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Environmental chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079196/ultra-fast-charge-migration-competes-with-proton-transfer-in-the-early-chemistry-of-h2o%C3%AB
#1
Furong Wang, Uli Schmidhammer, Aurélien de La Lande, Mehran Mostafavi
Oxidation by the ultra-short lived radical cation of water, H2O˙(+), can potentially take place at the interface of water and numerous heterogeneous systems involved in radiation therapy, energy and environmental industries. The oxidation processes induced by H2O˙(+) can be mimicked in highly concentrated solutions where the nearest neighbors of H2O˙(+) may be molecules other than water. The reactivity of H2O˙(+) and D2O˙(+) is probed in hydrogenated and deuterated sulfuric acid solutions of various concentrations...
January 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068516/a-dft-study-on-the-complex-formation-between-desferrithiocin-and-metal-ions-mg-2-al-3-ca-2-mn-2-fe-3-co-2-ni-2-cu-2-zn-2
#2
Sadegh Kaviani, Mohammad Izadyar, Mohammad Reza Housaindokht
In recent years, Metal-chelating compounds, namely siderphores have been considered very much because of their crucial role in various fields of the environmental researches. Their importance lies in the fact that they are able to be bonded to a variety of metals in addition to iron. A theoretical study on the structures of desferrithiocin siderphore coordinated to Mg(2+), Al(3+), Ca(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) metal ions was carried out, using the CAM-B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of the theory in the water...
January 3, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068474/chemoselective-hydrodehalogenation-of-organic-halides-utilizing-two-dimensional-anionic-electrons-of-inorganic-electride-ca2n-%C3%A2-e
#3
Ye Ji Kim, Sun Min Kim, Chunghyeon Yu, Youngmin You, Eun Jin Cho, Jung Woon Yang, Sung Wng Kim
Halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) are important man-made chemicals widely used in chemical industry, biology and pharmacology; however, the persistence and inertness of organic halides cause human health problems and considerable environmental pollution. Thus, the elimination of halogen atoms from organic halides has been considered a central task in synthetic chemistry. In dehalogenation reactions, the inorganic bases remove halogen atoms, forming leaving groups and carbanions. Though the stable formation of free carbanion is the most decisive factor in determining the pathway and efficiency of reactions, the importance of carbanion stability in dehalogenation has long been overlooked...
January 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068096/photoabsorption-assignments-for-the-%C3%AB-c-1-b2-%C3%A2-%C3%AB-x-1-a1-vibronic-transitions-of-so2-using-new-ab-initio-potential-energy-and-transition-dipole-surfaces
#4
Praveen Kumar, Bin Jiang, Hua Guo, Jacek Klos, Millard H Alexander, Bill Poirier
The high resolution spectroscopy of the SO 2 molecule is of great topical interest, in a wide variety of contexts ranging from origins of higher life, to astrophysics of the interstellar medium, to environmental chemistry. In particular, the C̃ 1 B 2 ← X̃ 1 A 1 UV photoabsorption spectrum has received considerable attention. This spectrum exhibits a highly regular progression of ∼ 20 or so strong peaks, spaced roughly 350 cm -1 apart, which is comparable to the C̃ 1 B 2 bending vibrational frequency...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068053/surface-modification-of-gold-nanoparticles-with-small-molecules-for-biochemical-analysis
#5
Yiping Chen, Yunlei Xianyu, Xingyu Jiang
As one of the major tools for and by chemical science, biochemical analysis is becoming increasingly important in fields like clinical diagnosis, food safety, environmental monitoring, and the development of chemistry and biochemistry. The advancement of nanotechnology boosts the development of analytical chemistry, particularly the nanoparticle (NP)-based approaches for biochemical assays. Functional NPs can greatly improve the performance of biochemical analysis because they can accelerate signal transduction, enhance the signal intensity, and enable convenient signal readout due to their unique physical and chemical properties...
January 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067845/selection-of-prebiotic-molecules-in-amphiphilic-environments
#6
Christian Mayer, Ulrich Schreiber, María J Dávila
A basic problem in all postulated pathways of prebiotic chemistry is the low concentration which generally is expected for interesting reactants in fluid environments. Even though compounds, like nucleobases, sugars or peptides, principally may form spontaneously under environmental conditions, they will always be rapidly diluted in an aqueous environment. In addition, any such reaction leads to side products which often exceed the desired compound and generally hamper the first steps of a subsequent molecular evolution...
January 7, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063356/nanoparticles-for-radiooncology-mission-vision-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Leoni A Kunz-Schughart, Anna Dubrovska, Claudia Peitzsch, Alexander Ewe, Achim Aigner, Samuel Schellenburg, Michael H Muders, Silke Hampel, Giuseppe Cirillo, Francesca Iemma, Rainer Tietze, Christoph Alexiou, Holger Stephan, Kristof Zarschler, Orazio Vittorio, Maria Kavallaris, Wolfgang J Parak, Lutz Mädler, Suman Pokhrel
Cancer is one of the leading non-communicable diseases with highest mortality rates worldwide. About half of all cancer patients receive radiation treatment in the course of their disease. However, treatment outcome and curative potential of radiotherapy is often impeded by genetically and/or environmentally driven mechanisms of tumor radioresistance and normal tissue radiotoxicity. While nanomedicine-based tools for imaging, dosimetry and treatment are potential keys to the improvement of therapeutic efficacy and reducing side effects, radiotherapy is an established technique to eradicate the tumor cells...
