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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337906/fates-of-chemical-elements-in-biomass-during-its-pyrolysis
#1
Wu-Jun Liu, Wen-Wei Li, Hong Jiang, Han-Qing Yu
Biomass is increasingly perceived as a renewable resource rather than as an organic solid waste today, as it can be converted to various chemicals, biofuels, and solid biochar using modern processes. In the past few years, pyrolysis has attracted growing interest as a promising versatile platform to convert biomass into valuable resources. However, an efficient and selective conversion process is still difficult to be realized due to the complex nature of biomass, which usually makes the products complicated...
March 24, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336902/magnetic-hybrid-nanosorbents-for-the-uptake-of-paraquat-from-water
#2
Tiago Fernandes, Sofia F Soares, Tito Trindade, Ana L Daniel-da-Silva
Although paraquat has been banned in European countries, this herbicide is still used all over the world, thanks to its low-cost, high-efficiency, and fast action. Because paraquat is highly toxic to humans and animals, there is interest in mitigating the consequences of its use, namely by implementing removal procedures capable of curbing its environmental and health risks. This research describes new magnetic nanosorbents composed of magnetite cores functionalized with bio-hybrid siliceous shells, that can be used to uptake paraquat from water using magnetically-assisted procedures...
March 18, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335772/production-of-s-2-aminobutyric-acid-and-s-2-aminobutanol-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Nora Weber, Anaëlle Hatsch, Ludivine Labagnere, Harald Heider
BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) has great potential as a whole-cell biocatalyst for multistep synthesis of various organic molecules. To date, however, few examples exist in the literature of the successful biosynthetic production of chemical compounds, in yeast, that do not exist in nature. Considering that more than 30% of all drugs on the market are purely chemical compounds, often produced by harsh synthetic chemistry or with very low yields, novel and environmentally sound production routes are highly desirable...
March 23, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333580/air-quality-measurements-from-rubber-bands-to-tapping-the-rainbow
#4
George M Hidy, Peter K Mueller, Samuel L Altshuler, Judith C Chow, John G Watson
It is axiomatic that good measurements are integral to good public policy for environmental protection. The generalized term for "measurements" includes sampling and quantitation, data integrity, documentation, network design, sponsorship and operations, and archiving and accessing for applications. Each of these components has evolved and advanced over the last 200 years as knowledge of atmospheric chemistry and physics has matured. Air quality was first detected by what people could see smoke and smell contaminated air...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333448/role-of-oxygen-functionalities-in-graphene-oxide-architectural-laminates-goal-sub-nanometer-spacing-and-water-transport
#5
Carlo Alberto Amadei, Andrea Montessori, Julian P Kadow, Sauro Succi, Chad David Vecitis
Active research in nanotechnology contemplates the use of nanomaterials for environmental engineering applications. However, a primary challenge is understanding the effects of nanomaterial properties on industrial device performance and translating unique nanoscale properties to the macroscale. One emerging example is graphene oxide (GO) membranes for separation processes. Thus, here we investigate how individual GO properties, in particular the GO chemistry, can impact GO membrane characteristics and water permeability...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332830/performance-and-mechanism-of-uranium-adsorption-from-seawater-to-polydopamine-inspired-sorbents
#6
Fengcheng Wu, Ning Pu, Gang Ye, Taoxiang Sun, Zhe Wang, Yang Song, Wenqing Wang, Xiaomei Huo, Yuexiang Lu, Jing Chen
Developing facile and robust technologies for effective enrichment of uranium from the seawater is of great significance for resource sustainability and environmental safety. By exploiting the mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) chemistry, diverse types of PDA-functionalized sorbents including magnetic nanoparticle (MNP), ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) and glass fiber carpet (GFC) were synthesized. The PDA functional layers with abundant catechol and amine/imine groups provided an excellent platform for the binding to uranium...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327976/minion%C3%A2-nanopore-sequencing-of-environmental-metagenomes-a-synthetic-approach
#7
Bonnie L Brown, Mick Watson, Samuel S Minot, Maria C Rivera, Rima B Franklin
Background: Environmental metagenomic analysis is typically accomplished by assigning taxonomy and/or function from whole genome sequencing (WGS) or 16S amplicon sequences. Both of these approaches are limited, however, by read length, among other technical and biological factors. A nanopore-based sequencing platform, MinION™, produces reads that are ≥1×10 4 bp in length, potentially providing for more precise assignment, thereby alleviating some of the limitations inherent in determining metagenome composition from short reads...
