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Prevention,Immunity,Aging Maintain Health

Stephen B Kennedy, Fatorma Bolay, Mark Kieh, Greg Grandits, Moses Badio, Ripley Ballou, Risa Eckes, Mark Feinberg, Dean Follmann, Birgit Grund, Swati Gupta, Lisa Hensley, Elizabeth Higgs, Krisztina Janosko, Melvin Johnson, Francis Kateh, James Logue, Jonathan Marchand, Thomas Monath, Martha Nason, Tolbert Nyenswah, François Roman, Eric Stavale, Julian Wolfson, James D Neaton, H Clifford Lane
BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of vaccines to prevent Ebola virus disease (EVD) were unknown when the incidence of EVD was peaking in Liberia. METHODS: We initiated a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of the chimpanzee adenovirus 3 vaccine (ChAd3-EBO-Z) and the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine (rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP) in Liberia. A phase 2 subtrial was embedded to evaluate safety and immunogenicity. Because the incidence of EVD declined in Liberia, the phase 2 component was expanded and the phase 3 component was eliminated...
October 12, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
Judith A Mendel-Van Alstyne, Glen J Nowak, Ann L Aikin
BACKGROUND: Public confidence in immunization is critical to maintaining high vaccine-coverage rates needed to protect individuals and communities from vaccine-preventable diseases. Recent attention has been placed on factors influencing confidence in vaccination in the US and globally, but comprehensive understanding of what drives or hinders confidence in childhood vaccination is yet to be reached. As such, assessing parents' confidence in childhood vaccination and the ways in which educational materials affect confidence is needed...
September 9, 2017: Vaccine
Paweł Kalinowski, Anna Grządziel
INTRODUCTION: Secondary prophylaxis of cervical cancer consisting in cytology screening tests, despite its effectiveness, does not achieve the desired results. For several years, primary prophylaxis has been available in the form of protective vaccinations. At present, two vaccine preparations are available on the market, and studies conducted on these preparations confirm their almost 100% effectiveness in the prevention of types of HPV present in the vaccine. OBJECTIVE: Analysis of the programmes of protective vaccinations against HPV carried out during the period 2008-2013 in the Lublin Region...
February 14, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Kathryn P MacPherson, Pradoldej Sompol, George T Kannarkat, Jianjun Chang, Lindsey Sniffen, Mary E Wildner, Christopher M Norris, Malú G Tansey
Clinical and animal model studies have implicated inflammation and peripheral immune cell responses in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Peripheral immune cells including T cells circulate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of healthy adults and are found in the brains of AD patients and AD rodent models. Blocking entry of peripheral macrophages into the CNS was reported to increase amyloid burden in an AD mouse model. To assess inflammation in the 5xFAD (Tg) mouse model, we first quantified central and immune cell profiles in the deep cervical lymph nodes and spleen...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
Manisha Jain, Ekadashi Rajni Sabharwal, Dhirendra Srivastava
INTRODUCTION: With advancing health care sciences, the prevalence of Accidental Exposure to Patient's Blood (AEBP) amongst Health Care Personnel (HCP) is bound to increase. The only means of preventing such accidental exposure is safe working practices. It is the responsibility of the teachers to inculcate these practices amongst their students. AIM: To evaluate the knowledge, practice and attitude regarding Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) and Hepatitis-B Virus (HBV) immunization amongst faculty and undergraduate students and to assess the frequency of these occupational exposure with the objective of inculcating safe working practices in the teaching curriculum...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Kiril M Dimitrov, Claudio L Afonso, Qingzhong Yu, Patti J Miller
Newcastle disease (ND) has been defined by the World Organisation for Animal Health as infection of poultry with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Lesions affecting the neurological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive systems are most often observed. The control of ND must include strict biosecurity that prevents virulent NDV from contacting poultry, and also proper administration of efficacious vaccines. When administered correctly to healthy birds, ND vaccines formulated with NDV of low virulence or viral-vectored vaccines that express the NDV fusion protein are able to prevent clinical disease and mortality in chickens upon infection with virulent NDV...
