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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356322/synthesis-and-characterization-of-biogenic-selenium-nanoparticles-with-antimicrobial-properties-made-by-staphylococcus-aureus-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-escherichia-coli-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#1
David Medina Cruz, Gujie Mi, Thomas J Webster
Antimicrobial resistance is a global concern that affects more than 2 million people each year. Therefore, new approaches to kill bacteria are needed. One of the most promising methodologies may come from metallic nanoparticles, since bacteria may not develop a resistance to these nanostructures as they do for antibiotics. While metallic nanoparticle synthesis methods have been well studied, they are often accompanied by significant drawbacks such as cost, extreme processing conditions and toxic waste production since they use harsh chemicals such as corrosive agents (hydrazine) or strong acids (hydrochloride acid)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356295/to-share-or-not-to-share%C3%A2-incentivizing-data-sharing-in-life-science-communities
#2
Louise Bezuidenhout
Most scientists recognize the importance of sharing data online in an open fashion. Nonetheless, many studies have documented the concerns that accompany data sharing activities, including loss of credit or IP, misuse and the time needed to curate interoperable data. To this end, discussions around data sharing often identify incentives that could potentially ameliorate these disincentivising concerns. Nonetheless, current Open Data discussions often rely on evidence-based studies to identify the disincentives to overcome...
January 22, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353485/identification-and-quantification-of-4-nitrocatechol-formed-from-oh-and-no3-radical-initiated-reactions-of-catechol-in-air-in-the-presence-of-nox-implications-for-secondary-organic-aerosol-formation-from-biomass-burning
#3
Zachary Finewax, Joost A de Gouw, Paul J Ziemann
Catechol (1,2-benzenediol) is emitted from biomass burning and produced from reaction of phenol with OH radicals. It has been suggested as an important secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursor, but the mechanisms of gas-phase oxidation and SOA formation have not been investigated in detail. In this study, catechol was reacted with OH and NO3 radicals in the presence of NOx in an environmental chamber to simulate daytime and nighttime chemistry. These reactions produced SOA with exceptionally high mass yields of 1...
January 22, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341852/emissions-of-organic-compounds-from-produced-water-ponds-ii-evaluation-of-flux-chamber-measurements-with-inverse-modeling-techniques
#4
Huy N Q Tran, Seth N Lyman, Marc L Mansfield, Trevor O'Neil, Richard L Bowers, Ann P Smith, Cara Keslar
In this study, we apply two different dispersion models to evaluate flux chamber measurements of emissions of 58 organic compounds, including C2-C11 hydrocarbons and methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol from oil and gas produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin. Field measurement campaigns using the flux chamber technique were performed at a limited number of produced water ponds in the Basin throughout 2013-2016. Inverse modeling results showed significantly higher emissions than were measured by the flux chamber...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332786/recent-advances-and-developments-on-integrating-nanotechnology-with-chemiluminescence-assays
#5
REVIEW
Ashish Tiwari, S J Dhoble
Chemiluminescence (CL) techniques are extensively utilized for detection of analytes due to their high sensitivity, rapidity and selectivity. With the advent of nanotechnology and incorporation of the nanoparticles in the CL system has revolutionized the assays due to their unique optical and mechanical properties. Several CL-based reactions have been developed where these nanoparticle based CL sensors have evolved as excellent prospects for sensing in various analytical applications. This review article addresses the nanoparticles based CL detection system that are recently developed, the mechanisms has been summarized and the role of luminophors have been discussed...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330538/flux-of-the-biogenic-volatiles-isoprene-and-dimethyl-sulfide-from-an-oligotrophic-lake
