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Environmental chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221039/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-via-iron-iii-catalyzed-carbonyl-olefin-metathesis
#1
Christopher C McAtee, Paul S Riehl, Corinna S Schindler
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are important structural motifs in organic chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, and materials science. The development of a new synthetic strategy toward these compounds is described based on the design principle of iron(III)-catalyzed carbonyl-olefin metathesis reactions. This approach is characterized by its operational simplicity, high functional group compatibility, and regioselectivity while relying on FeCl3 as an environmentally benign, earth-abundant metal catalyst. Experimental evidence for oxetanes as reactive intermediates in the catalytic carbonyl-olefin ring-closing metathesis has been obtained...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218831/new-possibilities-for-magnetic-control-of-chemical-and-biochemical-reactions
#2
Anatoly Buchachenko, Ronald G Lawler
Chemistry is controlled by Coulomb energy; magnetic energy is lower by many orders of magnitude and may be confidently ignored in the energy balance of chemical reactions. The situation becomes less clear, however, when reaction rates are considered. In this case, magnetic perturbations of nearly degenerate energy surface crossings may produce observable, and sometimes even dramatic, effects on reactions rates, product yields, and spectroscopic transitions. A case in point that has been studied for nearly five decades is electron spin-selective chemistry via the intermediacy of radical pairs...
February 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216558/application-of-passive-sampling-to-characterise-the-fish-exometabolome
#3
Mark R Viant, Jessica Elphinstone Davis, Cathleen Duffy, Jasper Engel, Craig Stenton, Marion Sebire, Ioanna Katsiadaki
The endogenous metabolites excreted by organisms into their surrounding environment, termed the exometabolome, are important for many processes including chemical communication. In fish biology, such metabolites are also known to be informative markers of physiological status. While metabolomics is increasingly used to investigate the endogenous biochemistry of organisms, no non-targeted studies of the metabolic complexity of fish exometabolomes have been reported to date. In environmental chemistry, Chemcatcher(®) (Portsmouth, UK) passive samplers have been developed to sample for micro-pollutants in water...
February 14, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212020/a-new-reaction-pathway-induced-by-plasmon-for-selective-benzyl-alcohol-oxidation-on-biocl-possessing-oxygen-vacancies
#4
Hao Li, Feng Qin, Zhiping Yang, Ximin Cui, Jianfang Wang, Lizhi Zhang
Selective organic transformation under mild conditions constitutes a challenge in green chemistry, especially for alcohol oxidation, which typically requires environmentally unfriendly oxidants. Here, we report a new plasmonic catalyst of Au supported on BiOCl containing oxygen vacancies. It photocatalyzes selective benzyl alcohol oxidation with O2 under visible light through synergistic action of plasmonic hot electrons and holes. Oxygen vacancies on BiOCl facilitate the trapping and transfer of plasmonic hot electrons to adsorbed O2, producing •O2(‒) radicals, while plasmonic hot holes remaining on the Au surface mildly oxidize benzyl alcohol to corresponding carbon-centered radicals...
February 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211993/recent-lab-on-chip-developments-for-novel-drug-discovery
#5
REVIEW
Nauman Khalid, Isao Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Nakajima
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and micro total analysis systems (μTAS) revolutionized the biochemical and electronic industries, and this miniaturization process became a key driver for many markets. Now, it is a driving force for innovations in life sciences, diagnostics, analytical sciences, and chemistry, which are called 'lab-on-a-chip, (LOC)' devices. The use of these devices allows the development of fast, portable, and easy-to-use systems with a high level of functional integration for applications such as point-of-care diagnostics, forensics, the analysis of biomolecules, environmental or food analysis, and drug development...
