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Advance radiography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243488/comparison-and-optimisation-of-imaging-techniques-in-suspected-physical-abuse-paediatric-radiography
#1
Jodie R Hampel, Ana Pascoal
OBJECTIVE: This study compares protocols in clinical use for paediatric Suspected Physical Abuse (SPA) radiographic imaging across four NHS Trusts in the UK. The patient dose delivered from a SPA skeletal survey was compared between two sites using different imaging technology. Additionally, the technique in use for the abdomen Anterior-Posterior (AP) radiographic projection was optimised at one of the participant sites. METHODS: Retrospective data collection was performed to compare SPA protocols...
December 15, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208800/spanning-the-horizon-of-accuracy-of-different-intraoral-radiographic-modalities-a-systematic-review
#2
Mohnish Muchhal, Lav K Niraj, Devanshu Chaudhary, Irfan Ali, Kuldeep Dhama, Basavaraj Patthi
AIM: This study was conducted with an aim to systematically review the literature for assessing the accuracy of intraoral radiographs in detection of dental caries. INTRODUCTION: Despite the advancements in oral disease science, dental caries continues to be a worldwide health concern, affecting humans of all ages. Correct diagnosis of caries is critical both in clinical practice as well as in epidemiology and radiography are worthwhile adjunct for a thorough examination...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205634/safety-and-feasibility-of-stereotactic-radiotherapy-using-computed-portal-radiography-for-canine-intracranial-tumors
#3
Nicholas J Rancilio, R Timothy Bentley, Jeannie Poulson Plantenga, Magdalena M Parys, Beatriz G Crespo, George E Moore
Stereotactic radiotherapy is a highly conformal treatment option for intracranial and extracranial malignancies. Stereotactic radiotherapy utilizes specialized equipment specifically designed to avoid normal tissue while delivering ablative treatments with submillimeter precision and accuracy. Linear accelerator based stereotactic radiotherapy incorporates on-board image guidance utilizing cone beam computed tomography (CT). Many institutions lack the ability to provide image guidance with cone beam CT but delivery of highly conformal treatments with submillimeter precision and accuracy is still feasible...
December 4, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172878/the-economic-evidence-for-advanced-imaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-suspected-scaphoid-fractures-systematic-review-of-evidence
#4
Tiago Rua, David Parkin, Vicky Goh, Paul McCrone, Sam Gidwani
Given the limitations of conventional radiography in the diagnosis of suspected scaphoid fractures on presentation, advanced imaging, particularly magnetic resonance imaging, is a useful additional investigation. We carried out a systematic review of the economic evidence for the use of advanced imaging in the management of suspected scaphoid fractures. Fifteen articles were included in the review. Owing to the heterogeneity of study designs, the type and timing of interventions and the economic analyses performed, direct comparisons between the 15 studies were difficult...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147708/advanced-sensing-imaging-and-therapy-nanoplatforms-based-on-nd-3-doped-nanoparticle-composites-exhibiting-upconversion-induced-by-808-nm-near-infrared-light
#5
REVIEW
Ming-Hsien Chan, Ru-Shi Liu
Malignant tumors are currently the leading cause of death worldwide, followed by cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Although various methods, such as blood examination, tissue biopsy, and radiography, for tumor detection, exist, these techniques still require further refinement. Researchers have recently explored the use of novel adjuvant methods, specifically luminescence imaging detection, for the detection of tumors. The light-triggered approach is less invasive and induces fewer side effects than traditional detection methods...
November 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103097/vertebral-imaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-osteoporosis-a-clinician-s-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Sharon H Chou, Meryl S LeBoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fracture and result in functional decline and excess mortality. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of osteoporosis to identify patients at risk for fragility fractures; however, advances in imaging have expanded the role of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating bone health. RECENT FINDINGS: The utility of CT and MRI in the assessment of bone density is starting to gain traction, particularly when used opportunistically...
November 4, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100167/early-identification-and-intervention-matters-a-comprehensive-review-of-current-evidence-and-recommendations-for-the-monitoring-of-bone-health-in-patients-with-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Thomas Brodowicz, Peyman Hadji, Daniela Niepel, Ingo Diel
Bone metastases are common in patients with advanced solid tumors, and many individuals experience debilitating skeletal-related events (SREs; e.g. pathologic fracture, hypercalcemia, radiotherapy or surgery to bone, and spinal cord compression). These events substantially affect disease outcomes, including survival and quality of life, and healthcare systems. Plain radiography is the most widely used imaging modality for the detection of bone metastases; skeletal scintigraphy, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging offer greater sensitivity but their use in routine practice is restricted by high costs and limited availability...
