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Environmental chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776457/a-new-green-method-for-the-quantitative-analysis-of-enrofloxacin-by-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy
#1
Camila Tavares Rebouças, Ana Carolina Kogawa, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Background: A green analytical chemistry method was developed for quantification of enrofloxacin in tablets. The drug, a second-generation fluoroquinolone, was first introduced in veterinary medicine for the treatment of various bacterial species. Objective: This study proposed to develop, validate, and apply a reliable, low-cost, fast, and simple IR spectroscopy method for quantitative routine determination of enrofloxacin in tablets. Methods: The method was completely validated according to the International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines, showing accuracy, precision, selectivity, robustness, and linearity...
May 18, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774902/pet-raft-polymerisation-towards-green-and-precision-polymer-manufacturing
#2
Jamie Phommalysack-Lovan, Yingying Chu, Cyrille Boyer, Jiangtao Xu
The necessity of sustainable development in the chemical industry has continuously drawn attention to find safe, environmentally friendly and atom-economic chemical processes, which is defined in the 12 principles of green chemistry. Merging photoredox catalysis and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerisation, the photoinduced electron/energy transfer (PET)-RAFT process has opened up a new way of performing reversible deactivation radical polymerisation for well-defined polymer synthesis using light as an external stimulus...
May 18, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774614/photochemistry-for-well-defined-polymers-in-aqueous-media-from-fundamentals-to-polymer-nanoparticles-to-bioconjugates
#3
REVIEW
Kevin M Burridge, Thaiesha A Wright, Richard C Page, Dominik Konkolewicz
This review article highlights recent developments in the field of photochemistry and photochemical reversible deactivation radical polymerization applied to aqueous polymerizations. Photochemistry is a topic of significant interest in the fields of organic, polymer, and materials chemistry because it allows challenging reactions to be performed under mild conditions. Aqueous polymerization is of significant interest because water is an environmentally benign solvent, and the use of water enables complex polymer self-assembly and bioconjugation processes to occur...
May 17, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774338/trace-metals-in-oysters-molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-and-ecotoxicological-impacts
#4
REVIEW
Wen-Xiong Wang, Jie Meng, Nanyan Weng
Oysters are important benthic bivalves in coastal and estuarine environments. They are widely farmed due to their rapid growth and taste; they are also widely applied in environmental monitoring of coastal pollution due to their accumulation of contaminants. Most importantly, oysters are among the few marine organisms that are considered to be hyper-accumulators of many toxic metals, such as cadmium, copper and zinc. As such, there is a tremendous call to study the interactions between metals and oysters, especially due to the increasing metal pollution in many coastal and estuarine waters...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768570/removal-of-synthetic-sex-hormones-by-hydrothermal-carbonization
#5
Ruiter L Morais, Mariângela F Santiago, Joachim W Zang, Warde A Fonseca-Zang, Fernando Schimidt
One of the most prominent fields of environmental chemistry is the study and the removal of micro-pollutants from aqueous matrices. Analytical techniques for their identification and quantification are becoming more sensitive and comprehensive and, as a result, an increasing number of drugs have been detected in environmental samples. However, the literature shows that conventional treatments for drinking water and wastewater are not sufficient for remove these compounds. This study aims to check whether the process of hydrothermal carbonization (CHT) is effective in removing the synthetic sex hormones: ethinyl estradiol, gestodene and cyproterone acetate from aqueous samples...
May 14, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767796/specificity-in-nitric-oxide-signalling
#6
Saima Umbreen, Jibril Lubega, Beimi Cui, Qiaona Pan, Jihong Jiang, Gary J Loake
Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and their cognate redox signalling networks pervade almost all facets of plant growth, development, immunity and environmental interactions. The emerging evidence implies that specificity in redox signalling is achieved by a multi-layered molecular framework. This encompasses the production of redox cues in the locale of the given protein target and protein tertiary structures that convey the appropriate local chemical environment to support redox-based, post-translational modifications (PTMs)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767189/covalent-layer-by-layer-films-chemistry-design-and-multidisciplinary-applications
#7
REVIEW
Qi An, Tao Huang, Feng Shi
Covalent layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly is a powerful method used to construct functional ultrathin films that enables nanoscopic structural precision, componential diversity, and flexible design. Compared with conventional LbL films built using multiple noncovalent interactions, LbL films prepared using covalent crosslinking offer the following distinctive characteristics: (i) enhanced film endurance or rigidity; (ii) improved componential diversity when uncharged species or small molecules are stably built into the films by forming covalent bonds; and (iii) increased structural diversity when covalent crosslinking is employed in componential, spacial, or temporal (labile bonds) selective manners...