December 14, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063319/quantitative-analysis-of-the-extent-of-heavy-metal-contamination-in-soils-near-picher-oklahoma-within-the-tar-creek-superfund-site
#8
Rachelle E Beattie, Wyatt Henke, Conor Davis, M Abdul Mottaleb, James H Campbell, L Rex McAliley
The Tri-State Mining District of Missouri, Kansas and Oklahoma was the site of large-scale mining operations primarily for lead and zinc until the mid-1950s. Although mining across the area has ceased, high concentrations of heavy metals remain in the region's soil and water systems. The town of Picher, Ottawa County, OK, lies within this district and was included in the Tar Creek Superfund Site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1980 due to extensive contamination. To elucidate the extent of heavy-metal contamination, a soil-chemistry survey of the town of Picher was conducted...
December 31, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051865/evolution-of-in-cylinder-diesel-engine-soot-and-emission-characteristics-investigated-with-on-line-aerosol-mass-spectrometry
#9
Vilhelm Berg Malmborg, Axel Christian Eriksson, Mengqin Shen, Patrik Nilsson, Yann Gallo, Björn Waldheim, Johan Martinsson, Oivind Andersson, Joakim Pagels
To design diesel engines with low environmental impact, it is important to link health and climate-relevant soot (black carbon) emission characteristics to specific combustion conditions. The in-cylinder evolution of soot properties over the combustion cycle and as a function of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine. A novel combination of a fast gas-sampling valve and a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) enabled on-line measurements of the in-cylinder soot chemistry...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045053/complex-roles-of-solution-chemistry-on-graphene-oxide-coagulation-onto-titanium-dioxide-batch-experiments-spectroscopy-analysis-and-theoretical-calculation
#10
Shujun Yu, Xiangxue Wang, Rui Zhang, Tongtong Yang, Yuejie Ai, Tao Wen, Wei Huang, Tasawar Hayat, Ahmed Alsaedi, Xiangke Wang
Although graphene oxide (GO) has been used in multidisciplinary areas due to its excellent physicochemical properties, its environmental behavior and fate are still largely unclear. In this study, batch experiments, spectroscopy analysis and theoretical calculations were addressed to promote a more comprehensive understanding toward the coagulation behavior of GO onto TiO2 under various environmental conditions (pH, co-existing ions, temperature, etc.). The results indicated that neutral pH was beneficial to the removal of GO due to the electrostatic interaction...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042817/think-yellow-and-keep-green-role-of-sulfanes-from-garlic-in-agriculture
#11
REVIEW
Awais Anwar, Emma Gould, Ryan Tinson, Murree Groom, Chris J Hamilton
Reactive sulfur species from garlic have long been renowned for their health benefits and antimicrobial properties. In agriculture the subject matter is now gathering momentum in the search for new bio-pesticides to addressing emerging environmental concerns and tighter restrictions on the use of many conventional chemical pesticides. Although the precise modes of action of these garlic-derived bioactives is complex, recent research has provided a number of new insights that deepen our understanding of garlic-derived products, such as garlic extracts and oils...
December 30, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042045/systems-structural-biology-analysis-of-ligand-effects-on-er%C3%AE-predicts-cellular-response-to-environmental-estrogens-and-anti-hormone-therapies
#12
Jerome C Nwachukwu, Sathish Srinivasan, Nelson E Bruno, Jason Nowak, Nicholas J Wright, Filippo Minutolo, Erumbi S Rangarajan, Tina Izard, Xin-Qui Yao, Barry J Grant, Douglas J Kojetin, Olivier Elemento, John A Katzenellenbogen, Kendall W Nettles
Environmental estrogens and anti-hormone therapies for breast cancer have diverse tissue- and signaling-pathway-selective outcomes, but how estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) mediates this phenotypic diversity is poorly understood. We implemented a statistical approach to allow unbiased, parallel analyses of multiple crystal structures, and identified subtle perturbations of ERα structure by different synthetic and environmental estrogens. Many of these perturbations were in the sub-Å range, within the noise of the individual structures, but contributed significantly to the activities of synthetic and environmental estrogens...
December 21, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034806/targeting-the-extracellular-matrix-of-ovarian-cancer-using-functionalized-drug-loaded-lyophilisomes
#13
Sophieke C H A van der Steen, René Raavé, Sjoerd Langerak, Laurens van Houdt, Sander M J van Duijnhoven, Sanne A M van Lith, Leon F A G Massuger, Willeke F Daamen, William P Leenders, Toin H van Kuppevelt
Epithelial ovarian cancer is characterized by a high mortality rate and is in need for novel therapeutic avenues to improve patient outcome. The tumor's extracellular matrix ("stroma") offers new possibilities for targeted drug-delivery. Recently we identified highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate (CS-E) as a component abundantly present in the ovarian cancer extracellular matrix, and as an novel target for anti-cancer therapy. Here, we report on the functionalization of drug-loaded lyophilisomes (albumin-based biocapsules) to specifically target the stroma of ovarian carcinomas with the potential to eliminate cancer cells...