#6
Michael Steinke, Bettina Hodapp, Rameez Subhan, Thomas G Bell, Dominik Martin-Creuzburg
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) affect atmospheric chemistry, climate and regional air quality in terrestrial and marine atmospheres. Although isoprene is a major BVOC produced in vascular plants, and marine phototrophs release dimethyl sulfide (DMS), lakes have been widely ignored for their production. Here we demonstrate that oligotrophic Lake Constance, a model for north temperate deep lakes, emits both volatiles to the atmosphere. Depth profiles indicated that highest concentrations of isoprene and DMS were associated with the chlorophyll maximum, suggesting that their production is closely linked to phototrophic processes...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328542/towards-the-detection-of-explosive-taggants-microwave-and-millimetre-wave-gas-phase-spectroscopies-of-3-nitrotoluene
#7
Anthony Roucou, Isabelle Kleiner, Manuel Goubet, Sabath Bteich, Gaël Mouret, Robin Bocquet, Francis Hindle, W Leo Meerts, Arnaud Cuisset
The monitoring of gas phase mononitrotoluenes is crucial for defence, civil security and environmental interests since they are used as taggant for TNT detection and in the manufacturing of industrial compounds such as dyestuffs. In this study, we have succeeded to measure and analyse at high resolution a room temperature rotationally resolved millimeter-wave spectrum of meta-nitrotoluene(3-NT). Experimental and theoretical difficulties have been overcome, in particular, those related to the low vapour pressure of 3-NT and to the presence of a CH$_3$ internal rotation in an almost free rotation regime ($V_3$=6...
January 12, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322390/authentication-of-synthetic-environmental-contaminants-and-their-bio-transformation-products-in-toxicology-polychlorinated-biphenyls-as-an-example
#8
Xueshu Li, Erika B Holland, Wei Feng, Jing Zheng, Yao Dong, Isaac N Pessah, Michael W Duffel, Larry W Robertson, Hans-Joachim Lehmler
Toxicological studies use "specialty chemicals" and, thus, should assess and report both identity and degree of purity (homogeneity) of the chemicals (or toxicants) under investigation to ensure that other scientists can replicate experimental results. Although detailed reporting criteria for the synthesis and characterization of organic compounds have been established by organic chemistry journals, such criteria are inconsistently applied to the chemicals used in toxicological studies. Biologically active trace impurities may lead to incorrect conclusions about the chemical entity responsible for a biological response, which in turn may confound risk assessment...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315312/taking-the-metabolic-pulse-of-the-world-s-coral-reefs
#9
Tyler Cyronak, Andreas J Andersson, Chris Langdon, Rebecca Albright, Nicholas R Bates, Ken Caldeira, Renee Carlton, Jorge E Corredor, Rob B Dunbar, Ian Enochs, Jonathan Erez, Bradley D Eyre, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Dwight Gledhill, Hajime Kayanne, David I Kline, David A Koweek, Coulson Lantz, Boaz Lazar, Derek Manzello, Ashly McMahon, Melissa Meléndez, Heather N Page, Isaac R Santos, Kai G Schulz, Emily Shaw, Jacob Silverman, Atsushi Suzuki, Lida Teneva, Atsushi Watanabe, Shoji Yamamoto
Worldwide, coral reef ecosystems are experiencing increasing pressure from a variety of anthropogenic perturbations including ocean warming and acidification, increased sedimentation, eutrophication, and overfishing, which could shift reefs to a condition of net calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dissolution and erosion. Herein, we determine the net calcification potential and the relative balance of net organic carbon metabolism (net community production; NCP) and net inorganic carbon metabolism (net community calcification; NCC) within 23 coral reef locations across the globe...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314832/oligonucleotide-peptide-complexes-phase-control-by-hybridization
#10
Jeffrey R Vieregg, Michael Lueckheide, Amanda Brittany Marciel, Lorraine Leon, Alex J Bologna, Josean Reyes Rivera, Matthew V Tirrell
