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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647728/impact-of-five-tobacco-endgame-strategies-on-future-smoking-prevalence-population-health-and-health-system-costs-two-modelling-studies-to-inform-the-tobacco-endgame
#1
Frederieke S van der Deen, Nick Wilson, Christine L Cleghorn, Giorgi Kvizhinadze, Linda J Cobiac, Nhung Nghiem, Tony Blakely
OBJECTIVE: There is growing international interest in advancing 'the tobacco endgame'. We use New Zealand (Smokefree goal for 2025) as a case study to model the impacts on smoking prevalence (SP), health gains (quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)) and cost savings of (1) 10% annual tobacco tax increases, (2) a tobacco-free generation (TFG), (3) a substantial outlet reduction strategy, (4) a sinking lid on tobacco supply and (5) a combination of 1, 2 and 3. METHODS: Two models were used: (1) a dynamic population forecasting model for SP and (2) a closed cohort (population alive in 2011) multistate life table model (including 16 tobacco-related diseases) for health gains and costs...
June 24, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647236/hydrolysis-of-polyaluminum-chloride-prior-to-coagulation-effects-on-coagulation-behavior-and-implications-for-improving-coagulation-performance
#2
Zhongguo Zhang, Jun Wang, Dan Liu, Jiuyi Li, Xiaolin Wang, Boyu Song, Bing Yue, Kehui Zhao, Yun Song
The effects of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) hydrolysis prior to coagulation on both the coagulation zone and coagulation performance of a kaolin suspension were investigated by a novel jar test named the "reversed coagulation test". The tests showed that PACl hydrolysis prior to coagulation decreased the performance of charge neutralization coagulation in the case of short-time slow mixing (10min; G=15sec(-1)) and increased the optimal dosage for charge neutralization and sweep coagulation. Moreover, the hydrolysis time had insignificant effects on the size and zeta potential of PACl precipitates and the residual turbidity of the raw water...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646804/pilot-investigation-of-2-nondiet-approaches-to-improve-weight-and-health
#3
Kelly H Webber, Laurel Mellin, Lindsey Mayes, Igor Mitrovic, Matt Saulnier
Context • Weight loss and maintenance are associated with many health benefits, but long-term maintenance of weight loss remains elusive for many people. Overweight individuals are at higher risk than normal-weight individuals for stress-induced overeating. The use of stress-management tools in a weight loss program might decrease the physiological stress that fuels overeating and improve posttreatment maintenance of weight loss Objective • The study intended to compare the differences in outcomes between 2 approaches to achieving weight loss and changes in health-stress reduction and intuitive eating (IE)-during a 14-wk period...
June 23, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645293/prenatal-screening-of-fetal-ventriculoarterial-connections-benefits-of-4d-technique-in-fetal-heart-imaging
#4
Yu Wang, Miao Fan, Faiza Amber Siddiqui, Meilian Wang, Wei Sun, Xue Sun, Wenjia Lei, Ying Zhang
BACKGROUND: Identification of prenatal ventriculoarterial connections in fetuses with conotruncal anomalies (CTA) remains one of the greatest challenges for sonographers performing screening examinations. Herein, we propose a novel protocol of 4D volume analysis that identifies ventriculoarterial connections and evaluate its clinical utility in routine screenings. METHODS: Twenty-nine cases of transposition of the great arteries (TGA), 22 cases of double-outlet right ventricle (DORV), 36 cases of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), 14 cases of truncus arteriosus (TCA), and randomly selected 70 normal fetuses were reviewed in this study...
June 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645050/land-use-affects-total-dissolved-nitrogen-and-nitrate-concentrations-in-tropical-montane-streams-in-kenya
#5
Suzanne R Jacobs, Lutz Breuer, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, David E Pelster, Mariana C Rufino
African tropical montane forests are facing fast and dynamic changes in land use. However, the impacts of these changes on stream water quality are understudied. This paper aims at assessing the effect of land use and physical catchment characteristics on stream water concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), nitrate (NO3-N) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in the Mau Forest, the largest tropical montane forest in Kenya. We conducted five synoptic stream water sampling campaigns at the outlets of 13-16 catchments dominated by either natural forest, smallholder agriculture or commercial tea and tree plantations...
June 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644402/choosing-surgery-for-neurogenic-tos-the-roles-of-physical-exam-physical-therapy-and-imaging
#6
REVIEW
David P Kuwayama, Jason R Lund, Charles O Brantigan, Natalia O Glebova
Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) is characterized by arm and hand pain, paresthesias, and sometimes weakness resulting from compression of the brachial plexus within the thoracic outlet. While it is the most common subtype of TOS, nTOS can be difficult to diagnose. Furthermore, patient selection for surgical treatment can be challenging as symptoms may be vague and ambiguous, and diagnostic studies may be equivocal. Herein, we describe some approaches to aid in identifying patients who would be expected to benefit from surgical intervention for nTOS...