December 26, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033569/temporal-and-diurnal-analysis-of-trace-elements-in-the-cryospheric-water-at-remote-laohugou-basin-in-northeast-tibetan-plateau
#14
Zhiwen Dong, Shichang Kang, Dahe Qin, Xiang Qin, Fangping Yan, Wentao Du, Ting Wei
An evaluation of glacial meltwater chemistry is needed under recent dramatic glacier melting when water resources might be significantly impacted. This study investigated trace elements variation in the meltwater stream, and its related aquatic environmental information, at the Laohugou (LHG) glacier basin (4260 m a.s.l.) at a remote location in northeast Tibetan Plateau. We focused on the spatial, temporal and diurnal change of trace elements during the glacier ablation period. Results showed evident elements spatial difference on the glacier surface meltwater, as most of the elements showed increased concentration at the terminus compared to higher elevations sites...
December 19, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032403/a-unique-large-scale-undergraduate-research-experience-in-molecular-systems-biology-for-non-mathematics-majors
#15
Ulrike Kappler, Susan L Rowland, Rhianna K Pedwell
Systems biology is frequently taught with an emphasis on mathematical modeling approaches. This focus effectively excludes most biology, biochemistry, and molecular biology students, who are not mathematics majors. The mathematical focus can also present a misleading picture of systems biology, which is a multi-disciplinary pursuit requiring collaboration between biochemists, bioinformaticians, and mathematicians. This article describes an authentic large-scale undergraduate research experience (ALURE) in systems biology that incorporates proteomics, bacterial genomics, and bioinformatics in the one exercise...
December 28, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029135/time-resolved-fluorescence-spectroscopy-and-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-microscopy-for-characterization-of-dendritic-polymer-nanoparticles-and-applications-in-nanomedicine
#16
REVIEW
Alexander Boreham, Robert Brodwolf, Karolina Walker, Rainer Haag, Ulrike Alexiev
The emerging field of nanomedicine provides new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, for symptom relief and for monitoring of disease progression. One route of realizing this approach is through carefully constructed nanoparticles. Due to the small size inherent to the nanoparticles a proper characterization is not trivial. This review highlights the application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) for the analysis of nanoparticles, covering aspects ranging from molecular properties to particle detection in tissue samples...
December 24, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028700/changes-in-growth-rate-and-macroelement-and-trace-element-accumulation-in-hydrocharis-morsus-ranae-l-during-the-growing-season-in-relation-to-environmental-contamination
#17
Ludmiła Polechońska, Aleksandra Samecka-Cymerman, Małgorzata Dambiec
The temporal variations in plant chemistry connected with its life cycle may affect the cycling of elements in an ecosystem as well as determine the usefulness of the species in phytoremediation and bioindication. In this context, there is a gap in knowledge on the role of floating plants for elements cycling in aquatic reservoirs. The aim of the study was to determine if there are variations in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae (European frog-bit) bioaccumulation capacity and the growth rate of its population during the growing season and to test the impact of environmental pollution on these features...
December 27, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027707/exploring-global-history-through-the-lens-of-history-of-chemistry-materials-identities-and-governance
#18
Lissa Roberts
As global history continues to take shape as an important field of research, its interactive relationships with the history of science, technology, and medicine are recognized and being investigated as significant areas of concern. Strangely, despite the fact that it is key to understanding so many of the subjects that are central to global history and would itself benefit from a broader geographical perspective, the history of chemistry has largely been left out of this process - particularly for the modern historical period...
December 2016: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024812/occurrence-of-chlorotriazine-herbicides-and-their-transformation-products-in-arable-soils
#19
Kerstin E Scherr, Lucie Bielská, Petra Kosubová, Petra Dinisová, Martina Hvězdová, Zdeněk Šimek, Jakub Hofman
Chlorotriazine herbicides (CTs) are widely used pest control chemicals. In contrast to groundwater contamination, little attention has been given to the circumstances of residue formation of parent compounds and transformation products in soils. Seventy-five cultivated floodplain topsoils in the Czech Republic were sampled in early spring of 2015, corresponding to a minimum of six months (current-use terbuthylazine, TBA) and a up to a decade (banned atrazine, AT and simazine, SIM) after the last herbicide application...
December 23, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012654/the-role-of-calcium-concentration-in-the-invasive-capacity-of-corbicula-fluminea-in-crystalline-basins
#20
Noé Ferreira-Rodríguez, Ignacio Fernández, Simone Varandas, Rui Cortes, M Leonor Cancela, Isabel Pardo
The natural variation of environmental factors in freshwater basins determines their biodiversity. Among them, calcium is a key physiological compound for freshwater invertebrates. It is required for shell formation, muscle contraction, it mediates gene expression and allows counteracting acidosis during stress periods, among other functions. Although the distribution of different freshwater species has been suggested to be linked with the environmental calcium concentration, as yet, no research studies have confirmed this...
December 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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