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Analytical chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922649/determination-of-74-new-psychoactive-substances-in-serum-using-automated-in-line-solid-phase-extraction-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#1
Sabrina Lehmann, Tobias Kieliba, Justus Beike, Mario Thevis, Katja Mercer-Chalmers-Bender
A detailed description is given of the development and validation of a fully automated in-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method capable of detecting 90 central-stimulating new psychoactive substances (NPS) and 5 conventional amphetamine-type stimulants (amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethyl-amphetamine (MDEA), methamphetamine) in serum. The aim was to apply the validated method to forensic samples...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921971/paper-sensor-coated-with-a-poly-carboxybetaine-multiple-dopa-conjugate-via-dip-coating-for-biosensing-in-complex-media
#2
Fang Sun, Kan Wu, Hsiang-Chieh Hung, Peng Zhang, Xinran Che, Joshua Kenyon Smith, Xiaojie Lin, Bowen Li, Priyesh Jain, Qiuming Yu, Shaoyi Jiang
Cellulose paper is an ideal diagnostic platform for low-cost, easily disposable and lightweight implementation, but requires surface modification to achieve detection with high sensitivity and specificity in complex media. In this work, a polymer-catechol conjugate containing a super-hydrophilic nonfouling poly(carboxylbetaine) (pCB) and four surface-binding L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) groups, pCB-(DOPA)4, were applied onto a paper-based sensor surface via a simple "graft-to" immersion process to render the surface with both nonfouling and protein functionalizable properties...
September 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920818/biochemistry-panel-reference-intervals-for-juvenile-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#3
Laura A Adamovicz, Macy R Trosclair, Gregory A Lewbart
Reference intervals for diagnostic tests are vitally important for clinical decision making. Despite the popularity of pet goldfish (Carassius auratus), reference intervals have not been generated for routine biochemistry panel analytes in this species. This study establishes de novo reference intervals for packed cell volume and total solids, using 47 apparently healthy immature goldfish, and for 11 common chemistry panel analytes (albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, creatine kinase, globulin, blood glucose, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, total protein, and uric acid) using 39 immature goldfish...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919752/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-induce-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-human-ovarian-cancer-cells
#4
Ding-Ping Bai, Xi-Feng Zhang, Guo-Liang Zhang, Yi-Fan Huang, Sangiliyandi Gurunathan
BACKGROUND: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are frequently used in industrial products such as paint, surface coating, and cosmetics, and recently, they have been explored in biologic and biomedical applications. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ZnO NPs on cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and autophagy in human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3). METHODS: ZnO NPs with a crystalline size of 20 nm were characterized with various analytical techniques, including ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919643/misconceptions-in-the-exploding-flask-demonstration-resolved-through-students-critical-thinking
#5
Rick Spierenburg, Leon Jacobse, Iris de Bruin, Daan J van den Bos, Dominique M Vis, Ludo B F Juurlink
As it connects to a large set of important fundamental ideas in chemistry and analytical techniques discussed in high school chemistry curricula, we review the exploding flask demonstration. In this demonstration, methanol vapor is catalytically oxidized by a Pt wire catalyst in an open container. The exothermicity of reactions occurring at the catalytic surface heats the metal to the extent that it glows. When restricting reactant and product gas flow, conditions may favor repetitive occurrence of a small explosion...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918967/accuracy-of-bedside-point-of-care-testing-in-critical-emergency-department-patients
#6
Braden W McIntosh, Jerina Vasek, Maria Taylor, Deborah Le Blanc, Henry C Thode, Adam J Singer
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care (POC) testing reduces laboratory turn-around having the potential to improve timely diagnosis and management. We compared the accuracy of nurse performed POC and core laboratory testing and determined whether deviations between the two were clinically meaningful. METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational study on a convenience sample of 50 critical care ED patients in whom a POC chemistry and hematocrit was ordered. Blood samples were divided into 2 aliquots; one sample was tested by the treating nurse using a handheld POC device and the other sample was tested in the core laboratory...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918132/assessing-precision-bias-and-sigma-metrics-of-53-measurands-of-the-alinity-ci-system