June 23, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641228/relationships-between-past-and-present-pesticide-applications-and-pollution-at-a-watershed-outlet-the-case-of-a-horticultural-catchment-in-martinique-french-west-indies
#7
Charles Mottes, Magalie Lesueur Jannoyer, Marianne Le Bail, Mathilde Guéné, Céline Carles, Eric Malézieux
The understanding of factors affecting pesticide transfers to catchment outlet is still at a very early stage in tropical context, and especially on tropical volcanic context. We performed on-farm pesticide use surveys during 87 weeks and monitored pesticides in water weekly during 67 weeks at the outlet of a small catchment in Martinique. We identified three types of pollution. First, we showed long-term chronic pollution by chlordecone, diuron and metolachlor resulting from horticultural practices applied 5-20 years ago (quantification frequency higher than 80%)...
June 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640889/contrasting-academic-and-lay-press-print-coverage-of-the-2013-2016-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak
#8
Mark D Kieh, Elim M Cho, Ian A Myles
Under a traditional paradigm, only those with the expected background knowledge consume academic literature. The lay press, as well as government and non-government agencies, play a complementary role of extracting findings of high interest or importance and translating them for general viewing. The need for accurate reporting and public advising is paramount when attempting to tackle epidemic outbreaks through behavior change. Yet, public trust in media outlets is at a historic low. The Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) model for media reporting on public health emergencies was established in 2005 and has subsequently been used to analyze media reporting on outbreaks of influenza and measles as well as smoking habits and medication compliance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639027/first-detection-of-enteric-adenoviruses-genotype-41-in-recreation-spring-areas-of-taiwan
#9
Yi-Jia Shih, Chi-Wei Tao, Hsin-Chi Tsai, Wen-Chien Huang, Tung-Yi Huang, Jung-Sheng Chen, Yi-Chou Chiu, Tsui-Kang Hsu, Bing-Mu Hsu
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are DNA viruses found in recreational water, such as water parks and swimming pools. Human adenovirus 41 (HAdV-41) is the most common serotype detected and is a leading cause of acute diarrheal disease. The focus of this study is to determine the prevalence of HAdVs in hot springs. Of 57 samples collected from four different geological sites, 16 samples have shown evidence of HAdVs (28.1%). HAdV-41 and porcine adenovirus 5 (PAdV-5) were the two types isolated, with a greater frequency of HAdV-41, which in other settings has been associated with acute diarrhea...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638819/testosterone-modifies-alterations-to-detrusor-muscle-after-partial-bladder-outlet-obstruction-in-juvenile-mice
#10
Andrew S Flum, Paula R Firmiss, Diana K Bowen, Natalie Kukulka, Grace B Delos Santos, Robert W Dettman, Edward M Gong
Lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to posterior urethral valves (PUV) arise in boys during adolescence. The reasons for this have previously been attributed to increased urine output as boys experience increased growth. Additionally, there are few choices for clinicians to effectively treat these complications. We formed the new hypothesis that increased androgen levels at this time of childhood development could play a role at the cellular level in obstructed bladders. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the role of testosterone on bladder detrusor muscle following injury from partial bladder outlet obstruction (PO) in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638314/in-person-retail-marketing-claims-in-tobacco-and-e-cigarette-shops-in-southern-california
#11
Joshua S Yang, Michele M Wood, Katelynn Peirce
BACKGROUND: E-cigarette use has been increasing in the United States, though knowledge of potential risks and harms associated with e-cigarette use is low. Marketing of e-cigarettes may serve as a source of information to shape beliefs and attitudes toward e-cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to identify the most common marketing claims made within "vape" and tobacco shops in sales interactions with customers in demographically diverse cities. METHODS: Vape and tobacco shops from three diverse cities in Southern California were selected for inclusion in the study...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637788/the-effects-of-neuromodulation-in-a-novel-obese-prone-rat-model-of-detrusor-underactivity
#12
Eric J Gonzalez, Warren M Grill
Obesity is a global epidemic associated with an increased risk for lower urinary tract dysfunction. Inefficient voiding and urinary retention may arise in late-stage obesity when the expulsive force of the detrusor smooth muscle cannot overcome outlet resistance. Detrusor underactivity (DUA) and impaired contractility may contribute to the pathogenesis of non-obstructive urinary retention. We used cystometry and electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves (pudendal and pelvic n.) to characterize and improve bladder function in urethane-anesthetized obese-prone (OP) and obese-resistant (OR) rats following diet-induced obesity (DIO)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636109/xq26-1-26-3-duplication-including-mospd1-and-gpc3-identified-in-boy-with-short-stature-and-double-outlet-right-ventricle
#13
Yukiko Hirota, Takaomi Minami, Tomoyuki Sato, Akiko Yokomizo, Auimi Matsumoto, Masahide Goto, Eriko Jinbo, Takanori Yamamgata