When oppositely-charged polymers are mixed, counterion release drives phase separation; understanding this process is a key unsolved problem in polymer science and biophysical chemistry, particularly for nucleic acids, polyanions whose biological functions are intimately related to their high charge density. In the cell, complexation by basic proteins condenses DNA into chromatin, and membraneless organelles formed by liquid-liquid phase separation of RNA and proteins perform vital functions and have been linked to disease...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310220/low-cost-and-reagent-free-paper-based-device-to-detect-chloride-ions-in-serum-and-sweat
#11
Stefano Cinti, Luca Fiore, Renato Massoud, Claudio Cortese, Danila Moscone, Giuseppe Palleschi, Fabiana Arduini
The recent goal of sustainability in analytical chemistry has boosted the development of eco-designed analytical tools to deliver fast and cost-effective analysis with low economic and environmental impact. Due to the recent focus in sustainability, we report the use of low-cost filter paper as a sustainable material to print silver electrodes and to load reagents for a reagent-free electrochemical detection of chloride in biological samples, namely serum and sweat. The electrochemical detection of chloride ions was carried out by exploiting the reaction of the analyte (i...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309726/design-of-pickering-micro-and-nanoemulsions-based-on-the-structural-characteristics-of-nanocelluloses
#12
Clara Jiménez Saelices, Isabelle Capron
The development of biobased materials with lower environmental impact has seen an increased interest these last years. In this area, nanocelluloses have shown a particular interest in research and industries. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) are both known to stabilize oil-water interface forming the so-called Pickering emulsions which are surfactant-free, highly stable emulsions armored by a layer of solid particles. This work describes the emulsion's characteristics and properties according to particle sizes, shape and surface chemistry in order to produce controlled micro- and nano-emulsions stabilized by nanocelluloses...
January 8, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304844/the-uae-healthy-future-study-a-pilot-for-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-20-000-united-arab-emirates-nationals
#13
Abdishakur Abdulle, Abdullah Alnaeemi, Abdullah Aljunaibi, Abdulrahman Al Ali, Khaled Al Saedi, Eiman Al Zaabi, Naima Oumeziane, Marina Al Bastaki, Mohammed Al-Houqani, Fatma Al Maskari, Ayesha Al Dhaheri, Syed M Shah, Tom Loney, Mohamed El-Sadig, Abderrahim Oulhaj, Leila Abdel Wareth, Wael Al Mahmeed, Habiba Alsafar, Benjamin Hirsch, Fatme Al Anouti, Jamila Yaaqoub, Claire K Inman, Aisha Al Hamiz, Ayesha Al Hosani, Muna Haji, Teeb Alsharid, Thekra Al Zaabi, Fatima Al Maisary, Divya Galani, Tim Sprosen, Omar El Shahawy, Jiyoung Ahn, Tomas Kirchhoff, Ravichandran Ramasamy, Ann Marie Schmidt, Richard Hayes, Scott Sherman, Raghib Ali
BACKGROUND: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is faced with a rapidly increasing burden of non-communicable diseases including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The UAE Healthy Future study is a prospective cohort designed to identify associations between risk factors and these diseases amongst Emiratis. The study will enroll 20,000 UAE nationals aged ≥18 years. Environmental and genetic risk factors will be characterized and participants will be followed for future disease events...
January 5, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298093/the-search-for-hesperian-organic-matter-on-mars-pyrolysis-studies-of-sediments-rich-in-sulfur-and-iron
#14
James M T Lewis, Jens Najorka, Jonathan S Watson, Mark A Sephton
Jarosite on Mars is of significant geological and astrobiological interest, as it forms in acidic aqueous conditions that are potentially habitable for acidophilic organisms. Jarosite can provide environmental context and may host organic matter. The most common extraction technique used to search for organic compounds on the surface of Mars is pyrolysis. However, thermal decomposition of jarosite releases oxygen into pyrolysis ovens, which degrades organic signals. Jarosite has a close association with the iron oxyhydroxide goethite in many depositional/diagenetic environments...
