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Environmental chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153876/real-time-evaluation-of-natural-organic-matter-deposition-processes-onto-model-environmental-surfaces
#1
Wenlu Li, Peng Liao, Trey Oldham, Yi Jiang, Chao Pan, Songhu Yuan, John D Fortner
Natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous in aqueous systems and dynamically partitions onto/from environmental surfaces. However, such interfacial processes have not been uniformly quantified in situ and in real time. In this work, adsorption and deposition processes of Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) and Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA), as model NOM, were evaluated for a series of environmentally relevant interfaces. Real-time, interfacial phenomenon, including deposition, release, and adlayer viscoelastic properties, were quantified over a variety of water chemistries via quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D)...
November 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149739/removal-of-tio2-nanoparticles-from-water-by-low-pressure-pilot-plant-filtration
#2
Josune Olabarrieta, Oihane Monzón, Yolanda Belaustegui, Jon-Iñaki Alvarez, Saioa Zorita
Rising use of nanoparticles in manufacturing as well as in commercial products bring issues related to environmental release and human exposure. A large amount of TiO2 nanoparticles will eventually reach wastewater treatment plants. Low pressure membrane filtration has been suggested as a feasible treatment of water streams. This study investigated first at laboratory scale the influence of: i) membrane material, ii) pore size and iii) water chemistry on nTiO2 removal. TiO2 retention was governed by the cake layer formation mechanism and significant retention of nanoparticles was observed even for filters having considerably larger pores than nTiO2...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148773/in-situ-nondestructive-analysis-of-kalanchoe-pinnata-leaf-surface-structure-by-polarization-modulation-infrared-reflection-absorption-spectroscopy
#3
Tetsuya Hama, Akira Kouchi, Naoki Watanabe, Shinichi Enami, Takafumi Shimoaka, Takeshi Hasegawa
The outermost surface of the leaves of land plants is covered with a lipid membrane called the cuticle that protects against various stress factors. Probing the molecular-level structure of the intact cuticle is highly desirable for understanding its multifunctional properties. We report the in situ characterization of the surface structure of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves using polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Without sample pretreatment, PM-IRRAS measures the IR spectra of the leaf cuticle of a potted K...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148746/keto-enol-tautomerization-triggers-an-electrophilic-aldehyde-deformylation-reaction-by-a-nonheme-manganese-iii-peroxo-complex
#4
Fabián G Cantú Reinhard, Prasenjit Barman, Gourab Mukherjee, Jitendra Kumar, Deep Kumar, Devesh Kumar, Chivukula V Sastri, Sam P de Visser
Oxygen atom transfer by high-valent enzymatic intermediates remains an enigma in chemical catalysis. In particular, manganese is an important first-row metal involved in key biochemical processes including the biosynthesis of mo-lecular oxygen (through the photosystem II complex) and biodegradation of toxic superoxide to hydrogen peroxide by superoxide dismutase. Biomimetic models of these biological systems have been developed to gain understanding on the structure and properties of short-lived intermediates but also with the aim to create environmentally benign oxidants...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145130/photophysical-and-photochemical-insights-into-the-photodegradation-of-sulfapyridine-in-water-a-joint-experimental-and-theoretical-study
#5
Heming Zhang, Xiaoxuan Wei, Xuedan Song, Shaheen Shah, Jingwen Chen, Jianhui Liu, Ce Hao, Zhongfang Chen
For organic pollutants, photodegradation, as a major abiotic elimination process and of great importance to the environmental fate and risk, involves rather complicated physical and chemical processes of excited molecules. Herein, we systematically studied the photophysical and photochemical processes of a widely used antibiotic, namely sulfapyridine. By means of density functional theory (DFT) computations, we examined the rate constants and the competition of both photophysical and photochemical processes, elucidated the photochemical reaction mechanism, calculated reaction quantum yield (Φ) based on both photophysical and photochemical processes, and subsequently estimated the photodegradation rate constant...