February 24, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326088/temperature-effects-on-biomass-and-regeneration-of-vegetation-in-a-geothermal-area
#8
Abdul Nishar, Martin K-F Bader, Eoin J O'Gorman, Jieyu Deng, Barbara Breen, Sebastian Leuzinger
Understanding the effects of increasing temperature is central in explaining the effects of climate change on vegetation. Here, we investigate how warming affects vegetation regeneration and root biomass and if there is an interactive effect of warming with other environmental variables. We also examine if geothermal warming effects on vegetation regeneration and root biomass can be used in climate change experiments. Monitoring plots were arranged in a grid across the study area to cover a range of soil temperatures...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322497/single-molecule-force-spectroscopy-to-compare-natural-versus-artificial-antibody-antigen-interaction
#9
Congzhou Wang, Rong Hu, Jeremiah J Morrissey, Evan D Kharasch, Srikanth Singamaneni
Biorecognition is central to various biological processes and finds numerous applications in virtually all areas of chemistry, biology, and medicine. Artificial antibodies, produced by imprinting synthetic polymers, are designed to mimic the biological recognition capability of natural antibodies, while exhibiting superior thermal, chemical, and environmental stability compared to their natural counterparts. The binding affinity of the artificial antibodies to their antigens characterizes the biorecognition ability of these synthetic nanoconstructs and their ability to replace natural recognition elements...
March 21, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319738/mobility-and-phytoavailability-of-as-and-pb-in-a-contaminated-soil-using-pine-sawdust-biochar-under-systematic-change-of-redox-conditions
#10
Jingzi Beiyuan, Yasser M Awad, Felix Beckers, Daniel C W Tsang, Yong Sik Ok, Jörg Rinklebe
Biochar has been adopted to control the mobility and phytoavailability of trace elements (TEs) in soils. To date, no attempt has been made to determine the mobility and phytoavailability of arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) in a contaminated soil with biochars as amendments under predefined redox potentials (EH). Thus, in this study, a soil contaminated with As and Pb (2047 and 1677 mg kg(-1), respectively) was pre-incubated for 105 days with three amendments (pine sawdust biomass (BM) and two biochars produced from the same feedstock at 300 °C (BC300) and 550 °C (BC550))...
March 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314133/effect-of-wheat-maize-straw-return-on-the-fate-of-nitrate-in-groundwater-in-the-huaihe-river-basin-china
#11
Rongfu Li, Xiaohong Ruan, Ying Bai, Tianhai Ma, Congqiang Liu
Straw return is becoming a routine practice in disposing of crop residues worldwide. However, the potential effect of such operation on the chemistry of local groundwater is not well documented. Here, shallow groundwater in an area where wheat-maize straw return is practiced was analyzed, and the seasonal changes in the nitrate concentration and the isotope compositions of NO3(-) and H2O were determined along two flow paths. Measured δD and δ(18)O in waters indicated that the groundwater was mainly recharged by atmospheric precipitation, while measured δ(15)N and δ(18)O in nitrate suggested that the sources for groundwater NO3(-) included urea fertilizer, soil nitrogen, and sewage/manure...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304412/catalysis-for-fuels-concluding-remarks
#12
P Gibson
The 2017 Faraday Discussion on the topic of "Catalysis for Fuels" was unique in the sense that it was the first Faraday Discussion to be held on the continent of Africa. "Catalysis" and "Fuels" are both topics that could be widely interpreted and the session topics proved to be a relevant spread of old and new i.e. Fischer-Tropsch chemistry, biomass refining, zeolite conversions and photocatalysis. Most of the papers were underpinned by fundamental studies, catalyst design approaches, reports of in operando characterization and detailed speciation and micro kinetic analyses...
March 17, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304113/partitioning-of-nanoparticle-originated-dissolved-silver-in-natural-and-artificial-sediments
#13
Juho E Rajala, Eeva-Riikka Vehniäinen, Ari Väisänen, Jussi V K Kukkonen
Sediments are believed to be a major sink for the silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in the aquatic environment, but there is a lack of knowledge about the environmental effects and behaviour of AgNP in sediments. The release of highly toxic Ag(+) through dissolution of AgNP is one mechanism leading to toxic effects in sediments. We applied an ultrasound-assisted sequential extraction method to evaluate the dissolution of AgNP and to study the partitioning of dissolved Ag in sediments. Ag was spiked into artificial (AS) and 2 natural sediments (HS, KS) as silver nitrate (AgNO3 ), uncoated AgNP (uc-AgNP), or polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNP (PVP-AgNP)...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303147/interactive-effects-of-uv-b-light-with-abiotic-factors-on-plant-growth-and-chemistry-and-their-consequences-for-defense-against-arthropod-herbivores
#14
REVIEW
Rocio Escobar-Bravo, Peter G L Klinkhamer, Kirsten A Leiss
Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light plays a crucial role in plant-herbivorous arthropods interactions by inducing changes in constitutive and inducible plant defenses. In particular, constitutive defenses can be modulated by UV-B-induced photomorphogenic responses and changes in the plant metabolome. In accordance, the prospective use of UV-B light as a tool to increase plant protection in agricultural practice has gained increasing interest. Changes in the environmental conditions might, however, modulate the UV-B -induced plant responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301935/when-does-organic-chemistry-follow-nature-s-lead-and-make-the-switch
#15
Bruce H Lipshutz
The case is made for transitioning organic chemistry from a developed discipline that remains highly dependent upon organic solvents to one that will be sustainable, based on water as the reaction medium. Processes in hand that today achieve the same bond constructions characteristic of traditional organic synthesis, but can be accomplished under environmentally responsible conditions, are discussed as representative of the potential that lies ahead.