July 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
Reena H Doshi, Vivian H Alfonso, Nicole A Hoff, Patrick Mukadi, Sue Gerber, Ado Bwaka, Stephen G Higgins, Guillaume Ngoie Mwamba, Emile Okitolonda, Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Anne W Rimoin
BACKGROUND: Mumps is an acute viral infection and while the infection is usually mild, complications can lead to permanent sequelae including brain damage and deafness. The burden of mumps is currently unknown the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), we therefore assessed susceptibility to mumps infection among children 6-59 months of age. METHODS: In collaboration with the 2013-2014 DRC Demographic and Health Survey, we conducted a serosurvey to assess population immunity to vaccine preventable diseases...
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jennifer E Isenor, Jessica L Killen, Beverly A Billard, Shelly A McNeil, Donna MacDougall, Beth A Halperin, Kathryn L Slayter, Susan K Bowles
BACKGROUND: Annual immunization is the most effective way to prevent influenza and its associated complications. However, optimal immunization rates are not being met in Nova Scotia, Canada. Additional providers, such as pharmacists, may improve access and convenience to receive vaccines. Pharmacists began immunizing patients 5 years of age and older within the publicly funded universal influenza vaccination program during the 2013-2014 influenza season. The objective of this study was to evaluate influenza immunization coverage rates before and after pharmacists in Nova Scotia gained authority to immunize as part of the publicly funded universal influenza vaccination program...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
A D Dick
Dogma for reasons of immune privilege including sequestration (sic) of ocular antigen, lack of lymphatic and immune competent cells in the vital tissues of the eye has long evaporated. Maintaining tissue and cellular health to preserve vision requires active immune responses to prevent damage and respond to danger. A priori the eye must contain immune competent cells, undergo immune surveillance to ensure homoeostasis as well as an ability to promote inflammation. By interrogating immune responses in non-infectious uveitis and compare with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), new concepts of intraocular immune health emerge...
January 2017: Eye
S Collins, G Amirthalingam, N J Beeching, M A Chand, G Godbole, M E Ramsay, N K Fry, J M White
Public Health England conducts enhanced national surveillance of tetanus, a potentially life-threatening vaccine-preventable disease. A standardized questionnaire was used to ascertain clinical and demographic details of individuals reported with clinically suspected tetanus. The 96 cases identified between 2001 and 2014 were analysed. The average annual incidence was 0·13/million (95% confidence interval 0·10-0·16) of which 50·0% were male. Where reported, 70·3% of injuries occurred in the home/garden (45/64)...
August 18, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
C R MacIntyre, S Karki, M Sheikh, N Zwar, A E Heywood
Many developed countries, like Australia, maintain a high population level immunity against measles, however, there remains a risk of acquisition of measles in non-immune travellers and subsequent importation into Australia leading to localised outbreaks. In this study, we estimate the incidence of measles and describe characteristics including immunisation and pre-travel health seeking behaviour of notified cases of measles in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia between February 2013 and January 2014. Cases were followed up by telephone interview using a questionnaire to collect information of demographic and travel characteristics...
August 17, 2016: Vaccine
Shengdi Hu, Meng Han, Arash Rezaei, Defa Li, W Guoyao, Xi Ma
Type 2 diabetes has become a global public health problem affecting approximately 380 million people throughout the world. It can cause many complications and lead to greater mortality. At present, there is no available medicine for effectively preventing diabetes. L-arginine, a functional amino acid, the precursor of nitric oxide, plays a crucial role in maintenance, reproduction, growth, anti-aging and immunity in animals. Growing clinical evidence indicates that dietary L-arginine supplementation can reduce obesity, decrease arterial blood pressure, resist oxidation and normalize endothelial dysfunction to cause remission of type 2 diabetes...
June 26, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
C Kim, F Fang, C M Weyand, J J Goronzy
Vaccination is the optimal intervention to prevent the increased morbidity and mortality from infection in older individuals and to maintain immune health during ageing. To optimize benefits from vaccination, strategies have to be developed that overcome the defects in an adaptive immune response that occur with immune ageing. Most current approaches are concentrated on activating the innate immune system by adjuvants to improve the induction of a T cell response. This review will focus upon T cell-intrinsic mechanisms that control how a T cell is activated, expands rapidly to differentiate into short-lived effector cells and into memory precursor cells, with short-lived effector T cells then mainly undergoing apoptosis and memory precursor cells surviving as long-lived memory T cells...