Xq25q26 duplication syndrome has been reported in individuals with clinical features such as short stature, intellectual disability, syndromic facial appearance, small hands and feet, and genital abnormalities. The symptoms are related to critical chromosome regions including Xq26.1-26.3. In this particular syndrome, no patient with congenital heart disease was previously reported. Here, we report a 6-year-old boy with typical symptoms of Xq25q26 duplication syndrome and double outlet right ventricle (DORV) with pulmonary atresia (PA)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634542/angioedema-perioperative-management
#14
Andrew A Maynard, Christina F Burger, Joseph J Schlesinger
OBJECTIVE: To describe the perioperative management of a patient with acquired angioedema (AAE). METHODS: A 66-year-old Caucasian male presented from an outside hospital with a history of acquired angioedema and gastrointestinal stromal tumor-related intractable urticaria and mastocytosis. He was admitted for urgent laparoscopic partial gastrectomy, secondary to gastric outlet obstruction symptomatology. Previous combined attacks were characterized by a widespread rash, abdominal pain and respiratory distress resulting in hospitalization...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633068/multi-electrode-system-for-measurement-of-transmembrane-ion-fluxes-through-living-epithelial-cells
#15
Mirosław Zając, Andrzej Lewenstam, Krzysztof Dolowy
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most common fatal human genetic disease. It is caused by the defect in a single anion channel protein which affects ion and water transport across the epithelial tissue. A flat multi-electrode platform of diameter 12mm, allowing for measurement of four ions: sodium, potassium, hydrogen and chloride by exchangeable/replaceable ion-selective electrodes is described. The measurement is possible owing to the architecture of the platform which accommodates all the electrodes and inlets/outlets...
June 13, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631830/overactive-bladder-symptoms-after-midurethral-sling-surgery-in-women-risk-factors-and-management
#16
Tom Marcelissen, Philip Van Kerrebroeck
INTRODUCTION: Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) including urgency and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) occurs frequently after stress urinary incontinence (SUI) surgery. It is important to identify the risk factors for the occurrence of OAB symptoms in order to adequately inform the patient before surgery. Furthermore, when facing OAB after sling surgery it is crucial to know how to manage these symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a literature review in order to assess the risk factors and management of OAB symptoms after SUI surgery...
June 20, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631581/the-writer-s-guide-to-education-scholarship-in-emergency-medicine-education-innovations-part-3
#17
Andrew K Hall, Carly Hagel, Teresa M Chan, Brent Thoma, Aleisha Murnaghan, Farhan Bhanji
OBJECTIVE: The scholarly dissemination of innovative medical education practices helps broaden the reach of this type of work, allowing scholarship to have an impact beyond a single institution. There is little guidance in the literature for those seeking to publish program evaluation studies and innovation papers. This study aims to derive a set of evidence-based features of high-quality reports on innovations in emergency medicine (EM) education. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review and thematic analysis to determine quality markers for medical education innovation reports, with a focus on EM...
June 20, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629475/can-formalizing-links-among-community-health-workers-accredited-drug-dispensing-outlet-dispensers-and-health-facility-staff-increase-their-collaboration-to-improve-prompt-access-to-maternal-and-child-care-a-qualitative-study-in-tanzania
#18
Angel Dillip, Suleiman Kimatta, Martha Embrey, John C Chalker, Richard Valimba, Mariam Malliwah, John Meena, Rachel Lieber, Keith Johnson
BACKGROUND: In Tanzania, progress toward achieving the 2015 Millennium Development Goals for maternal and newborn health was slow. An intervention brought together community health workers, health facility staff, and accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) dispensers to improve maternal and newborn health through a mechanism of collaboration and referral. This study explored barriers, successes, and promising approaches to increasing timely access to care by linking the three levels of health care provision...
June 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629121/creating-a-registry-for-patients-with-thoracic-outlet-syndrome
#19
Misty D Humphries
The creation of any patient database requires substantial planning. In the case of thoracic outlet syndrome, which is a rare disease, the Society for Vascular Surgery has defined reporting standards to serve as an outline for the creation of a patient registry. Prior to undertaking this task, it is critical that designers understand the basics of registry planning and a priori establish plans for data collection and analysis.
June 17, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627397/long-term-efficacy-of-young-dees-bladder-neck-reconstruction-role-of-the-associated-bladder-neck-injection-for-the-treatment-of-children-with-urinary-incontinence
#20
A Faure, G Hery, E Mille, P Orillac, B Da Silva, T Merrot, M Haddad, J M Guys
OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term efficacy of Young-Dees bladder neck reconstruction (YDBNR) alone versus YDBNR plus BNI in patients with urinary incontinence caused by urethral sphincter insufficiency. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1987 and 2006, we assessed the continence rates obtained with YDBNR and BNI as a supplementary treatment for persistent outlet insufficiency in patients with neurogenic bladder (group-1, n = 35) and bladder exstrophy (group-2, n = 20)...
June 13, 2017: Urology
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