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Prevention,Immunity,Aging Maintain Health

Jennifer E Isenor, Jessica L Killen, Beverly A Billard, Shelly A McNeil, Donna MacDougall, Beth A Halperin, Kathryn L Slayter, Susan K Bowles
BACKGROUND: Annual immunization is the most effective way to prevent influenza and its associated complications. However, optimal immunization rates are not being met in Nova Scotia, Canada. Additional providers, such as pharmacists, may improve access and convenience to receive vaccines. Pharmacists began immunizing patients 5 years of age and older within the publicly funded universal influenza vaccination program during the 2013-2014 influenza season. The objective of this study was to evaluate influenza immunization coverage rates before and after pharmacists in Nova Scotia gained authority to immunize as part of the publicly funded universal influenza vaccination program...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
A D Dick
Dogma for reasons of immune privilege including sequestration (sic) of ocular antigen, lack of lymphatic and immune competent cells in the vital tissues of the eye has long evaporated. Maintaining tissue and cellular health to preserve vision requires active immune responses to prevent damage and respond to danger. A priori the eye must contain immune competent cells, undergo immune surveillance to ensure homoeostasis as well as an ability to promote inflammation. By interrogating immune responses in non-infectious uveitis and compare with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), new concepts of intraocular immune health emerge...
September 16, 2016: Eye
S Collins, G Amirthalingam, N J Beeching, M A Chand, G Godbole, M E Ramsay, N K Fry, J M White
Public Health England conducts enhanced national surveillance of tetanus, a potentially life-threatening vaccine-preventable disease. A standardized questionnaire was used to ascertain clinical and demographic details of individuals reported with clinically suspected tetanus. The 96 cases identified between 2001 and 2014 were analysed. The average annual incidence was 0·13/million (95% confidence interval 0·10-0·16) of which 50·0% were male. Where reported, 70·3% of injuries occurred in the home/garden (45/64)...
August 18, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
C R MacIntyre, S Karki, M Sheikh, N Zwar, A E Heywood
Many developed countries, like Australia, maintain a high population level immunity against measles, however, there remains a risk of acquisition of measles in non-immune travellers and subsequent importation into Australia leading to localised outbreaks. In this study, we estimate the incidence of measles and describe characteristics including immunisation and pre-travel health seeking behaviour of notified cases of measles in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia between February 2013 and January 2014. Cases were followed up by telephone interview using a questionnaire to collect information of demographic and travel characteristics...
August 17, 2016: Vaccine
Shengdi Hu, Meng Han, Arash Rezaei, Defa Li, W Guoyao, Xi Ma
Type 2 diabetes has become a global public health problem affecting approximately 380 million people throughout the world. It can cause many complications and lead to greater mortality. At present, there is no available medicine for effectively preventing diabetes. L-arginine, a functional amino acid, the precursor of nitric oxide, plays a crucial role in maintenance, reproduction, growth, anti-aging and immunity in animals. Growing clinical evidence indicates that dietary L-arginine supplementation can reduce obesity, decrease arterial blood pressure, resist oxidation and normalize endothelial dysfunction to cause remission of type 2 diabetes...
June 26, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
C Kim, F Fang, C M Weyand, J J Goronzy
Vaccination is the optimal intervention to prevent the increased morbidity and mortality from infection in older individuals and to maintain immune health during ageing. To optimize benefits from vaccination, strategies have to be developed that overcome the defects in an adaptive immune response that occur with immune ageing. Most current approaches are concentrated on activating the innate immune system by adjuvants to improve the induction of a T cell response. This review will focus upon T cell-intrinsic mechanisms that control how a T cell is activated, expands rapidly to differentiate into short-lived effector cells and into memory precursor cells, with short-lived effector T cells then mainly undergoing apoptosis and memory precursor cells surviving as long-lived memory T cells...