October 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138215/physiology-undergraduate-degree-requirements-in-the-u-s
#6
Valerie S VanRyn, James M Poteracki, Erica A Wehrwein
Course-level learning objectives and core concepts for undergraduate physiology teaching exist. The next step is to consider how these resources fit into generalizable program-level guidelines for Bachelor of Science (BS) degrees in Physiology. In the absence of program-level guidelines for Physiology degree programs, we compiled a selective internal report to review degree requirements from 18 peer BS programs entitled "Physiology" in the United States (U.S.). There was a range of zero to three required semesters of math, physics, physics laboratory, general biology, biology laboratory, general chemistry, chemistry laboratory, organic chemistry, organic chemistry laboratory, biochemistry, biochemistry laboratory, anatomy, anatomy laboratory, core systems physiology, and physiology laboratory...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135239/advances-in-sulfidation-of-zerovalent-iron-for-water-decontamination
#7
Jinxiang Li, Xueying Zhang, Yuankui Sun, Liping Liang, Bing-Cai Pan, Weiming Zhang, Xiaohong Guan
Sulfidation has gained increasing interest in recent years for improving the sequestration of contaminants by zerovalent iron (ZVI). In view of the bright prospects of the sulfidated ZVI (S-ZVI), this review comprehensively summarized the latest developments in sulfidation of ZVI, particularly that of nanoscale ZVI (S-nZVI). The milestones in development of S-ZVI technology including its background, enlightenment, synthesis, characterization, water remediation and treatment, etc., are summarized. Under most circumstances, sulfidation can enhance the sequestration of various organic compounds and metal(loid)s by ZVI to various extents...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134262/evaluating-use-of-environmental-flows-to-aerate-streams-by-modelling-the-counterfactual-case
#8
Michael J Stewardson, Dominic Skinner
This paper evaluates an experimental environmental flow manipulation by modeling the counterfactual case that no environmental flow was applied. This is an alternate approach to evaluating the effect of an environmental flow intervention when a before-after or control-impact comparison is not possible. In this case, the flow manipulation is a minimum flow designed to prevent hypoxia in a weir on the low-gradient Broken Creek in south-eastern Australia. At low flows, low reaeration rates and high respiration rates associated with elevated organic matter loading in the weir pool can lead to a decline in dissolved oxygen concentrations with adverse consequences both for water chemistry and aquatic biota...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129286/global-change-effects-on-plant-insect-interactions-the-role-of-phytochemistry
#9
REVIEW
Mary A Jamieson, Laura A Burkle, Jessamyn S Manson, Justin B Runyon, Amy M Trowbridge, Joseph Zientek
Natural and managed ecosystems are undergoing rapid environmental change due to a growing human population and associated increases in industrial and agricultural activity. Global environmental change directly and indirectly impacts insect herbivores and pollinators. In this review, we highlight recent research examining how environmental change factors affect plant chemistry and, in turn, ecological interactions among plants, herbivores, and pollinators. Recent studies reveal the complex nature of understanding global change effects on plant secondary metabolites and plant-insect interactions...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124849/metaproteomics-reveals-major-microbial-players-and-their-metabolic-activities-during-the-blooming-period-of-a-marine-dinoflagellate-prorocentrum-donghaiense
#10
Dong-Xu Li, Hao Zhang, Xiao-Huang Chen, Zhang-Xian Xie, Yong Zhang, Shu-Feng Zhang, Lin Lin, Feng Chen, Da-Zhi Wang
Interactions between bacteria and phytoplankton during bloom events are essential for both partners, which impacts their physiology, alters ambient chemistry and shapes ecosystem diversity. Here, we investigated the community structure and metabolic activities of free-living bacterioplankton in different blooming phases of a dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense using a metaproteomic approach. The Fibrobacteres-Chlorobi-Bacteroidetes group, Rhodobacteraceae, SAR11 and SAR86 clades contributed largely to the bacterial community in the middle-blooming phase while the Pseudoalteromonadaceae exclusively dominated in the late-blooming phase...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123668/nanoehs-beyond-toxicity-focusing-on-biocorona
#11
Sijie Lin, Monika Mortimer, Ran Chen, Aleksandr Kakinen, Jim E Riviere, Thomas P Davis, Feng Ding, Pu Chun Ke
The first phase of environmental health and safety of nanomaterials (nanoEHS) studies has been mainly focused on evidence-based investigations that probe the impact of nanoparticles, nanomaterials and nano-enabled products on biological and ecological systems. The integration of multiple disciplines, including colloidal science, nanomaterial science, chemistry, toxicology/immunology and environmental science, is necessary to understand the implications of nanotechnology for both human health and the environment...
July 1, 2017: Environmental Science. Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113014/environmental-filtering-by-ph-and-soil-nutrients-drives-community-assembly-in-fungi-at-fine-spatial-scales
#12
Sydney I Glassman, Ian J Wang, Thomas D Bruns
Whether niche processes, like environmental filtering, or neutral processes, like dispersal limitation, are the primary forces driving community assembly is a central question in ecology. Here, we use a natural experimental system of isolated tree "islands" to test whether environment or geography primarily structures fungal community composition at fine spatial scales. This system consists of isolated pairs of two distantly-related, congeneric pine trees established at varying distances from each other and the forest edge, allowing us to disentangle the effects of geographic distance versus host and edaphic environment on associated fungal communities...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112806/water-analysis-emerging-contaminants-and-current-issues
#13
Susan D Richardson, Thomas A Ternes
This biennial review covers developments in water analysis for emerging environmental contaminants over the period of October 2015-October 2017. Analytical Chemistry's policy is to limit reviews to a maximum of ~250 significant references and to mainly focus on new trends. Therefore, only a small fraction of the quality research publications are discussed. The previous Water Analysis review (with Susana Kimura) was published in 2016.1 This year, Thomas Ternes has joined back again to cover the section on Pharmaceuticals and Hormones...
