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Child welfare

Steven A Sumner, Matthew J Maenner, Christina M Socias, James A Mercy, Paul Silverman, Sandra P Medinilla, Steven S Martin, Likang Xu, Susan D Hillis
INTRODUCTION: Accurately identifying youth at highest risk of firearm violence involvement could permit delivery of focused, comprehensive prevention services. This study explored whether readily available city and state administrative data covering life events before youth firearm violence could elucidate patterns preceding such violence. METHODS: Four hundred twenty-one individuals arrested for homicide, attempted homicide, aggravated assault, or robbery with a firearm committed in Wilmington, Delaware, from January 1, 2009 to May 21, 2014, were matched 1:3 to 1,259 Wilmington resident controls on birth year and sex...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Joan Garvan
BACKGROUND: Changes to gendered norms have been the single most significant development in the second part of the twentieth century; practices within families have mirrored these changes. Many, however, are falling by the wayside after the birth of an infant, with high rates of marital breakdown, high rates of anxiety and depression, and significant issues related to identity. OBJECTIVES/AIMS: The aim of this research was to gauge how a sample of Australian women were travelling through the Transition to Parenthood, particularly in terms of their relationships; sharing the care and housework; their life course; and their sense of self...
October 14, 2016: Contemporary Nurse
Kathi L H Harp, Carrie B Oser
African American families are overrepresented in the Child Welfare System; however, extant research on this phenomenon has (1) focused mostly on Caucasian or mixed-race samples and (2) has not examined informal custody arrangements alongside official child custody loss. This research addresses these gaps in the literature by examining factors associated with both official and informal child custody loss among a sample of African American mothers. Multinomial regression results show that having ever been incarcerated following a conviction increases the odds of experiencing both types of custody loss relative to no loss...
November 2016: Social Science Research
Lanlan Xu, Maureen A Pirog, Edward D Vargas
A large body of literature documents the importance of child support for children's wellbeing, though little is known about the child support behaviors of mixed-status families, a large and rapidly growing population in the United States. In this paper, we use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to investigate the impact of citizenship status on formal and informal child support transfers among a nationally representative sample of parents who have citizen children. Probit regression models and propensity score matching (PSM) estimators show that mixed-status families are significantly less likely to have child support orders and child support receipt compared to their citizen counterparts...
November 2016: Social Science Research
Sari Lepistö, Noora Ellonen, Mika Helminen, Eija Paavilainen
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the family health, functioning, social support and child maltreatment risk and associations between them in families expecting a baby. BACKGROUND: Finland was one of the first countries in banning corporal punishment against children over 30 years ago. Despite of this, studies have shown that parents physically abuse their children. In addition, professionals struggle in intervention of this phenomenon. Abusive parents should be recognized and helped before actual violent behaviour...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Abdulrahman Darraj, Walid Barakat, Mona Kenani, Reem Shajry, Abdullah Khawaji, Sultan Bakri, Abdulrahman Makin, Azza Mohanna, Abu Obaida Yassin
BACKGROUND: The rise in childhood eye diseases has become a matter of concern in Saudi Arabia, and hence a study has been conducted on the residents of Jazan. The aim of the research was to find out the root cause of such issues and provide a solution to prevent such circumstances for it may affect the vision of children. In this study, therefore, we aimed to determine the types of childhood eye diseases in Jazan and to discuss the best ways to prevent them or prevent their effect on the vision of our children...
2016: Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases
Natasha S Mendoza, Roderick A Rose, Jennifer M Geiger, Scottye J Cash
Child welfare agencies have adopted assessment tools and instruments to inform the level of risk and guide the agency's level of intervention with the family. Actuarial assessments may be more uniform but inflexible with respect to practice wisdom whereas clinical or consensus-based assessments are more comprehensive and intuitive but lack objectivity. The purpose of the current study is to compare clinical and actuarial methods of risk assessment used by child welfare workers to make decisions about substantiation and services...
September 24, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Elspeth M Slayter
The promotion of speedy, permanent outcomes for foster children is a central child welfare policy goal. However, while children with intellectual disability (ID) are at greater risk for child welfare involvement, little is known about their case outcomes. This cross-sectional national study explores between-group foster care outcomes. Foster children with intellectual disability were more likely to have experienced an adoption disruption or dissolution but less likely to be reunified with a parent, primary caretaker or other family member...
October 2016: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Laura Ann McCloskey, Kelly A Doran, Megan R Gerber
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) may interfere with women's use of preferred forms of contraception, resulting in unwanted pregnancies forcing women to seek permanent sterilization. A history of child sexual abuse (CSA) presages the risk for IPV in adulthood setting the stage for adverse reproductive outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether CSA and IPV are associated with women's voluntary sterilization when adjusting for demographics and reproductive health history...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Women's Health
Ingfrid Vaksdal Brattabø, Anette Christine Iversen, Anne Nordrehaug Åstrøm, Ragnhild Bjørknes
OBJECTIVE: Detecting and responding to child-maltreatment is a serious challenge and public health concern. In Norway, public dental health personnel (PDHP) have a mandatory obligation to report to child welfare services (CWS) if they suspect child-maltreatment. This study aimed to assess PDHP's frequency of reporting and failing to report to CWS and whether the frequencies varied according to personal, organizational and external characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was sent to 1542 public dental hygienists and dentists in Norway, 1200 of who responded (77...