#7
Sten Westgard, Victoria Petrides, Sharon Schneider, Marvin Berman, Jörg Herzogenrath, Anthony Orzechowski
Assay performance is dependent on the accuracy and precision of a given method. These attributes can be combined into an analytical Sigma-metric, providing a simple value for laboratorians to use in evaluating a test method's capability to meet its analytical quality requirements. Sigma-metrics were determined for 37 clinical chemistry assays, 13 immunoassays, and 3 ICT methods on the Alinity ci system. METHODS: Analytical Performance Specifications were defined for the assays, following a rationale of using CLIA goals first, then Ricos Desirable goals when CLIA did not regular the method, and then other sources if the Ricos Desirable goal was unrealistic...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917794/patterned-polycaprolactone-filled-glass-microfiber-microfluidic-devices-for-total-protein-content-analysis
#8
Gayan C Bandara, Christopher A Heist, Vincent T Remcho
Membrane based microfluidic devices have gained much popularity in recent years, as they make possible rapid, inexpensive analytical techniques that can be applied to a wide variety of areas. The ability to modify device hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity is critically important in fabricating membrane based microfluidic devices. Polar hydrophilic membranes, such as glass microfiber (GMF) membranes, hold great potential as they are inexpensive, chemically inert, and stable. Filling of these membranes with non-polar polymers such as polycaprolactone (PCL) converts the hydrophilic GMF into a hydrophobic medium...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916032/polymer-inclusion-membranes-pims-in-chemical-analysis-a-review
#9
REVIEW
M Inês G S Almeida, Robert W Cattrall, Spas D Kolev
This review highlights the increasing interest in polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) in analytical chemistry as they are adapted to new and novel applications. PIMs are polymer-based liquid membranes and were first introduced 50 years ago as the sensing membranes in ion-selective electrodes and optodes. More recently however, PIMs have been used for other applications in analytical chemistry such as for sample separation, sample pre-concentration, electro-driven extraction, and passive sampling, and have also been incorporated into on-line and automated analysis systems...
September 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913646/computational-investigation-of-the-microstructural-characteristics-and-physical-properties-of-glycerol-based-deep-eutectic-solvents
#10
Tayeb Aissaoui, Yacine Benguerba, Mohamed Khalid AlOmar, Inas M AlNashef
Recently, there has been significant interest in the possibility of using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as novel green media and alternatives to conventional solvents and ionic liquids (ILs) in many applications. Due to their attractive properties, such as their biodegradability, low cost, easy preparation, and nontoxicity, DESs appear to be very promising solvents for use in the field of green chemistry. This computational study investigated six glycerol-based DESs: DES1 (glycerol:methyl triphenyl phosphonium bromide), DES2 (glycerol:benzyl triphenyl phosphonium chloride), DES3 (glycerol:allyl triphenyl phosphonium bromide), DES4 (glycerol:choline chloride), DES5 (glycerol:N,N-diethylethanolammonium chloride), and DES6 (glycerol:tetra-n-butylammonium bromide)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905070/sodium-cationized-carbohydrate-gas-phase-fragmentation-chemistry-influence-of-glycosidic-linkage-position
#11
Jordan M Rabus, Maha T Abutokaikah, Reginald T Ross, Benjamin J Bythell
We investigate the gas-phase structures and fragmentation chemistry of two isomeric sodium-cationized carbohydrates using combined tandem mass spectrometry, hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments, and computational methods. Our model systems are the glucose-based disaccharide analytes cellobiose (β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-d-glucose) and gentiobiose (β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-d-glucose). These analytes show substantially different tandem mass spectra. We characterize the rate-determining barriers to both the glycosidic and structurally-informative cross-ring bond cleavages...
September 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903001/open-source-assisted-laboratory-automation-through-graphical-user-interfaces-and-3d-printers-application-to-equipment-hyphenation-for-higher-order-data-generation
#12
Gabriel Germán Siano, Milagros Montemurro, Mirta Raquel Alcaráz, Hector Casimiro Goicoechea
In the current analytical chemistry, even though the modeling of higher-order data can result attractive, the generation of this kind of data implies some automation challenges, which are mainly related to the hidden programming languages and electronic details of the equipment. When techniques and/or equipment hyphenation is the key to obtain higher-order data, the required simultaneous control of them demands funds for new hardware, software and licenses, and also really skilled operators. In this work we present Design of Inputs-Outputs with Sikuli (D...
