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Environmental chemistry

Niloofar Eslahi, Marjan Abdorahim, Abdolreza Arash Simchi
Stimuli responsive hydrogels (SRHs) are attractive bio-scaffolds for tissue engineering. The structural similarity of SRHs to the extracellular matrix (ECM) of many tissues offers great advantages for a minimally invasive tissue repair. Among various potential applications of SRHs, cartilage regeneration has attracted significant attention. The repair of cartilage damage is challenging in orthopedics owing to its low repair capacity. Recent advances include development of injectable hydrogels to minimize invasive surgery with nanostructured features and rapid stimuli-responsive characteristics...
October 24, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Ching-Yen Tang, Richard T Haasch, Shen J Dillon
The complex nature of Li-ion battery reactions along with their sensitivity to environmental exposure necessitates in situ characterization, particularly for surface sensitive methods. In this work, we demonstrate in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ Auger electron spectroscopy applied to characterize the evolution of bonding and chemistry during cycling of nanoparticle electrodes. We apply the method to study the conversion reaction associated with Li insertion and extraction from CuO nanoparticle electrodes...
October 24, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Alejandra Prieto-Davó, Tiago Dias, Sofia E Gomes, Sara Rodrigues, Yessica Parera-Valadez, Pedro M Borralho, Florbela Pereira, Cecilia M P Rodrigues, Ilda Santos-Sanches, Susana P Gaudêncio
Marine-derived actinomycetes have demonstrated an ability to produce novel compounds with medically relevant biological activity. Studying the diversity and biogeographical patterns of marine actinomycetes offers an opportunity to identify genera that are under environmental pressures, which may drive adaptations that yield specific biosynthetic capabilities. The present study describes research efforts to explore regions of the Atlantic Ocean, specifically around the Madeira Archipelago, where knowledge of the indigenous actinomycete diversity is scarce...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yu-Huei Peng, Yi-Chun Tsai, Chia-En Hsiung, Yi-Hsuan Lin, Yang-Hsin Shih
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are widely used nanomaterials and their environmental impacts have received increasing attention. The fate and toxicity of ZnO NPs in the environment are determined by their stability and dissolution. In this study, the influence of water chemistry on aggregation, sedimentation, and dissolution of ZnO NPs was investigated. The stabilized ZnO NPs aggregated and precipitated when the aqueous pH closed to their zero point of charge (pHzpc). Counter-ions neutralized the surface charge of NPs and promoted their destabilization...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Farid Chemat, Natacha Rombaut, Anne-Gaëlle Sicaire, Alice Meullemiestre, Anne-Sylvie Fabiano-Tixier, Maryline Abert-Vian
This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in food ingredients and products, nutraceutics, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and bioenergy applications. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about extraction by ultrasound, the techniques and their combinations, the mechanisms (fragmentation, erosion, capillarity, detexturation, and sonoporation), applications from laboratory to industry, security, and environmental impacts. In addition, the ultrasound extraction procedures and the important parameters influencing its performance are also included, together with the advantages and the drawbacks of each UAE techniques...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Awais Shakoor, Muhammad Abdullah, Balal Yousaf, Amina, Youhua Ma
Nitric oxide (NO) is an intra- and intercellular gaseous signaling molecule with a broad spectrum of regulatory functions in biological system. Its emissions are produced by both natural and anthropogenic sources; however, soils are among the most important sources of NO. Nitric oxide plays a decisive role in environmental-atmospheric chemistry by controlling the tropospheric photochemical production of ozone and regulates formation of various oxidizing agents such as hydroxyl radical (OH), which contributes to the formation of acid of precipitates...