September 20, 2016: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
Monica L Oxford, Susan J Spieker, Mary Jane Lohr, Charles B Fleming
We conducted a community-based randomized control trial with intent-to-treat analysis on Promoting First Relationships® (PFR), a 10-week home visiting program. The study included 247 families with 10- to 24-month-old children who had a recent, open child protective services investigation of child maltreatment. Families were randomly assigned to receive either the 10-week home visiting PFR service or a telephone-based, three-call resource and referral (R&R) service. Across postintervention time points, parents in the PFR condition scored higher than families in the R&R condition in parent understanding of toddlers' social emotional needs (d = ...
September 19, 2016: Child Maltreatment
L Baux-Cazal, E Gokalsing, S Amadeo, A Messiah
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to review international literature on suicidal behavior prevention for children under age 13. METHODS: We gathered all relevant articles on suicide prevention for children under 13. We researched all publications in the French and English languages in PubMed (MEDLINE), PsychINFO and SUDOC databases published until February 2014, with the keywords "child", "child preschool", "prevention and control", "suicide", and "suicide attempted"...
September 13, 2016: L'Encéphale
Pietro Ferrara, Chiara Guadagno, Annamaria Sbordone, Maria Amato, Giulia Spina, Giacomo Perrone, Maria Cristin Basile, Francesca Ianniello, Giovanna Carmela Fabrizio, Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani, Alberto Verrotti, Alberto Villani, Giovanni Corsello
Child maltreatment is a complex life experience happening when a parent or caregiver does an intentional or potential damage to a child, including acts of commission and omission. Child abuse is not an uncommon event, but it is not always recognized. Identifying the real number of maltreated children is a challenge because of the large variability in reported prevalence data across studies. Unfortunately, in the United States, it affects 1 in 8 children, by the age of 18 years, annually. Paediatricians may encounter a variety of forms of maltreatment such as neglect, emotional, physical and sexual abuse...
September 14, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
Constantinos Kanaris
In 2008 the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act amendments made deliberately choosing to bring disability into the world, using assisted reproduction, a criminal offence. This paper considers whether the legal prohibition above, should influence other policy areas concerning the welfare of future children such as new possibilities presented by foetal surgery and in utero gene therapy. If we have legal duties to avoid disability in one context should this influence our avoidance of disability in this other context? This paper investigates whether the State might have a stake in wider promotion of practices to reduce the degree of disability in foetuses that will come to exist (as opposed to those that will be aborted)...
September 8, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Lawrence A Palinkas, Antonio R Garcia, Gregory A Aarons, Megan Finno-Velasquez, Ian W Holloway, Thomas I Mackie, Laurel K Leslie, Patricia Chamberlain
OBJECTIVES: This article describes the Standard Interview for Evidence Use (SIEU), a measure to assess the level of engagement in acquiring, evaluating, and applying research evidence in health and social service settings. METHOD: Three scales measuring input, process, and output of research evidence and eight subscales were identified using principal axis factor analysis and parallel analysis of data collected from 202 state and county child welfare, mental health, and juvenile justice systems leaders...
September 2016: Research on Social Work Practice
Marc H Bornstein, Chun-Shin Hahn, Diane L Putnick
BACKGROUND: Command of language is a fundamental skill, a cornerstone of multiple cognitive and socioemotional aspects of development, and a necessary ingredient of successful adjustment and functioning in society. Little is known about the developmental stability of language in at-risk youth or which biological and social risk factors moderate stability. METHODS: This four-wave 10-year prospective longitudinal study evaluated stability of core language skill in 1,780 children in varying categories of biological and social risk in a multiage, multidomain, multimeasure, and multireporter framework...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Ilona Renner, Sara Scharmanski
BACKGROUND: The federal initiative promotes support offered by family midwives and nurses in early childhood intervention. So far, the initiative has contributed to the fact that many municipalities in Germany provide support to burdened families with young children in order to help them cope with everyday life and child-raising issues. This investigation aims to provide scientific insight into the question of if (and how) families benefit from the support of family midwives and nurses...
October 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Susan Milne, Jenny McDonald, Norma Kayrouz
AIM: To determine factors associated with change in developmental progress in pre-schoolers referred to a developmental clinic. METHODS: Of 360 pre-schoolers referred to a Child Assessment clinic for neuro-developmental diagnosis before 3.6 years, 190 (53%) were reassessed prior to school entry and recruited to this study. They were assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd edn) before 3.5 years and the Griffiths Mental Development Scales before school entry...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Erin K Martin, Peter H Silverstone
Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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