November 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112396/mechanism-of-rhodium-catalyzed-c-h-functionalization-advances-in-theoretical-investigation
#14
Xiaotian Qi, Yingzi Li, Ruopeng Bai, Yu Lan
Transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling has emerged as an effective strategy for chemical synthesis. Within this area, direct C-H bond transformation is one of the most efficient and environmentally friendly processes for the construction of new C-C or C-heteroatom bonds. Over the past decades, rhodium-catalyzed C-H functionalization has attracted considerable attention because of the versatility and wide use of rhodium catalysts in chemistry. A series of C-X (X = C, N, or O) bond formation reactions could be realized from corresponding C-H bonds using rhodium catalysts...
November 7, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110624/recent-advancements-in-organotin-iv-complexes-as-potential-anticancer-agents
#15
Jai Devi, Jyoti Yadav
Cancer is a multistep disease incorporating physical, chemical, environmental, metabolic and genetic factors, which play direct or indirect role in the induction and deterioration of cancer. Many of the platinum based drugs were synthesized but due to their systemic toxicity, broad spectrum of action, intrinsic and acquired drug resistivity, it has become necessary to search for the effective anticancer drugs with superior efficiency. Among non-platinum metal compounds with antitumor activity, organotin complexes have proven effective management of toxicity, specific targeted drug uptake by the cancerous cell line and significant potential in the pharmaceutical chemistry...
November 6, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105821/accurate-prediction-of-acute-fish-toxicity-of-fragrance-chemicals-with-the-rtgill-w1-cell-assay
#16
Andreas Natsch, Heike Laue, Tina Haupt, Valentin von Niederhäusern, Gordon Sanders
Testing for acute fish toxicity is an integral part of the environmental safety assessment of chemicals. A true replacement of primary fish tissue was recently proposed using cell viability in a fish gill cell line (RTgill-W1) as a means of predicting acute toxicity, showing good predictivity on 35 chemicals. To promote regulatory acceptance, the predictivity and applicability domain of novel tests need to be carefully evaluated on chemicals with existing high quality in vivo data. We applied the RTgill-W1 cell assay to 38 fragrance chemicals with a wide range of physico-chemical properties, a broad range of LC50 values and representing a diverse range of chemistries...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104922/an-outlook-on-lithium-ion-battery-technology
#17
REVIEW
Arumugam Manthiram
Lithium ion batteries as a power source are dominating in portable electronics, penetrating the electric vehicle market, and on the verge of entering the utility market for grid-energy storage. Depending on the application, trade-offs among the various performance parameters-energy, power, cycle life, cost, safety, and environmental impact-are often needed, which are linked to severe materials chemistry challenges. The current lithium ion battery technology is based on insertion-reaction electrodes and organic liquid electrolytes...
October 25, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103116/toward-new-benchmark-adsorbents-preparation-and-characterization-of-activated-carbon-from-argan-nut-shell-for-bisphenol-a-removal
#18
Mohamed Zbair, Kaisu Ainassaari, Asmaa Drif, Satu Ojala, Michael Bottlinger, Minna Pirilä, Riitta L Keiski, Mohammed Bensitel, Rachid Brahmi
The use of argan nut shell as a precursor for producing activated carbon was investigated in this work. Two activated carbons AC-HP and AC-Na were prepared from argan nut shell by chemical activation method using phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), respectively. Textural, morphological, and surface chemistry characteristics were studied by nitrogen physisorption, TGA, SEM, TXRF, FTIR, XRD, and by determining the pHPZC of the AC-HP. The adsorption experiments revealed that AC-HP was more efficient in adsorption of BPA due to high specific surface area (1372 m(2)/g) compared to AC-Na (798 m(2)/g)...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101857/interaction-transformation-and-toxicity-assessment-of-particles-and-additives-used-in-the-semiconducting-industry
#19
Eduard Dumitrescu, Dinusha P Karunaratne, S V Babu, Kenneth N Wallace, Silvana Andreescu
Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is a widely used technique for the manufacturing of integrated circuit chips in the semiconductor industry. The process generates large amounts of waste containing engineered particles, chemical additives, and chemo-mechanically removed compounds. The environmental and health effects associated with the release of CMP materials are largely unknown and have recently become of significant concern. Using a zebrafish embryo assay, we established toxicity profiles of individual CMP particle abrasives (SiO2 and CeO2), chemical additives (hydrogen peroxide, proline, glycine, nicotinic acid, and benzotriazole), as well as three model representative slurries and their resulting waste...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096700/persistence-impacts-and-environmental-drivers-of-covert-infections-in-invertebrate-hosts
#20
Inês Fontes, Hanna Hartikainen, Chris Williams, Beth Okamura
BACKGROUND: Persistent covert infections of the myxozoan, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, in primary invertebrate hosts (the freshwater bryozoan, Fredericella sultana) have been proposed to represent a reservoir for proliferative kidney disease in secondary fish hosts. However, we have limited understanding of how covert infections persist and vary in bryozoan populations over time and space and how they may impact these populations. In addition, previous studies have likely underestimated covert infection prevalence...
November 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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