October 22, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Cristiane Ávila Santana, Dinorah Machado Vaz Lima, Luis Humberto da Cunha Andrade, Yzel Rondon Súarez, Sandro Marcio Lima
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluorescence of Astyanax lacustris fish scales when excited in the UV-A and blue regions for use as a bioindicator of aquatic ecosystems. This species was firstly defined as Astyanax altiparanae, popularly known as "lambari-do-rabo-amarelo". Currently, abiotic/biotic environmental integrity is generally assessed using limnological and physicochemical parameters related to biological indicators in streams or rivers, which are not sufficient to evaluate the real environmental conditions: in some cases, these parameters can be strongly dependent on local weather conditions...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Meng Li Liu, Bin Bin Chen, Ze Xi Liu, Cheng Zhi Huang
Though many methods of detecting 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) mainly have been developed recent years, quantification of TNP in environmental matrixes still faces up to great challenges because all the nitroaromatic explosives reveal highly similar chemical structure. In the present work, we have developed a selective and sensitive method for detection of TNP by amorphous photoluminescent carbon nanodots (CNDs), which are prepared through a simple hydrothermal route using spermine and m-phenylenediamine (MPD) as precursors...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Yanhong Ma, Ziang Zhang, Yueling Xu, Ming Ma, Bo Chen, Lin Wei, Lehui Xiao
In this work, we demonstrated a convenient and green strategy for the synthesis of bright and water-soluble carbon dots (CDs) by carbonizing sodium citrate and glutathione together in a hydrothermal method for the first time. Without post surface modification, the as-synthesized CDs display fluorescence quantum yield (QY) as high as 21.03% and show superior stability not only in concentrated salt solutions but also in neutral and alkaline media. The probe exhibits selective and sensitive recognition capability towards mercury ion (Hg(2+)) in aqueous solution...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Elena Benito-Peña, Mayra Granda Valdés, Bettina Glahn-Martínez, Maria C Moreno-Bondi
The application of optical biosensors, specifically those that use optical fibers and planar waveguides, has escalated throughout the years in many fields, including environmental analysis, food safety and clinical diagnosis. Fluorescence is, without doubt, the most popular transducer signal used in these devices because of its higher selectivity and sensitivity, but most of all due to its wide versatility. This paper focuses on the working principles and configurations of fluorescence-based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors and will review biological recognition elements, sensing schemes, as well as some major and recent applications, published in the last ten years...
November 2, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Margaret E Hunter, Robert M Dorazio, John S S Butterfield, Gaia Meigs-Friend, Leo G Nico, Jason A Ferrante
A set of universal guidelines is needed to determine the limit of detection (LOD) in PCR-based analyses of low concentration DNA. In particular, environmental DNA (eDNA) studies require sensitive and reliable methods to detect rare and cryptic species through shed genetic material in environmental samples. Current strategies for assessing detection limits of eDNA are either too stringent or subjective, possibly resulting in biased estimates of species' presence. Here, a conservative LOD analysis grounded in analytical chemistry is proposed to correct for overestimated DNA concentrations predominantly caused by the concentration plateau, a nonlinear relationship between expected and measured DNA concentrations...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
David A Selck, Rustem F Ismagilov
Nucleic acid amplification tests that are coupled with a digital readout enable the absolute quantification of single molecules, even at ultralow concentrations. Digital methods are robust, versatile and compatible with many amplification chemistries including isothermal amplification, making them particularly invaluable to assays that require sensitive detection, such as the quantification of viral load in occult infections or detection of sparse amounts of DNA from forensic samples. A number of microfluidic platforms are being developed for carrying out digital amplification...