May 16, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761432/quantification-of-low-abundant-phosphorylated-carbohydrates-using-hilic-qqq-ms-ms
#8
Tiago F Jorge, Carla António
Phosphorylated carbohydrates are central metabolites involved in key plant metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis and central carbon metabolism. Such pathways influence plant growth, development, and stress responses to environmental changes, and ultimately, reflect the plant's energy status. The high polarity of these metabolites, the variety of isomeric structures (e.g., glucose-1-phosphate (G1P)/fructose-6-phosphate (F6P)/mannose-6-phosphate (M6P)/G6P, sucrose-6-phosphate (S6P)/T6P), and rapid metabolic turnover makes their analysis particularly challenging...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760879/smell-the-change-on-the-potential-of-gas-chromatographic-ion-mobility-spectrometry-in-ecosystem-monitoring
#9
Wolfgang Vautz, Chandrasekhara Hariharan, Maximilian Weigend
Plant volatile organic compounds (pVOCs) are being recognized as an important factor in plant-environment interactions. Both the type and amount of the emissions appear to be heavily affected by climate change. A range of studies therefore has been directed toward understanding pVOC emissions, mostly under laboratory conditions (branch/leaf enclosure). However, there is a lack of rapid, sensitive, and selective analytical methods, and therefore, only little is known about VOC emissions under natural, outdoor conditions...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756204/distributions-of-ectomycorrhizal-and-foliar-endophytic-fungal-communities-associated-with-pinus-ponderosa-along-a-spatially-constrained-elevation-gradient
#10
Elizabeth A Bowman, A Elizabeth Arnold
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Understanding distributions of plant-symbiotic fungi is important for projecting responses to environmental change. Many coniferous trees host ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM) in association with roots and foliar endophytic fungi (FE) in leaves. We examined how EM and FE associated with Pinus ponderosa each vary in abundance, diversity, and community structure over a spatially constrained elevation gradient that traverses four plant communities, 4°C in mean annual temperature, and 15 cm in mean annual precipitation...
May 13, 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752715/effects-of-intraborehole-flow-on-purging-and-sampling-long-screened-or-open-wells
#11
David L Poulsen, Peter G Cook, Craig T Simmons, James L McCallum, Shawan Dogramaci
Hydraulic head differences across the screened or open interval of a well significantly influence the sampled water mixture. Sample bias can occur due to an insufficient pumping rate and/or, due to native groundwater displacement by intraborehole flow (IBF). Proper understanding of the sampled water mixture is crucial for accurate interpretation of environmental tracers and groundwater chemistry data, and hence groundwater characterisation. This paper uses numerical modelling to quantify sample bias caused by IBF in an un-pumped high-yield well, and the influence of pumping rate and heterogeneity on the volume of pumpage required to purge an IBF plume...
May 12, 2018: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748921/the-efficacy-of-an-electrolysed-water-formulation-on-biofilms
#12
Anne-Marie Salisbury, Steven L Percival
Electrolysed water is a basic process whereby an electric current is passed through deionised water containing a low concentration of sodium chloride in an electrolysis chamber, which results in a more complex chemistry resulting in the production of a strong bactericidal and fungicidal solution at the anode. This microbicidal solution contains hypochlorous acid that is fast-acting and environmentally safe, as upon bacterial killing, the equilibrium shifts from hypochlorous acid back to salt and water. Other antimicrobial agents produced in this process include sodium hypochlorite and chlorine...
May 11, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742351/in-situ-imaging-the-oxygen-reduction-reactions-of-solid-state-na-o2-batteries-with-cuo-nanowires-as-the-air-cathode
#13
Qiunan Liu, Tingting Yang, Congcong Du, Yongfu Tang, Yong Sun, Peng Jia, Tongde Shen, Qiuming Peng, Jingzhao Chen, Hongjun Ye, Liqiang Zhang, Jian Yu Huang
We report real time imaging of the oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) in all solid state sodium oxygen batteries (SOBs) with CuO nanowires (NWs) as the air cathode in an aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscope under an oxygen environment. The ORR occurred in a distinct two-step reaction: namely a first conversion reaction followed by a second multiple ORRs. In the former, CuO was first converted to Cu2O and then to Cu; in the latter, NaO2 formed first, followed by its disproportionation to Na2O2 and O2...