March 17, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301814/engineered-nano-particles-nature-behavior-and-effect-on-the-environment
#16
REVIEW
Linee Goswami, Ki-Hyun Kim, Akash Deep, Pallabi Das, Satya Sundar Bhattacharya, Sandeep Kumar, Adedeji A Adelodun
Increased application of engineered nano particles (ENPs) in production of various appliances and consumer items is increasing their presence in the natural environment. Although a wide variety of nano particles (NPs) are ubiquitously dispersed in ecosystems, risk assessment guidelines to describe their ageing, direct exposure, and long-term accumulation characteristics are poorly developed. In this review, we describe what is known about the life cycle of ENPs and their impact on natural systems and examine if there is a cohesive relationship between their transformation processes and bio-accessibility in various food chains...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301759/ice-surfaces
#17
Mary Jane Shultz
Ice is a fundamental solid with important environmental, biological, geological, and extraterrestrial impact. The stable form of ice at atmospheric pressure is hexagonal ice, Ih Despite its prevalence, Ih remains an enigmatic solid, in part due to challenges in preparing samples for fundamental studies. Surfaces of ice present even greater challenges. Recently developed methods for preparation of large single-crystal samples make it possible to reproducibly prepare any chosen face to address numerous fundamental questions...
March 15, 2017: Annual Review of Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301728/coupling-front-end-separations-ion-mobility-spectrometry-and-mass-spectrometry-for-enhanced-multidimensional-biological-and-environmental-analyses
#18
Xueyun Zheng, Roza Wojcik, Xing Zhang, Yehia M Ibrahim, Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Daniel J Orton, Matthew E Monroe, Ronald J Moore, Richard D Smith, Erin S Baker
Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a widely used analytical technique for rapid molecular separations in the gas phase. Though IMS alone is useful, its coupling with mass spectrometry (MS) and front-end separations is extremely beneficial for increasing measurement sensitivity, peak capacity of complex mixtures, and the scope of molecular information available from biological and environmental sample analyses. In fact, multiple disease screening and environmental evaluations have illustrated that the IMS-based multidimensional separations extract information that cannot be acquired with each technique individually...
February 23, 2017: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298908/serpentinization-influenced-groundwater-harbors-extremely-low-diversity-microbial-communities-adapted-to-high-ph
#19
Katrina I Twing, William J Brazelton, Michael D Y Kubo, Alex J Hyer, Dawn Cardace, Tori M Hoehler, Tom M McCollom, Matthew O Schrenk
Serpentinization is a widespread geochemical process associated with aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks that produces abundant reductants (H2 and CH4) for life to exploit, but also potentially challenging conditions, including high pH, limited availability of terminal electron acceptors, and low concentrations of inorganic carbon. As a consequence, past studies of serpentinites have reported low cellular abundances and limited microbial diversity. Establishment of the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (California, U...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296133/iron-based-electrodes-meet-water-based-preparation-fluorine-free-electrolyte-and-binder-a-chance-for-more-sustainable-li-ion-batteries
#20
Mario Valvo, Anti Liivat, Henrik Eriksson, Cheuk-Wai Tai, Kristina Edström
Environmentally friendly and cost-effective Li-ion cells are fabricated with abundant, non-toxic LiFePO4 cathodes and Fe oxide anodes. A water-soluble alginate binder is used for coating both electrodes to reduce the environmental footprint. Critical reactivity of LiPF6-based electrolytes toward possible H2O traces in water-processed electrodes is overcome by using a LiBOB salt. The absence of fluorine in both electrolyte and binder is a cornerstone for improved cell chemistry and is demonstrated to result in stable battery operation...
March 10, 2017: ChemSusChem
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