2016: PloS One
Rebecca DeVries, David Kriebel, Susan Sama
BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contribute greatly to increased morbidity, mortality and diminished quality of life. Recent studies report moderately strong positive associations between exposures to several air pollutants and COPD-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions (HA). Studies that use clinically defined exacerbations rather than counting ED visits and HA may be more sensitive to environmental triggers like air pollution, but very few such studies exist...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Inge Werner, Annette Aldrich, Benjamin Becker, Dennis Becker, Markus Brinkmann, Michael Burkhardt, Norbert Caspers, Sophie Campiche, Nathalie Chèvre, Rolf-Alexander Düring, Beate I Escher, Fabian Fischer, Sabrina Giebner, Katharina Heye, Henner Hollert, Marion Junghans, Cornelia Kienle, Katja Knauer, Muris Korkaric, Veronika Märkl, Jane Muncke, Jörg Oehlmann, Georg Reifferscheid, Daniel Rensch, Andreas Schäffer, Sabrina Schiwy, Simon Schwarz, Helmut Segner, Eszter Simon, Rita Triebskorn, Etiënne L M Vermeirssen, Thomas Wintgens, Markus Zennegg
This report provides a brief review of the 20th annual meeting of the German Language Branch of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC GLB) held from September 7th to 10th 2015 at ETH (Swiss Technical University) in Zurich, Switzerland. The event was chaired by Inge Werner, Director of the Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology (Ecotox Centre) Eawag-EPFL, and organized by a team from Ecotox Centre, Eawag, Federal Office of the Environment, Federal Office of Agriculture, and Mesocosm GmbH (Germany)...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Klaus Peter Ebke, Jan Ahlers, Thomas Braunbeck, Jörg Oehlmann, Toni Ratte, Ralf B Schäfer, Adolf Eisenträger, Andreas Schäffer
This article gives a comprehensive overview on the strategy, the development and the progress of the German postgraduate degree program in ecotoxicology (SETAC GLB and GDCh). The program soon prompted positive results: more than 10 years now the courses had an average enrolment rate of 90 %, and employment-seeking graduates from the first courses mostly succeeded in quickly finding employment relevant to their training. With over 450 students enrolled to date, the degree program contributes significantly to the field of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Erin Jo Tiedeken, Alexandre Tahar, Brendan McHugh, Neil J Rowan
Pollution of European receiving waters with contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), such as with 17-beta-estradiol (a natural estrogenic hormone, E2), along with pharmaceutically-active compounds diclofenac (an anti-inflammatory drug, DCL) and 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol (a synthetic estrogenic hormone, EE2)) is a ubiquitous phenomenon. These three CECs were added to the EU watch list of emerging substances to be monitoring in 2013, which was updated in 2015 to comprise 10 substances/groups of substances in the field of water policy...
October 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Ximena Fadic, Fabián Placencia, Ana María Domínguez, Francisco Cereceda-Balic
There is a current tendency to develop and apply environmentally friendly techniques that meet the requirements of green analytical chemistry as an alternative to conventional analytical methods. For toxicity evaluation, these alternatives may be found in bioassays such as Tradescantia. This technique, developed in the 1980s, is highly sensitive to evaluate environmental mutagens, simple and cheap. In this paper, the sensibility of both the Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and the Tradescantia stamen hair bioassay (Trad-SH) were studied for carbaryl, dimethoate and iprodione, common agricultural and domestic pesticides that are currently used in Chile, which have never been tested with such bioassays...
October 10, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Yu-Mei Wu, Zhi-Wei Wang, Chang-Ying Hu, Cristina Nerín
Antimicrobial packaging materials (films or coatings) (APMs) have aroused great interest among the scientists or the experts specialized in material science, food science, packaging engineering, biology and chemistry. APMs have been used to package the food such as dairy products, poultry, meat (e.g. beef), salmon muscle, pastry dough, fresh pasta, bakery products, fruits, vegetables and beverages. Some materials have been already commercialized. The ability of APMs to extend the shelf-life of the food depends on the release rate of the antimicrobials (AMs) from the materials to the food...
October 13, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Yingna Xing, Xijuan Chen, Xin Chen, Jie Zhuang
Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) enter soils through reclaimed water irrigation and biosolid land applications. Colloids, such as clays, that are present in soil may interact with PPCPs and thus affect their fate and transport in the subsurface environment. This study addresses the influence of soil colloids on the sorption and transport behaviors of PPCPs through laboratory column experiments. Results show that the affinities of PPCPs for colloids vary with their molecular chemistry and solution ionic strength...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jenna L Shelton, Denise M Akob, Jennifer C McIntosh, Noah Fierer, John R Spear, Peter D Warwick, John E McCray
Stimulating in situ microbial communities in oil reservoirs to produce natural gas is a potentially viable strategy for recovering additional fossil fuel resources following traditional recovery operations. Little is known about what geochemical parameters drive microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs. We investigated if microbial community structure was significantly impacted by the extent of crude oil biodegradation, extent of biogenic methane production, and formation water chemistry...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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