMS: Healthcare guidelines are an important vehicle in establishing up-to-date evidence based medicine (EBM) in clinical practice. Due to varying development processes, clinical guidelines created by different institutions can often contain contrasting recommendations. This can have implications for optimal and standardized patient care across management settings. METHODS: The similarities and differences of treatment recommendations made in the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), The European Association of Urology (EAU), and the International Consultation on Continence (ICI) guidelines for neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) were assessed...
April 17, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663167/structural-studies-on-radiopharmaceutical-dota-minigastrin-analogue-cp04-complexes-and-their-interaction-with-cck2-receptor
#20
Piotr F J Lipiński, Piotr Garnuszek, Michał Maurin, Raphael Stoll, Nils Metzler-Nolte, Artur Wodyński, Jan Cz Dobrowolski, Marta K Dudek, Monika Orzełowska, Renata Mikołajczak
BACKGROUND: The cholecystokinin receptor subtype 2 (CCK-2R) is an important target for diagnostic imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy (TRNT) due to its overexpression in certain cancers (e.g., medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)), thus matching with a theranostic principle. Several peptide conjugates suitable for the TRNT of MTC have been synthesized, including a very promising minigastrin analogue DOTA-(DGlu)6 -Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2 (CP04). In this contribution, we wanted to see whether CP04 binding affinity for CCK-2R is sensitive to the type of the complexed radiometal, as well as to get insights into the structure of CP04-CCK2R complex by molecular modeling...
April 16, 2018: EJNMMI Research
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