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Analytical chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231060/improving-quality-in-the-preanalytical-phase-through-innovation-on-behalf-of-the-european-federation-for-clinical-chemistry-and-laboratory-medicine-eflm-working-group-for-preanalytical-phase-wg-pre
#1
Giuseppe Lippi, Geoffrey S Baird, Giuseppe Banfi, Karin Bölenius, Janne Cadamuro, Stephen Church, Michael P Cornes, Anna Dacey, Antoine Guillon, Georg Hoffmann, Mads Nybo, Lakdasa Devananda Premawardhana, María Salinas, Sverre Sandberg, Robbert Slingerland, Ana Stankovic, Sylte Marit Sverresdotter, Pieter Vermeersch, Ana-Maria Simundic
It is now undeniable that laboratory testing is vital for the diagnosis, prognostication and therapeutic monitoring of human disease. Despite the many advances made for achieving a high degree of quality and safety in the analytical part of diagnostic testing, many hurdles in the total testing process remain, especially in the preanalytical phase ranging from test ordering to obtaining and managing the biological specimens. The Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (WG-PRE) of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) has planned many activities aimed at mitigating the vulnerability of the preanalytical phase, including the organization of three European meetings in the past 7 years...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228852/3d-printed-fluidics-with-embedded-analytic-functionality-for-automated-reaction-optimisation
#2
Andrew J Capel, Andrew Wright, Matthew J Harding, George W Weaver, Yuqi Li, Russell A Harris, Steve Edmondson, Ruth D Goodridge, Steven D R Christie
Additive manufacturing or '3D printing' is being developed as a novel manufacturing process for the production of bespoke micro- and milliscale fluidic devices. When coupled with online monitoring and optimisation software, this offers an advanced, customised method for performing automated chemical synthesis. This paper reports the use of two additive manufacturing processes, stereolithography and selective laser melting, to create multifunctional fluidic devices with embedded reaction monitoring capability...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228493/hepatitis-e-virus-detection-and-quantification-by-an-rt-qpcr-assay-calibrated-to-the-world-health-organization-standard-for-hev-rna
#3
Jeffrey J Germer, Irina Ankoudinova, Yevgeniy S Belousov, Walt Mahoney, Chen Dong, Jihong Meng, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Joseph D Yao
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as a cause of chronic hepatitis among immunocompromised patients. Molecular assays have become important tools for the diagnosis and management of these chronically-infected patients. A reverse transcription, real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) assay utilizing Pleiades probe chemistry and an RNA internal control for simultaneous detection and quantification of HEV RNA in human serum was developed based on adaptation of a previously described and broadly reactive primer set targeting the overlapping open reading frame (ORF) 2/3 nucleotide sequence of HEV...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220155/specificity-of-snp-detection-with-molecular-beacons-is-improved-by-stem-and-loop-separation-with-spacers
#4
Valentina M Farzan, Mikhail L Markelov, Alexander Yu Skoblov, German A Shipulin, Timofei S Zatsepin
Molecular beacons (MBs) are valuable tools in molecular biology, clinical diagnostics and analytical chemistry. Here we describe a novel approach for the design of MBs with nucleotide or non-nucleotide linkers between the stem and loop regions. Such modified MBs have significantly improved specificity and performance for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection. These advantages are especially distinct, when compared to the classic MBs, in the case of possible interactions between the stem and loop regions...
February 21, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213248/multi-reverse-flow-injection-analysis-integrated-with-multi-optical-sensor-for-simultaneous-determination-of-mn-ii-fe-ii-cu-ii-and-fe-iii-in-natural-waters
#5
Napaporn Youngvises, Kittigan Suwannasaroj, Jaroon Jakmunee, Awadh AlSuhaimi
Multi-reverse flow injection analysis (Mr-FIA) integrated with multi-optical sensor was developed and optimized for the simultaneous determination of multi ions; Mn(II), Fe(II), Cu(II) and Fe(III) in water samples. The sample/standard solutions were propelled making use of a four channels peristaltic pump whereas 4 colorimetric reagents specific for the metal ions were separately injected in sample streams using multi-syringe pump. The color zones that formed in the individual mixing coils were then streamed into multi-channels spectrometer, which comprised of four flows through cell and four pairs of light emitting diode and photodiode, whereby signals were measured concurrently...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211993/recent-lab-on-chip-developments-for-novel-drug-discovery
#6
REVIEW
Nauman Khalid, Isao Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Nakajima
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and micro total analysis systems (μTAS) revolutionized the biochemical and electronic industries, and this miniaturization process became a key driver for many markets. Now, it is a driving force for innovations in life sciences, diagnostics, analytical sciences, and chemistry, which are called 'lab-on-a-chip, (LOC)' devices. The use of these devices allows the development of fast, portable, and easy-to-use systems with a high level of functional integration for applications such as point-of-care diagnostics, forensics, the analysis of biomolecules, environmental or food analysis, and drug development...