May 9, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737421/impacts-of-ultramafic-outcrops-in-peninsular-malaysia-and-sabah-on-soil-and-water-quality
#14
Mahsa Tashakor, Soroush Modabberi, Antony van der Ent, Guillaume Echevarria
This study focused on the influence of ultramafic terrains on soil and surface water environmental chemistry in Peninsular Malaysia and in the State of Sabah also in Malaysia. The sampling included 27 soils from four isolated outcrops at Cheroh, Bentong, Bukit Rokan, and Petasih from Peninsular Malaysia and sites near Ranau in Sabah. Water samples were also collected from rivers and subsurface waters interacting with the ultramafic bodies in these study sites. Physico-chemical parameters (including pH, EC, CEC) as well as the concentration of major and trace elements were measured in these soils and waters...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736528/engineering-graphene-and-tmds-based-van-der-waals-heterostructures-for-photovoltaic-and-photoelectrochemical-solar-energy-conversion
#15
REVIEW
Changli Li, Qi Cao, Faze Wang, Yequan Xiao, Yanbo Li, Jean-Jacques Delaunay, Hongwei Zhu
Graphene and two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted significant interest due to their unique properties that cannot be obtained in their bulk counterparts. These atomically thin 2D materials have demonstrated strong light-matter interactions, tunable optical bandgap structures and unique structural and electrical properties, rendering possible the high conversion efficiency of solar energy with a minimal amount of active absorber material. The isolated 2D monolayer can be stacked into arbitrary van der Waals (vdWs) heterostructures without the need to consider lattice matching...
May 8, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735087/an-updated-review-on-use-of-tomato-pomace-and-crustacean-processing-waste-to-recover-commercially-vital-carotenoids
#16
REVIEW
Ramesh Kumar Saini, So Hyun Moon, Young-Soo Keum
Globally, the amount of food processing waste has become a major concern for environmental sustainability. The valorization of these waste materials can solve the problems of its disposal. Notably, the tomato pomace and crustacean processing waste presents enormous opportunities for the extraction of commercially vital carotenoids, lycopene, and astaxanthin, which have diverse applications in the food, feed, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic industries. Moreover, such waste can generate surplus revenue which can significantly improve the economics of food production and processing...
June 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734790/innovative-approach-to-sustainable-marine-invertebrate-chemistry-and-a-scale-up-technology-for-open-marine-ecosystems
#17
Pinelopi Vlachou, Géraldine Le Goff, Carolina Alonso, Pedro A Álvarez, Jean-François Gallard, Nikolas Fokialakis, Jamal Ouazzani
Isolation of marine compounds from living invertebrates represents a major challenge for sustainable and environmentally friendly exploitation of marine bio-resources. To develop innovative technology to trap invertebrate compounds in the open sea, the proof of concept of a system combining external continuous circulation of water with XAD-amberlite solid-phase extraction was validated in an aquarium. In this work, we reported the elicitation of guanidine alkaloid production of Crambe crambe in the presence of Anemonia sulcata , both collected from the Mediterranean Sea...
May 6, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730934/development-of-an-integrated-syringe-pump-based-environmental-water-analyzer-isea-and-application-of-it-for-fully-automated-real-time-determination-of-ammonium-in-fresh-waters
#18
Jian Ma, Peicong Li, Zhaoying Chen, Kunning Lin, Nengwang Chen, Yiyong Jiang, Jinxin Chen, Bangqin Huang, Dongxing Yuan
Development of a multipurpose integrated syringe-pump-based environmental-water analyzer (iSEA) and its application for spectrophotometric determination of ammonium is presented. The iSEA consisted a mini-syringe pump equipped with a selection valve and laboratory-programmed software written by LabVIEW. The chemistry is based on a modified indophenol method using o-phenylphenol. The effect of reagent concentrations and sample temperatures were evaluated. This fully automated analyzer had a detection limit of 0...
May 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722585/drug-delivery-systems-based-on-biocompatible-imino-chitosan-hydrogels-for-local-anticancer-therapy
#19
Daniela Ailincai, Liliana Tartau Mititelu, Luminita Marin
A series of drug delivery systems were prepared by chitosan hydrogelation with citral in the presence of an antineoplastic drug: 5-fluorouracil. The dynamic covalent chemistry of the imine linkage allowed the obtaining of supramolecular tridimensional architectures in which the drug has been homogenously dispersed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) and polarized light microscopy (POM) measurements were used in order to follow the hydrogelation and drug encapsulation processes...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719570/nanoreactors-for-green-catalysis
#20
REVIEW
M Teresa De Martino, Loai K E A Abdelmohsen, Floris P J T Rutjes, Jan C M van Hest
Sustainable and environmentally benign production are key drivers for developments in the chemical industrial sector, as protecting our planet has become a significant element that should be considered for every industrial breakthrough or technological advancement. As a result, the concept of green chemistry has been recently defined to guide chemists towards minimizing any harmful outcome of chemical processes in either industry or research. Towards greener reactions, scientists have developed various approaches in order to decrease environmental risks while attaining chemical sustainability and elegancy...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
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