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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929448/acid-rock-drainage-in-nevado-pastoruri-glacier-area-huascar%C3%A3-n-national-park-per%C3%A3%C2%BA-hydrochemical-and-mineralogical-characterization-and-associated-environmental-implications
#1
Esther Santofimia, Enrique López-Pamo, Edwin Julio Palomino, Elena González-Toril, Ángeles Aguilera
The generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) was observed in an area of Nevado Pastoruri as a result of the oxidative dissolution of pyrite-rich lutites and sandstones. These ARDs are generated as abundant pyrite becomes exposed to atmospheric conditions as a result of glacier retreat. The proglacial zone contains lagoons, springs, streams and wetlands, scant vegetation, and intense fluvioglacial erosion. This work reports a comprehensive identification and the results of sampling of the lagoons and springs belonging to the microbasin, which is the headwaters of the Pachacoto River, as well as mapping results based on the hydrochemical data obtained in our study...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929206/adaptive-management-of-environmental-flows-using-irrigation-infrastructure-to-deliver-environmental-benefits-during-a-large-hypoxic-blackwater-event-in-the-southern-murray-darling-basin-australia
#2
Robyn J Watts, R Keller Kopf, Nicole McCasker, Julia A Howitt, John Conallin, Ian Wooden, Lee Baumgartner
Widespread flooding in south-eastern Australia in 2010 resulted in a hypoxic (low dissolved oxygen, DO) blackwater (high dissolved carbon) event affecting 1800 kilometres of the Murray-Darling Basin. There was concern that prolonged low DO would result in death of aquatic biota. Australian federal and state governments and local stakeholders collaborated to create refuge areas by releasing water with higher DO from irrigation canals via regulating structures (known as 'irrigation canal escapes') into rivers in the Edward-Wakool system...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927524/genotoxicity-of-metal-based-engineered-nanoparticles-in-aquatic-organisms-a-review
#3
REVIEW
N Mahaye, M Thwala, D A Cowan, N Musee
Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are an emerging class of environmental contaminants, but are generally found in very low concentrations and are therefore likely to exert sub-lethal effects on aquatic organisms. In this review, we: (i) highlight key mechanisms of metal-based ENP-induced genotoxicity, (ii) identify key nanoparticle and environmental factors which influence the observed genotoxic effects, and (iii) highlight the challenges involved in interpreting reported data and provide recommendations on how these challenges might be addressed...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925700/infrared-signature-of-structural-isomers-of-gas-phase-m-n2o-n-m-cu-ag-au-ion-molecule-complexes
#4
Ethan M Cunningham, Alexander S Gentleman, Peter M Beardsmore, Andreas Iskra, Stuart R Mackenzie
Gas-phase metal ion-ligand complexes offer model environments to study molecular interactions which are key to many catalytic processes. Here, we present a combined experimental and computational study of M+(N2O)n [M= Cu, Ag, Au; n = 2-7] complexes. The spectra provide clear evidence for both nitrogen- and oxygen- bound ligands giving rise to a wide range of structural isomers for each complex studied. The evolution of the complex structures observed as well as spectral trends for each metal center are interpreted in terms of a molecular orbital binding picture and resulting calculated ligand binding energies...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924511/barcoded-ns31-aml2-primers-for-sequencing-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-communities-in-environmental-samples
#5
Benjamin S T Morgan, Louise M Egerton-Warburton
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are globally important root symbioses that enhance plant growth and nutrition and influence ecosystem structure and function. To better characterize levels of AMF diversity relevant to ecosystem function, deeper sequencing depth in environmental samples is needed. In this study, Illumina barcoded primers and a bioinformatics pipeline were developed and applied to study AMF diversity and community structure in environmental samples...