February 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211478/ecology-and-genetics-affect-relative-invasion-success-of-two-echium-species-in-southern-australia
#6
Xiaocheng Zhu, Paul A Weston, Dominik Skoneczny, David Gopurenko, Lucie Meyer, Brendan J Lepschi, Ragan M Callaway, Geoff M Gurr, Leslie A Weston
Echium plantagineum and E. vulgare are congeneric exotics first introduced to Australia in the early 1800 s. There, E. plantagineum is now highly invasive, whereas E. vulgare has a limited distribution. Studies were conducted to evaluate distribution, ecology, genetics and secondary chemistry to shed light on factors associated with their respective invasive success. When sampled across geographically diverse locales, E. plantagineum was widespread and exhibited a small genome size (1 C = 0.34 pg), an annual life cycle, and greater genetic diversity as assessed by DNA sequence analysis...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199084/novel-cell-inorganic-hybrid-catalytic-interfaces-with-enhanced-enzymatic-activity-and-stability-for-sensitive-biosensing-of-paraoxon
#7
Lei Han, Aihua Liu
To improve the biosensing performance of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH), the novel bioinorganic hybrid catalysts were facilely explored by biomineralization and cell surface display technology. During biomineralization, cobalt phosphate crystals were deposited onto the surface of OPH-fused bacteria, and the inorganic crystals at middle of cell collapsed inwardly to form the final spindle morphology because of the lowest energy principle and the mechanics principle. OPH would show the allosteric effect from "inactive" form to "active" form, and the "active" form was "fixed" when OPH was embedded into cobalt phosphate...
February 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195722/effects-of-relative-humidity-and-particle-phase-water-on-the-heterogeneous-oh-oxidation-of-2-methylglutaric-acid-aqueous-droplets
#8
Man Mei Chim, Chun Yin Chow, James F Davies, ManNin Chan
Organic aerosols can exist as aqueous droplets, with variable water content depending on their composition and environmental conditions (e.g. relative humidity (RH)). Recent laboratory studies have revealed that oxidation kinetics in highly concentrated droplets can be much slower from those in dilute solutions. However, it remains unclear whether particle phase water affects the formation of reaction products physically and/or chemically. In this work, we investigate the role of particle phase water on the heterogeneous chemistry of aqueous organic droplets consisting of 2-methylglutaric acid (2-MGA), measuring the reaction kinetics and the reaction products upon heterogeneous OH oxidation over a range of RH...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192471/the-abundance-and-diversity-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-are-linked-to-the-soil-chemistry-of-screes-and-to-slope-in-the-alpic-paleo-endemic-berardia-subacaulis
#9
Gabriele Casazza, Erica Lumini, Enrico Ercole, Francesco Dovana, Maria Guerrina, Annamaria Arnulfo, Luigi Minuto, Anna Fusconi, Marco Mucciarelli
Berardia subacaulis Vill. is a monospecific genus that is endemic to the South-western Alps, where it grows on alpine screes, which are extreme habitats characterized by soil disturbance and limiting growth conditions. Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is presumably of great importance in these environments, because of its positive effect on plant nutrition and stress tolerance, as well as on structuring the soil. However, there is currently a lack of information on this topic. In this paper, we tested which soil characteristics and biotic factors could contribute to determining the abundance and community composition of AMF in the roots of B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191571/a-computer-based-prediction-platform-for-the-reaction-of-ozone-with-organic-compounds-in-aqueous-solution-kinetics-and-mechanisms
#10
Minju Lee, Lorenz C Blum, Emanuel Schmid, Kathrin Fenner, Urs von Gunten