January 3, 2018: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296020/linking-soil-biology-and-chemistry-in-biological-soil-crust-using-isolate-exometabolomics
#15
Tami L Swenson, Ulas Karaoz, Joel M Swenson, Benjamin P Bowen, Trent R Northen
Metagenomic sequencing provides a window into microbial community structure and metabolic potential; however, linking these data to exogenous metabolites that microorganisms process and produce (the exometabolome) remains challenging. Previously, we observed strong exometabolite niche partitioning among bacterial isolates from biological soil crust (biocrust). Here we examine native biocrust to determine if these patterns are reproduced in the environment. Overall, most soil metabolites display the expected relationship (positive or negative correlation) with four dominant bacteria following a wetting event and across biocrust developmental stages...
January 2, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295474/recent-advances-in-organocatalyzed-domino-c-c-bond-forming-reactions
#16
REVIEW
Cleo S Evans, Lindsey O Davis
Reactions that form a C-C bond make up a foundational pillar of synthetic organic chemistry. In addition, organocatalysis has emerged as an easy, environmentally-friendly way to promote this type of bond formation. Since around 2000, organocatalysts have been used in a variety of C-C bond-forming reactions including Michael and aldol additions, Mannich-type reactions, and Diels-Alder reactions, to name a few. Many of these methodologies have been refined and further developed to include cascade and domino processes...
December 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289816/electrochemical-sensor-and-biosensor-platforms-based-on-advanced-nanomaterials-for-biological-and-biomedical-applications
#17
REVIEW
Govindhan Maduraiveeran, Manickam Sasidharan, Vellaichamy Ganesan
Introduction of novel functional nanomaterials and analytical technologies signify a foremost possibility for the advance of electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms/devices for a broad series of applications including biological, biomedical, biotechnological, clinical and medical diagnostics, environmental and health monitoring, and food industries. The design of sensitive and selective electrochemical biological sensor platforms are accomplished conceivably by offering new surface modifications, microfabrication techniques, and diverse nanomaterials with unique properties for in vivo and in vitro medical analysis via relating a sensibly planned electrode/solution interface...
December 22, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289770/towards-a-better-understanding-of-long-term-wood-chemistry-variations-in-old-growth-forests-a-case-study-on-ancient-pinus-uncinata-trees-from-the-pyrenees
#18
Andrea Hevia, Raúl Sánchez-Salguero, J Julio Camarero, Allan Buras, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda, J Diego Galván, Emilia Gutiérrez
Dendrochemical studies in old forests are still underdeveloped. Old trees growing in remote high-elevation areas far from direct human influence constitute a promising biological proxy for the long-term reconstructions of environmental changes using tree-rings. Furthermore, centennial-long chronologies of multi-elemental chemistry at inter- and intra-annual resolution are scarce. Here, we use a novel non-destructive method by applying Micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) to wood samples of old Pinus uncinata trees from two Pyrenean high-elevation forests growing on acidic and basic soils...
December 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289252/innovation-in-biocatalysis-a-swiss-network-project-coordinated-by-the-competence-center-for-biocatalysis-ccbio
#19
Katrin Hecht
Biocatalysis - the application of enzymes or microbes in chemistry - has developed into one of the key technologies of the 21st century. Enzymes in isolated form, as a cell extract or whole cell biocatalysts can be used to replace or supplement purely chemical process routes with the goal to make chemical synthesis more efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable and potentially more cost-effective.
December 1, 2017: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288256/integrating-tools-for-non-targeted-analysis-research-and-chemical-safety-evaluations-at-the-us-epa
#20
REVIEW
Jon R Sobus, John F Wambaugh, Kristin K Isaacs, Antony J Williams, Andrew D McEachran, Ann M Richard, Christopher M Grulke, Elin M Ulrich, Julia E Rager, Mark J Strynar, Seth R Newton
Tens-of-thousands of chemicals are registered in the U.S. for use in countless processes and products. Recent evidence suggests that many of these chemicals are measureable in environmental and/or biological systems, indicating the potential for widespread exposures. Traditional public health research tools, including in vivo studies and targeted analytical chemistry methods, have been unable to meet the needs of screening programs designed to evaluate chemical safety. As such, new tools have been developed to enable rapid assessment of potentially harmful chemical exposures and their attendant biological responses...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
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