August 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919903/the-role-of-soil-solarization-in-india-how-an-unnoticed-practice-could-support-pest-control
#6
REVIEW
Harsimran K Gill, Iqbal S Aujla, Luigi De Bellis, Andrea Luvisi
Plant protection represents one of the strategies to fill the yield gap and to achieve food security, a key topic for India development. Analysis of climate risks for crops indicates that South Asia is one of the regions most exposed to the adverse impact on many plants that are relevant to inhabitants exposed to food safety risks. Furthermore, accumulation of pesticide residues in the aquatic and other ecosystems is becoming a significant threat in India. These perspectives require to develop programs of crop protection that can be feasible according to Indian rural development and pollution policy...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918628/breaking-benzene-aromaticity-computational-insights-into-the-mechanism-of-the-tungsten-containing-benzoyl-coa-reductase
#7
Martin Culka, Simona G Huwiler, Matthias Boll, G Matthias Ullmann
Aromatic compounds are environmental pollutants with toxic and carcinogenic properties. Despite the stability of aromatic rings, bacteria are able to degrade the aromatic compounds into simple metabolites and use them as growth substrates under oxic or even under anoxic conditions. In anaerobic microorganisms, most monocyclic aromatic growth substrates are converted to the central intermediate benzoyl-coenzyme A, which is enzymatically reduced to cyclohexa-1,5-dienoyl-CoA. The strcitly anaerobic bacterium \textit{Geobacter metallireducens} uses the class II benzoyl-CoA reductase complex for this reaction...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916334/special-issue-11th-apccs-2016-chemistry-environmental-biotechnology-and-biomedical-aspects-of-chitin-and-chitosan
#8
EDITORIAL
R Jayakumar, S Meenakshi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911545/chemistry-and-health-effects-of-furanocoumarins-in-grapefruit
#9
REVIEW
Wei-Lun Hung, Joon Hyuk Suh, Yu Wang
Furanocoumarins are a specific group of secondary metabolites that commonly present in higher plants, such as citrus plants. The major furanocoumarins found in grapefruits (Citrus paradisi) include bergamottin, epoxybergamottin, and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin. During biosynthesis of these furanocoumarins, coumarins undergo biochemical modifications corresponding to a prenylation reaction catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 enzymes with the subsequent formation of furan rings. Because of undesirable interactions with several medications, many studies have developed methods for grapefruit furanocoumarin quantification that include high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector or mass spectrometry...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910746/transport-of-imidazolium-based-ionic-liquids-with-different-anion-cation-species-in-sand-soil-columns
#10
Zhiqiang Dong, Li Wei, Suwei Xu, Jingwei Sun, Xinyi Shi, Yuping Qiu
Ionic liquids (ILs) have been widely used as environmentally friendly solvents to replace volatile organic solvents in the chemistry industries. They have a high water solubility and potential risk to organisms in the soil-water environment. At present, most studies focused on the batch sorption of ILs in soil and neglected the investigation of IL transports in soil, which results in a lack of understanding of the structure-dependent mobility of ILs in the environment. Laboratory-scale sand/soil column experiments were performed to study the transport of imidazolium-based ILs, such as [C4mim][OTF], [C4mim][TOS], [C4mim][MeSO3], [C4mim][BF4], [C2mim][BF4], and [C6mim][BF4] including different counteranions and alkyl chain lengths of IL cations...
September 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902513/co-existence-of-physisorbed-and-solvated-hcl-at-warm-ice-surfaces
#11
Xiangrui Kong, Astrid Waldner, Fabrizio Orlando, Luca Artiglia, Thomas Huthwelker, Markus Ammann, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch
The interfacial ionization of strong acids is an essential factor of multi-phase and heterogeneous chemistry in environmental science, crysophereic science, catalysis research and material science. We investigate the mechanism of HCl dissociation at the ice surface using surface-sensitive ambient-pressure core level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. At 253 K and low surface coverage, adsorbed HCl is found in both states, molecular and dissociated. Depth profiles derived from XPS data clearly show that the dissociated acid is found deeper in the interfacial region compared to the molecular form...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902167/optimization-and-comparison-of-synthetic-procedures-for-a-group-of-triazinyl-substituted-benzene-sulfonamide-conjugates-with-amino-acids
#12
Dominika Krajčiová, Daniel Pecher, Vladimír Garaj, Peter Mikuš
Sulfonamides incorporating 1,3,5-triazine moieties can selectively and potently inhibit carbonic anhydrase transmembrane isoforms IX, XII, and XIV over cytosolic isoforms I and II. In the present work, a highly effective synthetic procedure was proposed for this group of potent cancerostatic drugs and compared with previously used methods. The synthesis of triazinyl-substituted benzene-sulfonamide conjugates with amino acids can be easily carried out using sodium carbonate-based water solution as a synthetic medium instead of N,N-Diisopropylethylamine/Dimethylformamide...
September 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901756/using-fundamental-spectroscopy-to-elucidate-kinetic-and-energetic-mechanisms-within-environmentally-relevant-inductively-coupled-plasma-systems
#13
Angela Hanna, Joshua Blechle, Ellen R Fisher
Understanding energy distributions and kinetic processes in NxOy plasma systems is vital to realizing their potential in a range of applications, including pollution abatement. Energy partitioning between degrees of freedom and multiple molecules formed within NxOy plasma systems (N2, N2O, N2/O2) was investigated using both optical emission and broadband absorption spec-troscopies. Specifically, we have determined electron temperatures (Te), as well as rotational (TR) and vibrational (TV) temperatures for various N2 (B(3)Πg and C(3)Πu) and NO (X(2)Π and A(2) Σ(+)) states...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901581/hybrid-copper-nanowire-reduced-graphene-oxide-coatings-a-green-solution-toward-highly-transparent-highly-conductive-and-flexible-electrodes-for-opto-electronics
#14
Alessandro Aliprandi, Tiago Moreira, Cosimo Anichini, Marc-Antoine Stoeckel, Matilde Eredia, Ugo Sassi, Matteo Bruna, Carlos Pinheiro, César A T Laia, Sara Bonacchi, Paolo Samorì
This study reports a novel green chemistry approach to assemble copper-nanowires/reduced-graphene-oxide hybrid coatings onto inorganic and organic supports. Such films are robust and combine sheet resistances (<30 Ω sq(-1) ) and transparencies in the visible region (transmittance > 70%) that are rivalling those of indium-tin oxide. These electrodes are suitable for flexible electronic applications as they show a sheet resistance change of <4% after 10 000 bending cycles at a bending radius of 1.0 cm, when supported on polyethylene terephthalate foils...