Ozonation of secondary wastewater effluents can reduce the discharge of micropollutants by transforming their chemical structures. Therefore, a better understanding of the formation of transformation products during ozonation is important. In this study, a computer-based prediction platform for the kinetics and mechanisms of the reactions of ozone with organic compounds was developed to enable in silico predictions of transformation products. With the developed prediction platform, reaction kinetics expressed as second-order rate constants for the reactions of ozone with selected organic compounds (kO3, M(-1) s(-1)) can be predicted based on an adapted kO3 prediction model from a previous study (Lee et al...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178268/influence-of-ocean-acidification-on-plankton-community-structure-during-a-winter-to-summer-succession-an-imaging-approach-indicates-that-copepods-can-benefit-from-elevated-co2-via-indirect-food-web-effects
#11
Jan Taucher, Mathias Haunost, Tim Boxhammer, Lennart T Bach, María Algueró-Muñiz, Ulf Riebesell
Plankton communities play a key role in the marine food web and are expected to be highly sensitive to ongoing environmental change. Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) causes pronounced shifts in marine carbonate chemistry and a decrease in seawater pH. These changes-summarized by the term ocean acidification (OA)-can significantly affect the physiology of planktonic organisms. However, studies on the response of entire plankton communities to OA, which also include indirect effects via food-web interactions, are still relatively rare...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169528/the-essential-role-for-laboratory-studies-in-atmospheric-chemistry
#12
James B Burkholder, Jonathan P D Abbatt, Ian Barnes, James M Roberts, Megan L Melamed, Markus Ammann, Allan K Bertram, Christopher David Cappa, Ann Marie Grover Carlton, Lucy J Carpenter, John Nicholas Crowley, Yael Dubowski, Christian George, Dwayne E Heard, Hartmut Herrmann, Frank N Keutsch, Jesse H Kroll, V Faye McNeill, Nga Lee Ng, Sergey A Nizkorodov, John J Orlando, Carl John Percival, Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault, Yinon Rudich, Paul W Seakins, Jason Douglas Surratt, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Joel A Thornton, Tong Zhu, Geoffrey S Tyndall, Andreas Wahner, Charles J Weschler, Kevin R Wilson, Paul Jeffrey Ziemann
Laboratory studies of atmospheric chemistry characterize the nature of atmospherically relevant processes down to the molecular level, providing fundamental information used to assess how human activities drive environmental phenomena such as climate change, urban air pollution, ecosystem health, indoor air quality, and stratospheric ozone depletion. Laboratory studies have a central role in addressing the incomplete fundamental knowledge of atmospheric chemistry. This article highlights the evolving science needs for this community and emphasizes how our knowledge is far from complete, hindering our ability to predict the future state of our atmosphere and to respond to emerging global environmental change issues...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169527/molecular-biodynamers-dynamic-covalent-analogues-of-biopolymers
#13
Yun Liu, Jean-Marie Lehn, Anna K H Hirsch
Constitutional dynamic chemistry (CDC) features the use of reversible linkages at both molecular and supramolecular levels, including reversible covalent bonds (dynamic covalent chemistry, DCC) and noncovalent interactions (dynamic noncovalent chemistry, DNCC). Due to its inherent reversibility and stimuli-responsiveness, CDC has been widely utilized as a powerful tool for the screening of bioactive compounds, the exploitation of receptors or substrates driven by molecular recognition, and the fabrication of constitutionally dynamic materials...
February 7, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168709/recent-trends-and-applications-in-liquid-phase-chromatography-enantioseparation-of-atropisomers
#14
REVIEW
Paola Peluso, Victor Mamane, Emmanuel Aubert, Sergio Cossu
The term Atropisomerism defines a type of enantiomerism that arises from hindered rotation around an axis that makes two rotational isomers enantiomers. Atropisomeric compounds are present in nature, being important building blocks of many biologically active compounds. Atropisomers have been extensively studied in environmental and toxicological chemistry and, in particular, separating them has become a need in specific fields as organic synthesis and pharmaceutical research. High-performance liquid chromatography has been fruitfully applied in this context, and, despite HPLC separation on chiral stationary phase (CSP) is considered as mature technology nowadays, in the last years several advancements and applications contributed to study compounds where axial chirality is of utmost importance...