October 18, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089162/tumor-like-conditions-of-the-hand-and-upper-extremity
#8
REVIEW
Courtney E Sherman, Peter M Murray
Tumor-like conditions of the hand and upper extremity typically present as masses and can be confused as more serious conditions. The differential diagnosis of these lesions can cross over with many more commonly recognized benign and malignant upper limb tumors, and it is, therefore, important for the hand surgeon to be familiar with tumor-like conditions. The diagnosis of these lesions often can be made on clinical grounds supported by a careful physical examination and plain film radiography. Advanced imaging and excisional biopsy may be needed in many circumstances to secure the diagnosis given their similarity with bone and soft tissue sarcomas...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078972/comparison-of-point-placement-by-veterinary-professionals-with-different-levels-of-acupuncture-training-in-a-canine-cadaver-model
#9
Toni Yang, Justin Shmalberg, Lindsay Hochman, Erin Miscioscia, Meghan Brumby, Kelsey McKenna, Amber Roth
Veterinary acupuncture is becoming increasingly implemented for various disease processes, with growing numbers of veterinarians pursuing advanced training to meet the rising demand for this relatively new intervention. Accurate acupoint placement remains challenging, with individual practitioners relying on varying methods of point identification, often compounded by the transpositional nature of points for companion animals. The aim of this study was to assess for differences in acupuncture needle placement of select points between veterinary professionals with three different levels of acupuncture training in an academic teaching environment...
October 2017: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078837/eosinophilic-lung-disease
#10
REVIEW
Jonathan C Weissler
Eosinophils are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of lung diseases. Recent advances in eosinophil biology have now produced clinically applicable therapies that seek to counter eosinophilia in blood and lungs. This article reviews the basic biology of eosinophils and their role in mediating T-helper 2 cell responses. The current status of anticytokine therapy for eosinophilic lung disease is discussed. A clinical approach to eosinophilic lung disease based on symptoms and radiography is generated. The clinical significance of persistent eosinophilia in lung transplant patients and patients with asthma will receive special emphasis...
October 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077224/femoral-version-comparison-among-advanced-imaging-methods
#11
Corey B Fuller, Christine L Farnsworth, James D Bomar, Megan E Jeffords, Joshua S Murphy, Eric W Edmonds, Andrew T Pennock, Dennis R Wenger, Vidyadhar V Upasani
Accurate assessment of femoral version is essential to the surgical treatment of lower extremity deformities, yet the ideal modality and technique to measure femoral version is controversial. This study explored two hypotheses: First, there is no difference in the accuracy of femoral version measurement from 2D CT, 2D MRI and 3D biplanar radiography reconstructions compared to a 3D model created from CT. Second, there is a difference between the measured version from traditional axial sections of the proximal femur compared to femoral neck oblique sections for CT and MRI...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061806/mifepristone-has-limited-activity-to-enhance-the-in-vivo-efficacy-of-docetaxel-and-enzalutamide-against-bone-metastatic-and-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#12
Yang Yang, Xin Li, Kenza Mamouni, Omer Kucuk, Daqing Wu
BACKGROUND: Mifepristone has gained great interest in its potential as a novel agent against human cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). However, recent clinical trials using mifepristone in PCa and other cancers have been disappointing. We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activities of mifepristone, in combination with docetaxel and enzalutamide, against bone metastatic castration-resistant PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of mifepristone, alone or in combination with docetaxel or enzalutamide, on PCa cell viability, in vitro, were determined by the colorimetric assay...
November 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057286/recent-advances-in-edge-illumination-x-ray-phase-contrast-tomography
#13
REVIEW
Anna Zamir, Charlotte Hagen, Paul C Diemoz, Marco Endrizzi, Fabio Vittoria, Yujia Chen, Mark A Anastasio, Alessandro Olivo
Edge illumination (EI) is an x-ray phase-contrast imaging technique, exploiting sensitivity to x-ray refraction to visualize features, which are often not detected by conventional absorption-based radiography. The method does not require a high degree of spatial coherence and is achromatic and, therefore, can be implemented with both synchrotron radiation and commercial x-ray tubes. Using different retrieval algorithms, information about an object's attenuation, refraction, and scattering properties can be obtained...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052772/imaging-of-thoracic-tuberculosis-in-children-current-and-future-directions
#14
REVIEW
Kushaljit Singh Sodhi, Ashu S Bhalla, Nasreen Mahomed, Bernard F Laya
Tuberculosis continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is the leading cause of infection-related deaths worldwide. Children are amongst the high-risk groups for developing tuberculosis and often pose a challenge to the clinicians in making a definitive diagnosis. The newly released global tuberculosis report from World Health Organization reveals a 50% increase in fatality from tuberculosis in children. Significantly, diagnostic and treatment algorithms of tuberculosis for children differ from those of adults...