June 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Rahul Mishra, Shobha Tandon, Monika Rathore, Molay Banerjee
BACKGROUND: A growing number of dentists are embracing the philosophy that natural agents are better for children's oral health. Knowledge of probiotics on host immune system has entered a new phase of research, and progression in this field is likely to offer novel means by modulating host immunity for prevention and treatment of a wide variety of oral diseases. AIM: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of probiotics in reducing salivary Candida albicans counts with commonly used antimicrobial agents like 0...
January 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
Jordan L da Silva, Guaniara D'Arc de O El Kadre, Guilherme Ah Kudo, Joel F Santiago, Patrícia Pinto Saraiva
AIM: Oral hygiene technique is an important factor in maintaining the health and comfort of hospitalized patients given the frequent presence of oral biofilm and pathogens brought on by mouth breathing. This is an important practice to assist patients in intensive care, in particular those who are intu-bated and under mechanical ventilation because the realization of oral hygiene reduces the patient's risk of complications and length of hospitalization. The objective of this research was to evaluate the oral health condition of patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit (ICU) and to clarify the importance of protocol standardization involving these patients' buccal hygiene...
2016: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
S Esposito, N Principi
Pertussis is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by Bordetella pertussis that can be extremely serious, particularly in young infants. For many years the efforts of health authorities throughout the world to prevent pertussis had the main goals of reducing the morbidity of infants and children under 5 years of age, maintaining protection for several years during the school-age period and developing a significant herd immunity to directly and indirectly reduce the risk of the spread of the disease among young infants and the risk of transmission of the infection from preschool children to infants...
April 26, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Gaëtan Gavazzi, Gilles Berrut, Claude Jeandel
Elderly people are more likely to develop severe infections diseases. Given the significant increase in the number of the elderly population, reducing the risk of infection by vaccination is a major preventive approach. The immunization schedule for 2014 in France yields, for the first time, vaccination recommendations for patients over 65 years. Tetanus-Diphtheria-Poliomyelitis vaccination is recommended to be given at the age of 65 years and then every 10 years, together with the pertussis vaccine to protect infants less than 6 months...
September 2015: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
Olga Spadaro, Emily L Goldberg, Christina D Camell, Yun-Hee Youm, John J Kopchick, Kim Y Nguyen, Andrzej Bartke, Liou Y Sun, Vishwa Deep Dixit
The hallmarks of age-related immune senescence are chronic inflammation, aberrant expansion of effector memory, and loss of naive T lymphocytes due in part to systemic activation of innate immune sensor NLRP3 inflammasome in myeloid lineage cells. The endogenous mechanisms that regulate inflammasome activation during aging are unknown. Here, we present evidence that growth hormone receptor (GH-R)-dependent downregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages is linked to pro-longevity effects that maintain immune system homeostasis in aging...
February 23, 2016: Cell Reports
John W Glasser, Zhilan Feng, Saad B Omer, Philip J Smith, Lance E Rodewald
BACKGROUND: Vaccination programmes to prevent outbreaks after introductions of infectious people aim to maintain the average number of secondary infections per infectious person at one or less. We aimed to assess heterogeneity in vaccine uptake and other characteristics that, together with non-random mixing, could increase this number and to evaluate strategies that could mitigate their impact. METHODS: Because most US children attend elementary school in their own neighbourhoods, surveys of children entering elementary school (age 5 years before Sept 1) allow assessment of spatial heterogeneity in the proportion of children immune to vaccine-preventable diseases...
May 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Holly A Hill, Laurie D Elam-Evans, David Yankey, James A Singleton, Maureen Kolasa
The reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States has been described as one of the 10 greatest public health achievements of the first decade of the 21st century. A recent analysis concluded that routine childhood vaccination will prevent 322 million cases of disease and about 732,000 early deaths among children born during 1994-2013, for a net societal cost savings of $1.38 trillion. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among U...
