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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442906/a-review-of-drug-delivery-systems-based-on-nanotechnology-and-green-chemistry-green-nanomedicine
#1
REVIEW
Hossein Jahangirian, Ensieh Ghasemian Lemraski, Thomas J Webster, Roshanak Rafiee-Moghaddam, Yadollah Abdollahi
This review discusses the impact of green and environmentally safe chemistry on the field of nanotechnology-driven drug delivery in a new field termed "green nanomedicine". Studies have shown that among many examples of green nanotechnology-driven drug delivery systems, those receiving the greatest amount of attention include nanometal particles, polymers, and biological materials. Furthermore, green nanodrug delivery systems based on environmentally safe chemical reactions or using natural biomaterials (such as plant extracts and microorganisms) are now producing innovative materials revolutionizing the field...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440923/ecotoxicity-testing-of-microplastics-considering-the-heterogeneity-of-physicochemical-properties
#2
Scott Lambert, Christian Scherer, Martin Wagner
"Microplastic" is an umbrella term that covers many particle shapes, sizes, and polymer types, and as such the physical and chemical properties of environmental microplastics will differ from the primary microbeads commonly used for ecotoxicity testing. In the present article, we discuss the physical and chemical properties of microplastics that are potentially relevant to their ecotoxicity, including particle size, particle shape, crystallinity, surface chemistry, and polymer and additive composition. Overall, there is a need for a structured approach to the testing of different properties to identify which are the most relevant drivers of microplastic toxicity...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440091/microbial-exopolysaccharide-mediated-synthesis-and-stabilization-of-metal-nanoparticles
#3
Ganesan Sathiyanarayanan, Krishnamoorthy Dineshkumar, Yung-Hun Yang
Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are structurally and functionally valuable biopolymer secreted by different prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms in response to biotic/abiotic stresses and to survive in extreme environments. Microbial EPSs are fascinating in various industrial sectors due to their excellent material properties and less toxic, highly biodegradable, and biocompatible nature. Recently, microbial EPSs have been used as a potential template for the rapid synthesis of metallic nanoparticles and EPS-mediated metal reduction processes are emerging as simple, harmless, and environmentally benign green chemistry approaches...
April 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436590/identification-of-small-molecules-using-accurate-mass-ms-ms-search
#4
REVIEW
Tobias Kind, Hiroshi Tsugawa, Tomas Cajka, Yan Ma, Zijuan Lai, Sajjan S Mehta, Gert Wohlgemuth, Dinesh Kumar Barupal, Megan R Showalter, Masanori Arita, Oliver Fiehn
Tandem mass spectral library search (MS/MS) is the fastest way to correctly annotate MS/MS spectra from screening small molecules in fields such as environmental analysis, drug screening, lipid analysis, and metabolomics. The confidence in MS/MS-based annotation of chemical structures is impacted by instrumental settings and requirements, data acquisition modes including data-dependent and data-independent methods, library scoring algorithms, as well as post-curation steps. We critically discuss parameters that influence search results, such as mass accuracy, precursor ion isolation width, intensity thresholds, centroiding algorithms, and acquisition speed...
April 24, 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435767/green-toxicology-a-strategy-for-sustainable-chemical-and-material-development
#5
EDITORIAL
Sarah E Crawford, Thomas Hartung, Henner Hollert, Björn Mathes, Bennard van Ravenzwaay, Thomas Steger-Hartmann, Christoph Studer, Harald F Krug
Green Toxicology refers to the application of predictive toxicology in the sustainable development and production of new less harmful materials and chemicals, subsequently reducing waste and exposure. Built upon the foundation of "Green Chemistry" and "Green Engineering", "Green Toxicology" aims to shape future manufacturing processes and safe synthesis of chemicals in terms of environmental and human health impacts. Being an integral part of Green Chemistry, the principles of Green Toxicology amplify the role of health-related aspects for the benefit of consumers and the environment, in addition to being economical for manufacturing companies...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434257/ratio-of-serum-levels-of-ages-to-soluble-rage-is-correlated-with-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-non-diabetic-subjects
#6
Atsuko Tahara, Nobuhiro Tahara, Sho-Ichi Yamagishi, Akihiro Honda, Sachiyo Igata, Yoshikazu Nitta, Munehisa Bekki, Tomohisa Nakamura, Yoichi Sugiyama, Jiahui Sun, Masayoshi Takeuchi, Makiko Shimizu, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Kei Fukami, Yoshihiro Fukumoto
Trimethylamine (TMA), an intestinal microflora-dependent metabolite formed from phosphatidylcholine- and L-carnitine-rich food, such as red meat, is further converted to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), which could play a role in cardiometabolic disease. Red meat-derived products are one of the major environmental sources of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that may also contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders through the interaction with receptor for AGEs (RAGE). However, the relationship among AGEs, soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) and TMAO in humans remains unclear...