February 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208285/determining-gender-by-raman-spectroscopy-of-a-bloodstain
#7
Aliaksandra Sikirzhytskaya, Vitali Sikirzhytski, Igor K Lednev
The development of novel methods for forensic science is a constantly growing area of modern analytical chemistry. Raman spectroscopy is one of a few analytical techniques capable of nondestructive and nearly instantaneous analysis of a wide variety of forensic evidence, including body fluid stains, at the scene of a crime. In this proof-of-concept study, Raman microspectroscopy was utilized for gender identification based on dry bloodstains. Raman spectra were acquired in mapping mode from multiple spots on a bloodstain to account for intrinsic sample heterogeneity...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208269/perspective-status-and-future-of-analytical-chemistry-in-india
#8
Krishna K Verma
Relative to many other areas in chemistry, analytical chemistry appears singularly lagging behind in India despite the commendable growth it had shown in the past both in teaching and research. Certain presumptions in policy making and current educational practices are believed to be the crux of the problem.
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207239/analyzing-dna-nanotechnology-a-call-to-arms-for-the-analytical-chemistry-community
#9
Divita Mathur, Igor L Medintz
In order to fully realize the potential of DNA nanotechnology, it is crucial to overcome the lack of robust analytical techniques that continue to hinder the purification and characterization of DNA-based structures. In this Feature, we provide a snapshot of the current state of metrological techniques in DNA nanotechnology and look forward to emerging technologies that may offer new ways to probe and visualize these complex structures.
February 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206878/use-of-carbon-nanotubes-for-the-analysis-of-pesticide-residues-in-fruits-and-vegetables
#10
Lukman Bola Abdulrauf, Guan Huat Tan
This review presents the application of carbon nanotubes as sorbent materials in the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. The advantages, limitations, and challenges of carbon nanotubes, with respect to their use in analytical chemistry, are presented. The efficiency of their application as extraction sorbent materials (in terms of LOD, LOQ, linearity, relative recovery, and RSD) in SPE, solid-phase microextraction, multi-plug filtration clean-up, matrix solid-phase dispersion, and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method is reported...
November 1, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205401/computer-aided-drug-design-to-explore-cyclodextrin-therapeutics-and-biomedical-applications
#11
Azizeh Abdolmaleki, Fatemeh Ghasemi, Jahan B Ghasemi
Cyclodextrin (CD) is a subset of the macrocyclic structural class, which is an important class of small organic agents that are useful functional excipients. They have wide range application possibilities in different fields of sciences such as material preparation, medicine, analytical chemistry, and separation processes. They are used widely in pharmaceutical formulations and drug delivery for increasing the water solubility of low soluble drugs and drug candidates. Due to the ring structure, they behave differently than smaller molecules and may be capable of hitting new classes of targets...
February 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199084/novel-cell-inorganic-hybrid-catalytic-interfaces-with-enhanced-enzymatic-activity-and-stability-for-sensitive-biosensing-of-paraoxon
#12
Lei Han, Aihua Liu
To improve the biosensing performance of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH), the novel bioinorganic hybrid catalysts were facilely explored by biomineralization and cell surface display technology. During biomineralization, cobalt phosphate crystals were deposited onto the surface of OPH-fused bacteria, and the inorganic crystals at middle of cell collapsed inwardly to form the final spindle morphology because of the lowest energy principle and the mechanics principle. OPH would show the allosteric effect from "inactive" form to "active" form, and the "active" form was "fixed" when OPH was embedded into cobalt phosphate...
February 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198057/c18-cooh-silica-preparation-characterisation-and-its-application-in-purification-of-quaternary-ammonium-alkaloids-from-coptis-chinensis
#13
Qing Wang, Yao Long, Lin Yao, Mao Ye, Li Xu
INTRODUCTION: Traditional methods for isolating and purifying quaternary ammonium alkaloids from Coptis chinensis do not discriminate the target alkaloids from co-extractives. Mixed-mode analytical chromatography has the potential to improve the separation of analytes in more complex extracts and, when used in a solid-phase extraction mode, improve the purity of isolated compounds. OBJECTIVE: To examine the high-performance liquid chromatographic separation capabilities of a mixed-mode, silica-based adsorbent and its application to the purification of quaternary ammonium alkaloids from Coptis chinensis based on solid-phase extraction...
February 15, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197928/enhanced-reactivity-in-nucleophilic-acyl-substitution-ion-ion-reactions-using-triazole-ester-reagents
#14
Jiexun Bu, Zhou Peng, Feifei Zhao, Scott A McLuckey
The acyl substitution reactions between 1-hydroxy-7-aza-benzotriazole (HOAt)/1-hydroxy-benzotriazole (HOBt) ester reagents and nucleophilic side chains on peptides have been demonstrated in the gas phase via ion/ion reactions. The HOAt/HOBt ester reagents were synthesized in solution and ionized via negative nano-electrospray ionization. The anionic reagents were then reacted with doubly protonated model peptides containing amines, guanidines, and imidazoles in the gas phase. The complexes formed in the reaction cell were further probed with ion trap collision induced dissociation (CID) yielding either a covalently modified analyte ion or a proton transfer product ion...