August 28, 2015: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
C Vizzotti, S Neyro, N Katz, M V Juárez, M E Perez Carrega, A Aquino, F Kaski Fullone
The importance of vaccination during pregnancy lies not only in directly protecting vaccinated women, but also by indirectly protecting small infants during the first few months of life. Vaccination against the flu and whooping cough is a priority within the comprehensive care strategy for pregnant women and small infants in Argentina, in the context of transitioning from child vaccination to family vaccination. In 2011, the flu vaccine was included in the National Immunization Schedule (NIS) as mandatory and free of charge, with the aim of decreasing complications and death due to influenza in the at-risk population in Argentina...
November 25, 2015: Vaccine
Peter Pemberton-Ross, Thomas A Smith, Eva Maria Hodel, Katherine Kay, Melissa A Penny
Effective population-level interventions against Plasmodium falciparum malaria lead to age-shifts, delayed morbidity or rebounds in morbidity and mortality whenever they are deployed in ways that do not permanently interrupt transmission. When long-term intervention programmes target specific age-groups of human hosts, the age-specific morbidity rates ultimately adjust to new steady-states, but it is very difficult to study these rates and the temporal dynamics leading up to them empirically because the changes occur over very long time periods...
2015: Malaria Journal
Charu Gupta, Dhan Prakash
Geriatrics is a medical practice that addresses the complex needs of older patients and emphasizes maintaining functional independence even in the presence of chronic disease. Treatment of geriatric patients requires a different strategy and is very complex. Geriatric medicines aim to promote health by preventing and treating diseases and disabilities in older adults. Development of effective dietary interventions for promoting healthy aging is an active but challenging area of research because aging is associated with an increased risk of chronic disease, disability, and death...
January 2015: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Jiyoung Kim, Kyoung Mi Kim, Ji Heon Noh, Je-Hyun Yoon, Kotb Abdelmohsen, Myriam Gorospe
Aging is a process during which progressive deteriorating of cells, tissues, and organs over time lead to loss of function, disease, and death. Towards the goal of extending human health span, there is escalating interest in understanding the mechanisms that govern aging-associated pathologies. Adequate regulation of expression of coding and noncoding genes is critical for maintaining organism homeostasis and preventing disease processes. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized as key regulators of gene expression at all levels--transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational...
January 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Melkamu Beyene Kassahun, Gashaw Andargie Biks, Alemayehu Shimeka Teferra
BACKGROUND: Immunization against childhood disease is one of the most important public health interventions with cost effective means to preventing childhood morbidity, mortality and disability. However, complete immunization coverage remains low particularly in rural areas of Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the level of immunization coverage and associated factors in Lay Armachiho District, North Gondar zone, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in March, 2014 among 751 pairs of mothers to children aged 12-23 months in Lay Armachiho District...
2015: BMC Research Notes
Fengchen Liu, Wayne T A Enanoria, Jennifer Zipprich, Seth Blumberg, Kathleen Harriman, Sarah F Ackley, William D Wheaton, Justine L Allpress, Travis C Porco
BACKGROUND: Measles cases continue to occur among susceptible individuals despite the elimination of endemic measles transmission in the United States. Clustering of disease susceptibility can threaten herd immunity and impact the likelihood of disease outbreaks in a highly vaccinated population. Previous studies have examined the role of contact tracing to control infectious diseases among clustered populations, but have not explicitly modeled the public health response using an agent-based model...
2015: BMC Public Health
Rownak Khan, Jos Vandelaer, Ahmadu Yakubu, Azhar Abid Raza, Flint Zulu
A total of 35 of the 59 countries that had not eliminated maternal and neonatal tetanus (MNT) as a public health problem in 1999 have since achieved the MNT-elimination goal. Neonatal tetanus deaths have decreased globally from 200,000 in 2000 to 49,000 in 2013. This is the result of increased immunization coverage with tetanus toxoid-containing vaccines among pregnant women, improved access to skilled birth attendance during delivery, and targeted campaigns with these vaccines for women of reproductive age in high-risk areas...
2015: International Journal of Women's Health
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