April 23, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431370/hydrodynamic-influence-on-reservoir-sustainability-in-semi-arid-climate-a-physicochemical-and-environmental-isotopic-study
#7
Rawaa Ammar, Véronique Kazpard, Antoine G El Samrani, Nabil Amacha, Zeinab Saad, Lei Chou
Water scarcity and increasing water demand require the development of water management plans such as establishing artificial lakes and dams. Plans to meet water needs are faced by uprising challenges to improve water quality and to ensure the sustainability of hydro-projects. Environmental isotopes coupled to water physicochemical characteristics were investigated over a biennial cycle to assess both geomorphological and environmental impacts on the water quality of a reservoir situated in an intensively used agricultural watershed under a Mediterranean semi-arid climate...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429398/efficacy-of-passive-sampler-collection-for-atmospheric-no2-isotopes-under-simulated-environmental-conditions
#8
Justin G Coughlin, Zhongjie Yu, Emily M Elliott
RATIONALE: Nitrogen oxides or NOx (NOx  = NO + NO2 ) play an important role in air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate. The isotopic compositions of anthropogenic and natural NO2 sources are wide-ranging, and they can be used to constrain sources of ambient NO2 and associated atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds. While passive sample collection of NO2 isotopes has been used in field studies to determine NOx source influences on atmospheric deposition, this approach has not been evaluated for accuracy or precision under different environmental conditions...
April 20, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428727/improved-methods-for-evaluating-the-environmental-impact-of-nanoparticle-synthesis%C3%A2
#9
Bradley T Reid, Scott M Reed
With the market for products containing nanoparticles growing, improvements in the efficiency of nanoparticle synthesis are poised to have significant positive economic and environmental impacts. While many metrics have been designed for measuring the efficiency of small molecule synthesis, the use of these metrics for evaluating nanoparticle preparation has not been optimized. Here a critical evaluation of various green chemistry metrics is provided as they are applied to a common set of nanoparticle synthetic methods...
August 7, 2016: Green Chemistry: An International Journal and Green Chemistry Resource: GC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426211/dry-particulate-nitrate-deposition-in-china
#10
Lei Liu, Xiuying Zhang, Yan Zhang, Wen xU, Xuejun Liu, Xiaoming Zhang, Junlan Feng, Xinrui Chen, Yuehan Zhang, Xuehe Lu, Shanqian Wang, Wuting Zhang, Limin Zhao
A limited number of ground measurements of dry particulate nitrate deposition (NO3-) makes it difficult and challenging to fully know the status of the spatial and temporal variations of dry NO3- depositions over China. This study tries to expand the ground measurements of NO3- concentrations at monitoring sites to a national scale, based on the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 columns, NO2 profiles from an atmospheric chemistry transport model (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4, MOZART-4) and monitor-based sources, and then estimates the NO3- depositions on a regional scale based on an inferred model...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418239/oxygen-vacancy-associated-surface-fenton-chemistry-surface-structure-dependent-hydroxyl-radicals-generation-and-substrate-dependent-reactivity
#11
Hao Li, Jian Shang, Zhiping Yang, Wenjuan Shen, Zhihui Ai, Lizhi Zhang
Understanding the chemistry of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) decomposition and hydroxyl radicals (•OH) transformation on the surface molecular level is a great challenge for the application of heterogeneous Fenton system in the fields of chemistry, environmental and life science. We report in this study a conceptual oxygen vacancy associated surface Fenton system without any metal ions leaching, exhibiting unprecedented surface chemistry based on the oxygen vacancy of electron-donor nature for heterolytic H2O2 dissociation...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406290/cooperative-catalysis-at-metal-sulfur-bonds
#12
Lukas Omann, C David F Königs, Hendrik F T Klare, Martin Oestreich
Cooperative catalysis has attracted tremendous attention in recent years, emerging as a key strategy for the development of novel atom-economic and environmentally more benign catalytic processes. In particular, Noyori-type complexes with metal-nitrogen bonds have been extensively studied and evolved as privileged catalysts in hydrogenation chemistry. In contrast, catalysts containing metal-sulfur bonds as the reactive site are out of the ordinary, despite their abundance in living systems, where they are assumed to play a key role in biologically relevant processes...