September 13, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898731/ferroelectric-spontaneous-polarization-steering-charge-carriers-migration-for-promoting-photocatalysis-and-molecular-oxygen-activation
#15
Hongwei Huang, Shuchen Tu, Xin Du, Yihe Zhang
Introducing a polarization electric field in photocatalyst system is regarded asa new concept for photocatalytic activity enhancement. In this work, we first unearth that the spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric BaTiO3 promotes the photocatalytic and molecular oxygen activation performance of the narrow-band-gap semiconductor BiOI. Ferroelectric tetragonal-phase BaTiO3 (T-BaTiO3) were prepared via calcination of nonferroelectric cubic-phase BaTiO3 (C-BaTiO3), and their polarization ability was verified via ultrasonication-assisted piezoelectric catalytic degradation...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892254/transcriptional-regulation-of-ectoine-catabolism-in-response-to-multiple-metabolic-and-environmental-cues
#16
Annina Schulz, Lucas Hermann, Sven-Andreas Freibert, Tobias Bönig, Tamara Hoffmann, Ramona Riclea, Jeroen S Dickschat, Johann Heider, Erhard Bremer
Ectoine and hydroxyectoine are effective microbial osmostress protectants, but can also serve as versatile nutrients for bacteria. We have studied the genetic regulation of ectoine and hydroxyectoine import and catabolism in the marine Roseobacter species Ruegeria pomeroyi and identified three transcriptional regulators involved in these processes: the GabR/MocR-type repressor EnuR, the feast and famine-type regulator AsnC, and the two-component system NtrYX. The corresponding genes are widely associated with ectoine and hydroxyectoine uptake and catabolic gene clusters (enuR, asnC), and with microorganisms predicted to consume ectoines (ntrYX)...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891580/facile-fabrication-of-mesoporous-silica-micro-jets-with-multi-functionalities
#17
D Vilela, A C Hortelao, R Balderas-Xicohténcatl, M Hirscher, K Hahn, X Ma, S Sánchez
Self-propelled micro/nano-devices have been proved as powerful tools in various applications given their capability of both autonomous motion and on-demand task fulfilment. Tubular micro-jets stand out as an important member in the family of self-propelled micro/nano-devices and are widely explored with respect to their fabrication and functionalization. A few methods are currently available for the fabrication of tubular micro-jets, nevertheless there is still a demand to explore the fabrication of tubular micro-jets made of versatile materials and with the capability of multi-functionalization...
September 11, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885748/extensive-study-on-physicochemical-properties-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-a-commercial-ion-trap-mass-spectrometer-relevance-in-analytical-and-environmental-chemistry
#18
R Narizzano, F Risso, A Magherini, G Cordone, M Ottonelli, E Smirnova, S Nadotti, L Rivara, R La Rocca, E Magi, S Lottici, S Maggiolo, C E Pepe, M Garbarino
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exist as 209 congeners, consisting of biphenyl molecules, where the number and substitution positions of halogen atoms are known to affect industrial uses, environmental transport mechanisms, distribution, fate, and toxicity. The complexity of the problem requires accurate physicochemical studies of an increasing number of congeners in order to understand the environmental and biological processes at play. This work presents a systematic study on the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of PCBs by quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884185/significant-enhancement-of-the-selectivity-of-propylene-epoxidation-for-propylene-oxide-a-molecular-oxygen-mechanism
#19
Yimeng Dai, Zongjia Chen, Yanglong Guo, Guanzhong Lu, Yifang Zhao, Haifeng Wang, P Hu
As an attractive and environmentally friendly process for propylene oxide (PO) production, direct epoxidation of propylene (DEP) with molecular oxygen catalyzed by metal-based catalysts such as Ag and Cu has drawn much attention, but remains one of the biggest challenges in chemistry. In this work, the crucial competitive reactions of propylene α-H stripping (AHS) versus the oxametallacycle formation (OMMP formation) using adsorbed atomic oxygen (O*) or adsorbed molecular oxygen (O2*) as an oxidant are extensively compared on IB group metal surfaces (Cu, Ag and Au) with varied electronic and structural effects in order to explore the possibility to enhance the PO selectivity by virtue of first-principles calculations...
September 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878754/marine-microbial-gene-abundance-and-community-composition-in-response-to-ocean-acidification-and-elevated-temperature-in-two-contrasting-coastal-marine-sediments
#20
Ashleigh R Currie, Karen Tait, Helen Parry, Beatriz de Francisco-Mora, Natalie Hicks, A Mark Osborn, Steve Widdicombe, Henrik Stahl
Marine ecosystems are exposed to a range of human-induced climate stressors, in particular changing carbonate chemistry and elevated sea surface temperatures as a consequence of climate change. More research effort is needed to reduce uncertainties about the effects of global-scale warming and acidification for benthic microbial communities, which drive sedimentary biogeochemical cycles. In this research, mesocosm experiments were set up using muddy and sandy coastal sediments to investigate the independent and interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations (750 ppm CO2) and elevated temperature (ambient +4°C) on the abundance of taxonomic and functional microbial genes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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