February 6, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165092/probing-the-surface-chemistry-of-self-assembled-peptide-hydrogels-using-solution-state-nmr-spectroscopy
#15
Matthew Wallace, Jonathan A Iggo, Dave J Adams
The surface chemistry of self-assembled hydrogel fibres - their charge, hydrophobicity and ion-binding dynamics - is recognised to play an important role in determining how the gels develop as well as their suitability for different applications. However, to date there are no established methodologies for the study of this surface chemistry. Here, we demonstrate how solution-state NMR spectroscopy can be employed to measure the surface chemical properties of the fibres in a range of hydrogels formed from N-functionalised dipeptides, an effective and versatile class of gelator that has attracted much attention...
February 6, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163991/environmental-chemistry-and-ecotoxicology-in-greater-demand-than-ever
#16
EDITORIAL
Martin Scheringer
Environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology have been losing support, resources, and recognition at universities for many years. What are the possible causes of this process? A first problem may be that the need for research and teaching in environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology is no longer seen because chemical pollution problems are considered as largely solved. Second, environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology may be seen as fields dominated by routine work and where there are not many interesting research questions left...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161514/biosorption-behavior-and-proteomic-analysis-of-escherichia-coli-p4-under-cadmium-stress
#17
Zaman Khan, Abdul Rehman, Muhammad Atif Nisar, Saima Zafar, Inga Zerr
Bacteria develop a variety of adaptations at transcriptomic, metabolomic and proteomic levels in order to survive potentially damaging environmental perturbations. Present study is exploring the fluctuations in proteome of E. coli P4 to knob Cd(+2)-induced cytotoxicity. An attempt was also made to integrate all these approaches to gain comprehensive insight of Cd(+2) stress response in E. coli P4. This study is exposing the altered behavior of various proteins and their underlying metabolic pathways which have previously not been reported with reference to Cd(+2) stress such as sulfoquinovose biosynthesis and degradation pathway...
January 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156033/amplification-of-a-fret-probe-by-lipid-water-partition-for-the-detection-of-acid-sphingomyelinase-in-live-cells
#18
Thomas Pinkert, David Furkert, Thomas Korte, Andreas Herrmann, Christoph Arenz
Real-time monitoring of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) activity is crucial for investigating its role in lipid-mediated signaling processes. In this study, we synthesized fluorescent phosphosphingolipids capable of FRET by phosphorodichloridate chemistry. These sphingomyelin analogues are substrates for recombinant human ASM and can be used to monitor ASM activity by fluorescence spectroscopy. Incubation with cell lysates from wild-type and knock-out mice further confirmed probe cleavage to be exclusive to ASM...
March 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155937/controlled-aggregation-and-cell-uptake-of-thermoresponsive-polyoxazoline-grafted-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#19
Steffen Kurzhals, Noga Gal, Ronald Zirbs, Erik Reimhult
Hydrophilic polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are potential materials for a plethora of applications in the biotechnological field. Typical such polymers, e.g. dextran or poly(ethylene glycol), lack the ability to tailor the biological response to an environmental trigger, while common responsive polymers such as poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) or poly(acrylic acid) are not suitable for biomedical applications. We present the synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with thermoresponsive polyoxazoline brushes grafted at unprecedented density using nitrodopamine anchor chemistry...
February 3, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152088/crystal-structure-and-catalytic-mechanism-of-couo-a-versatile-c-methyltransferase-from-streptomyces-rishiriensis
#20
Tea Pavkov-Keller, Kerstin Steiner, Mario Faber, Martin Tengg, Helmut Schwab, Mandana Gruber-Khadjawi, Karl Gruber
Friedel-Crafts alkylation of aromatic systems is a classic reaction in organic chemistry, for which regiospecific mono-alkylation, however, is generally difficult to achieve. In nature, methyltransferases catalyze the addition of methyl groups to a wide range of biomolecules thereby modulating the physico-chemical properties of these compounds. Specifically, S-adenosyl-L-methionine dependent C-methyltransferases possess a high potential to serve as biocatalysts in environmentally benign organic syntheses. Here, we report on the high resolution crystal structure of CouO, a C-methyltransferase from Streptomyces rishiriensis involved in the biosynthesis of the antibiotic coumermycin A1...
2017: PloS One
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