February 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193038/sheathless-focusing-and-separation-of-diverse-nanoparticles-in-viscoelastic-solutions-with-minimized-shear-thinning
#15
Chao Liu, Baoquan Ding, Chundong Xue, Yu Tian, Guoqing Hu, Jiashu Sun
Viscoelastic microfluidics becomes an efficient and label-free hydrodynamic technology to enrich and separate micrometer-scale particles, including blood cells, circulating tumor cells, and bacteria. However, the manipulation of nanoscale particles by viscoelastic microfluidics remains a major challenge, because the viscoelastic force acting on the smaller particle decreases dramatically. In contrast to the commonly used polymer solutions of high molecular weight, herein we utilize the aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) of low molecular weight with minimized shear thinning but sufficient elastic force for high-quality focusing and separation of various nanoparticles...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193002/organic-cyanide-decorated-sers-active-nanopipettes-for-quantitative-detection-of-hemeproteins-and-fe-3-in-single-cells
#16
Sumaira Hanif, Hailing Liu, Ming Chen, Pir Muhammad, Yue Zhou, Jiao Cao, Saud Asif Ahmed, Jingjuan Xu, Xinghua Xia, Hongyuan Chen, Kang Wang
It is challenging to develop a robust nanoprobe for real-time operational and accurate detection of heavy metals in single cells. Fe-CN coordination chemistry has been well studied to determine the structural characteristics of hemeproteins by different techniques. However, the frequently used cyanide ligands are inorganic molecules that release cyanide anion under particular conditions and cause cyanide poisoning. In the present study, organic cyanide (4-mercaptobenzonitrile, MBN) was utilized for the first time in developing a facile nanoprobe based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for quantitative detection of hemeproteins (oxy-Hb) and trivalent iron (Fe(3+)) ions...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192909/local-rank-deficiency-caused-problems-in-analyzing-chemical-data
#17
Mahsa Akbari Lakeh, Róbert Rajkó, Hamid Abdollahi
Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) is a powerful methodology for analyzing chemical data in different application fields such as pharmaceutical analysis, agriculture, food chemistry, environment, and industrial and clinical chemistry. However, MCR results are often complicated by rotational ambiguity, meaning that there is a range of feasible solutions that fulfill the constraints and explain equally well the observed experimental data. Constraints determine the properties of resolved profiles in MCR methods by enforcing different assumptions on data...
February 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192293/the-intrinsic-fluorescence-of-fad-and-its-application-in-analytical-chemistry-a-review
#18
Javier Galbán, Isabel Sanz-Vicente, Jesús Navarro, Susana de Marcos
This review (with 106 references) mainly deals with the analytical applications of flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) fluorescence. In the first section, the spectroscopic properties of this compound are reviewed at the light of his different acid-base, oxidation and structural forms; the chemical and spectroscopic properties of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and other flavins will be also briefly discussed. The second section discusses how the properties of FAD fluorescence changes in flavoenzymes (FvEs), again considering the different chemical and structural forms; the glucose oxidase (GOx) and the choline oxidase (ChOx) cases will be commented...
December 19, 2016: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192230/chemistry-and-analysis-of-hne-and-other-prominent-carbonyl-containing-lipid-oxidation-compounds
#19
REVIEW
Bebiana C Sousa, Andrew R Pitt, Corinne M Spickett
The process of lipid oxidation generates a diverse array of small aldehydes and carbonyl-containing compounds, which may occur in free form or esterified within phospholipids and cholesterol esters. These aldehydes mostly result from fragmentation of fatty acyl chains following radical oxidation, and the products can be subdivided into alkanals, alkenals (usually α,β-unsaturated), γ-substituted alkenals and bis-aldehydes. Isolevuglandins are non-fragmented di-carbonyl compounds derived from H2-isoprostanes, and oxidation of the ω-3-fatty acid docosahexenoic acid yield analogous 22 carbon neuroketals...
February 10, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182577/expressing-analytical-performance-from-multi-sample-evaluation-in-laboratory-eqa
#20
Marc H M Thelen, Rob T P Jansen, Cas W Weykamp, Herman Steigstra, Ron Meijer, Christa M Cobbaert
BACKGROUND: To provide its participants with an external quality assessment system (EQAS) that can be used to check trueness, the Dutch EQAS organizer, Organization for Quality Assessment of Laboratory Diagnostics (SKML), has innovated its general chemistry scheme over the last decade by introducing fresh frozen commutable samples whose values were assigned by Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine (JCTLM)-listed reference laboratories using reference methods where possible...
February 9, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
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