January 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Rahul Mishra, Shobha Tandon, Monika Rathore, Molay Banerjee
BACKGROUND: A growing number of dentists are embracing the philosophy that natural agents are better for children's oral health. Knowledge of probiotics on host immune system has entered a new phase of research, and progression in this field is likely to offer novel means by modulating host immunity for prevention and treatment of a wide variety of oral diseases. AIM: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of probiotics in reducing salivary Candida albicans counts with commonly used antimicrobial agents like 0...
January 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
Jordan L da Silva, Guaniara D'Arc de O El Kadre, Guilherme Ah Kudo, Joel F Santiago, Patrícia Pinto Saraiva
AIM: Oral hygiene technique is an important factor in maintaining the health and comfort of hospitalized patients given the frequent presence of oral biofilm and pathogens brought on by mouth breathing. This is an important practice to assist patients in intensive care, in particular those who are intu-bated and under mechanical ventilation because the realization of oral hygiene reduces the patient's risk of complications and length of hospitalization. The objective of this research was to evaluate the oral health condition of patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit (ICU) and to clarify the importance of protocol standardization involving these patients' buccal hygiene...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
S Esposito, N Principi
Pertussis is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by Bordetella pertussis that can be extremely serious, particularly in young infants. For many years the efforts of health authorities throughout the world to prevent pertussis had the main goals of reducing the morbidity of infants and children under 5 years of age, maintaining protection for several years during the school-age period and developing a significant herd immunity to directly and indirectly reduce the risk of the spread of the disease among young infants and the risk of transmission of the infection from preschool children to infants...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Gaëtan Gavazzi, Gilles Berrut, Claude Jeandel
Elderly people are more likely to develop severe infections diseases. Given the significant increase in the number of the elderly population, reducing the risk of infection by vaccination is a major preventive approach. The immunization schedule for 2014 in France yields, for the first time, vaccination recommendations for patients over 65 years. Tetanus-Diphtheria-Poliomyelitis vaccination is recommended to be given at the age of 65 years and then every 10 years, together with the pertussis vaccine to protect infants less than 6 months...
September 2015: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
Olga Spadaro, Emily L Goldberg, Christina D Camell, Yun-Hee Youm, John J Kopchick, Kim Y Nguyen, Andrzej Bartke, Liou Y Sun, Vishwa Deep Dixit
The hallmarks of age-related immune senescence are chronic inflammation, aberrant expansion of effector memory, and loss of naive T lymphocytes due in part to systemic activation of innate immune sensor NLRP3 inflammasome in myeloid lineage cells. The endogenous mechanisms that regulate inflammasome activation during aging are unknown. Here, we present evidence that growth hormone receptor (GH-R)-dependent downregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages is linked to pro-longevity effects that maintain immune system homeostasis in aging...
February 23, 2016: Cell Reports
John W Glasser, Zhilan Feng, Saad B Omer, Philip J Smith, Lance E Rodewald
BACKGROUND: Vaccination programmes to prevent outbreaks after introductions of infectious people aim to maintain the average number of secondary infections per infectious person at one or less. We aimed to assess heterogeneity in vaccine uptake and other characteristics that, together with non-random mixing, could increase this number and to evaluate strategies that could mitigate their impact. METHODS: Because most US children attend elementary school in their own neighbourhoods, surveys of children entering elementary school (age 5 years before Sept 1) allow assessment of spatial heterogeneity in the proportion of children immune to vaccine-preventable diseases...
May 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Holly A Hill, Laurie D Elam-Evans, David Yankey, James A Singleton, Maureen Kolasa
The reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States has been described as one of the 10 greatest public health achievements of the first decade of the 21st century. A recent analysis concluded that routine childhood vaccination will prevent 322 million cases of disease and about 732,000 early deaths among children born during 1994-2013, for a net societal cost savings of $1.38 trillion. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among U...
August 28, 2015: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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