September 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044618/ultrasonographic-screening-for-subclinical-osteochondrosis-of-the-femoral-trochlea-in-foals-28-166-days-old-a-prospective-farm-study
#15
G Martel, D Crowley, J Olive, J Halley, S Laverty
BACKGROUND: Extensive osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions of the lateral ridge of the trochlea of the femur (LRTF), the most common OCD- affected site in the stifle, have a poor outcome with surgical debridement and can be career ending. The early detection of osteochondrosis lesions and their conservative management holds the promise to enhance outcome. We hypothesise that ultrasonography is a valuable field screening tool to detect and monitor early subclinical LRTF osteochondrosis...
October 17, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035648/treatment-of-mandibular-osteomyelitis-in-two-red-necked-wallabies-macropus-rufogriseus-by-means-of-intensive-long-term-parenteral-drug-administration-and-serial-computed-tomographic-monitoring
#16
Lauren P Kane, Jennifer N Langan, Michael J Adkesson, Sathya K Chinnadurai, Benjamin N Nevitt, Randi Drees
CASE DESCRIPTION 2 female red-necked wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus) were evaluated because of sudden-onset mandibular swelling, ptyalism, and hyporexia. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a mandibular swelling with a fluctuant center in both wallabies. Hematologic analysis revealed leukocytosis with a mature neutrophilia and monocytosis in one wallaby (case 1) and a slight neutrophilia, hyperglobulinemia, and high serum alanine aminotransferase activity in the other (case 2). Cytologic examination of the swelling revealed a uniform population of gram-negative rods in case 1 and neutrophilic inflammation in case 2...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986639/-postoperative-and-posttherapeutic-changes-after-primary-bone-tumors-what-s-important-for-radiologists
#17
REVIEW
T Grieser, I-M Nöbauer-Huhmann
Posttreatment imaging of primary bone tumours represents a diagnostic challenge for radiologists. Depending on the primary bone tumour common radiological procedures, such as radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are employed. Radiography and CT are particularly useful in benign bone tumours and in matrix-forming bone tumours. MRI comes into consideration with malignant tumour recurrence and tumoral soft tissue infiltration. Bone scintigraphy is of superior importance if a primarily multifocal manifestation of bone tumour or metastasizing tumour disease is suspected...
November 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982481/the-role-of-computed-tomography-scans-in-diaphyseal-femur-fractures-following-gunshot-injuries-a-survey-of-orthopaedic-traumatologists
#18
John S Hwang, Peter D Gibson, Kenneth L Koury, Nicholas Stekas, Michael S Sirkin, Mark C Reilly, Mark R Adams
The objective of this study was to analyze if the addition of CT changed the management of femoral shaft fractures caused by gunshot wounds when compared to those managed with plain radiography alone. METHODS: A multiple-choice, single-answer electronic survey was created to compare utility of advanced imaging when treating femur fractures resulting from gunshot injury. A total of ten femoral shaft fracture cause by gunshot injuries were selected for an online survey to be administered to orthopeaedic traumatologists...
September 28, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981758/comparison-of-surface-doses-from-indirect-and-direct-digital-radiography-using-optically-stimulated-luminescence-dosemeters
#19
Su Chul Han, Yong Ju Na, Jung Seok Choi, Seungwoo Park, Seongjin Kang, Seo Goo Chang
An optically stimulated luminescence dosemeter was used to compare the surface dose to both eyes from an X-ray delivered frontally to the skull, and the dose could be reduced depending on image acquisition. The detectors were analysed in advance according to each image acquisition method, and the irradiation condition (mA) was obtained to equate the detective quantum efficiency of the two detectors. The surface doses to both eyes were measured in a human phantom. In the detector using the direct conversion method, the surface doses to both eyes were 0...
August 31, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972810/diagnostic-accuracy-of-chest-x-ray-dose-equivalent-ct-for-assessing-calcified-atherosclerotic-burden-of-the-thoracic-aorta
#20
Michael Messerli, Andreas A Giannopoulos, Sebastian Leschka, René Warschkow, Simon Wildermuth, Lukas Hechelhammer, Ralf W Bauer
OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of ultralow-dose chest CT for estimating the calcified atherosclerotic burden of the thoracic aorta using tin-filter CT and compare its diagnostic accuracy with chest direct radiography. METHODS: A total of 106 patients from a prospective, IRB-approved single-centre study were included and underwent standard dose chest CT (1.7 ± 0.7 mSv) by clinical indication followed by ultralow-dose CT with 100 kV and spectral shaping by a tin filter (0...
December 2017: British Journal of Radiology
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