April 13, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405280/multiple-environmental-changes-drive-forest-floor-vegetation-in-a-temperate-mountain-forest
#13
Norbert Helm, Franz Essl, Michael Mirtl, Thomas Dirnböck
Human-induced changes of the environment and their possible impacts on temperate forest understory plant communities have been examined in many studies. However, the relative contribution of individual environmental factors to these changes in the herb layer is still unclear. In this study, we used vegetation survey data covering a time period of 21 years and collected from 143 permanent plots in the Northern Limestone Alps, Austria. Data on soil chemistry (49 plots), light condition (51 plots), soil temperature and moisture (four and six plots), disturbance (all plots), climate (one station in a clearing area), and airborne sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) deposition (two forest stands) were available for analyses...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401411/fluorescence-detection-of-p-nitrophenol-in-water-using-bovine-serum-albumin-capped-ag-nanoclusters
#14
Mi Mao, Chun Deng, Yu He, Yili Ge, Gongwu Song
We developed a sensitive and selective method for detection of 4-Nitrophenol (PNP) using Ag nanoclusters (NCs) as fluorescence probe. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as the template for preparing Ag NCs via wet chemistry. The fluorescence of as-prepared Ag NCs was significantly quenched in the presence of PNP, showing excellent linear relationships between the quenching degree of the fluorescence intensity and the concentrations of PNP in the range of 0.5 μM to 60 μM. The fluorescence quenching mechanism was also investigated...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401315/improving-the-tool-box-for-robust-industrial-enzymes
#15
REVIEW
J A Littlechild
The speed of sequencing of microbial genomes and metagenomes is providing an ever increasing resource for the identification of new robust biocatalysts with industrial applications for many different aspects of industrial biotechnology. Using 'natures catalysts' provides a sustainable approach to chemical synthesis of fine chemicals, general chemicals such as surfactants and new consumer-based materials such as biodegradable plastics. This provides a sustainable and 'green chemistry' route to chemical synthesis which generates no toxic waste and is environmentally friendly...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400754/mineral-ecology-surface-specific-colonization-and-geochemical-drivers-of-biofilm-accumulation-composition-and-phylogeny
#16
Aaron A Jones, Philip C Bennett
This study tests the hypothesis that surface composition influences microbial community structure and growth of biofilms. We used laboratory biofilm reactors (inoculated with a diverse subsurface community) to explore the phylogenetic and taxonomic variability in microbial communities as a function of surface type (carbonate, silicate, aluminosilicate), media pH, and carbon and phosphate availability. Using high-throughput pyrosequencing, we found that surface type significantly controlled ~70-90% of the variance in phylogenetic diversity regardless of environmental pressures...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397335/proterozoic-microbial-mats-and-their-constraints-on-environments-of-silicification
#17
A R Manning-Berg, L C Kah
The occurrence of microfossiliferous, early diagenetic chert in Proterozoic successions is broadly restricted to peritidal marine environments. Such coastal environments are amongst the most environmentally variable of marine environments, experiencing both enhanced evaporation and potential influx of terrestrial freshwaters. To better understand potential conditions under which silicification occurs, we focus on microfossiliferous early diagenetic chert from the Mesoproterozoic Bylot Supergroup, northern Baffin Island...
April 11, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397187/synthesis-of-ureas-from-co2
#18
REVIEW
Hua Wang, Zhuo Xin, Yuehui Li
Ureas are an important class of bioactive organic compounds in organic chemistry and exist widely in natural products, agricultural pesticides, uron herbicides, pharmaceuticals. Even though urea itself has been synthesized from CO2 and ammonia for a long time, the selective and efficient synthesis of substituted ureas is still challenging due to the difficulty of dehydration processes. Efficient and economic fixation of CO2 is of great importance in solving the problems of resource shortages, environmental issues, global warming, etc...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396420/mutation-in-sorghum-low-germination-stimulant-1-alters-strigolactones-and-causes-striga-resistance
#19
Daniel Gobena, Mahdere Shimels, Patrick J Rich, Carolien Ruyter-Spira, Harro Bouwmeester, Satish Kanuganti, Tesfaye Mengiste, Gebisa Ejeta
Striga is a major biotic constraint to sorghum production in semiarid tropical Africa and Asia. Genetic resistance to this parasitic weed is the most economically feasible control measure. Mutant alleles at the LGS1 (LOW GERMINATION STIMULANT 1) locus drastically reduce Striga germination stimulant activity. We provide evidence that the responsible gene at LGS1 codes for an enzyme annotated as a sulfotransferase and show that functional loss of this gene results in a change of the dominant strigolactone (SL) in root exudates from 5-deoxystrigol, a highly active Striga germination stimulant, to orobanchol, an SL with opposite stereochemistry...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395510/synthesis-and-surface-functionalization-of-hydride-terminated-ge-nanocrystals-obtained-from-the-thermal-treatment-of-ge-oh-2
#20
Morteza Javadi, Darren Picard, Regina Sinelnikov, Mary Alvean Narreto, Frank A Hegmann, Jonathan G C Veinot
The synthesis of germanium nanocrystals (GeNCs) with well-defined surface chemistry is of considerable interest because of their potential applications in the optoelectronic, battery, and semiconductor industries. Modifying and tailoring GeNC surface chemistry provides an avenue by which reactivity, environmental compatibility (e.g., solubility, resistance to oxidation), and electronic properties may be tailored. Hydride-terminated GeNCs (H-GeNCs) are of particular interest because the reactivity of surface Ge-H bonds toward alkenes and alkynes via hydrogermylation affords the potential for convenient modification; however, these reactions and their scope have not been widely explored...
April 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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