September 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902615/irregular-analytical-errors-in-diagnostic-testing-a-novel-concept
#13
Michael Vogeser, Christoph Seger
BACKGROUND: In laboratory medicine, routine periodic analyses for internal and external quality control measurements interpreted by statistical methods are mandatory for batch clearance. Data analysis of these process-oriented measurements allows for insight into random analytical variation and systematic calibration bias over time. However, in such a setting, any individual sample is not under individual quality control. The quality control measurements act only at the batch level. Quantitative or qualitative data derived for many effects and interferences associated with an individual diagnostic sample can compromise any analyte...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901735/limn2o4-surface-chemistry-evolution-during-cycling-revealed-by-in-situ-auger-electron-spectroscopy-and-x-ray-photoelectron-spectroscopy
#14
Ching-Yen Tang, Kevin Leung, Richard T Haasch, Shen J Dillon
This work utilizes in situ electrochemical and analytical characterization during cycling of LiMn2O4 (LMO) equilibrated at different potentials in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment. The LMO reacts with organic molecules in the vacuum to form a high surface concentration of Li2CO3 (≈50% C) during initial charging to 4.05 V. Charging to higher potentials reduces the overall Li2CO3 concentration (≈15% C). Discharging to 3.0 V increases the Li2CO3 concentration (≈30% C) and over discharging to 0.1 V again reduces its concentration (≈15% C)...
September 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892402/metformin-a-review-of-characteristics-properties-analytical-methods-and-impact-in-the-green-chemistry
#15
Mariana Teixeira da Trindade, Ana Carolina Kogawa, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Diabetes mellitus is considered a public health problem. The initial treatment consists of improving the lifestyle and making changes in the diet. When these changes are not enough, the use of medication becomes necessary. The metformin aims to reduce the hepatic production of glucose and is the preferred treatment for type 2. The objective is to survey the characteristics and properties of metformin, as well as hold a discussion on the existing analytical methods to green chemistry and their impacts for both the operator and the environment...
September 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892370/mass-spectrometry-based-chemical-cartography-of-a-cardiac-parasitic-infection
#16
Laura-Isobel McCall, James T Morton, Jean A Bernatchez, Jair L Siqueira-Neto, Rob Knight, Pieter C Dorrestein, James H McKerrow
Trypanosoma cruzi parasites are the causative agents of Chagas disease, a leading infectious form of heart failure whose pathogenesis is still not fully characterized. In this work, we applied untargeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to heart sections from T. cruzi-infected and uninfected mice. We combined molecular networking and 3-dimensional modeling to generate chemical cartographical heart models. This approach revealed for the first time preferential parasite localization to the base of the heart and regiospecific distributions of nucleoside derivatives and eicosanoids, which we correlated to tissue-damaging immune responses...
September 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892243/direct-observation-of-hemithioindigo-motor-unidirectionality
#17
Henry Dube, Ludwig Alexander Huber, Kerstin Hoffmann, Stefan Thumser, Niklas Böcher, Peter Mayer
Hemithioindigo molecular motors undergo very fast unidirectional rotation upon irradiation with visible light, which prevented a complete analysis of their working mechanism. In this work we have considerably slowed down their motion via a new synthesis for sterically hindered motor derivatives. This method allowed for the first time observation of all four intermediate states populated during rotation. The exact order in which each isomeric state is formed under irradiation conditions was elucidated using low temperature 1H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with other analytic methods...
September 11, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891068/open-tubular-capillary-electrochromatography-using-carboxylatopillar-5-arene-as-stationary-phase
#18
Deying Kong, Zilin Chen
Pillar[n]arenes have achieved much interest in material chemistry and supramolecular chemistry due to unusual pillar shape structure and high selectivity toward guest. However, pillar[n]arenes have not yet been applied in capillary electrochromatography. This work at first time reports that carboxylatopillar[5]arene is used as a stationary phase in open-tubular capillary electrochromatography. Carboxylatopillar[5]arene not only possess the advantages of pillar[n]arenes but also provide free carboxy groups for immobilizing on the inner wall of capillary column via covalent bonding...
September 11, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890268/novel-acylhydrazone-bond-dynamic-covalent-polymer-gel-monolithic-column-online-coupling-to-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-for-analysis-of-sulfonamides-and-fluorescent-whitening-agents-in-food
#19
Chengjiang Zhang, Xialin Luo, Tianfu Wei, Yufei Hu, Gongke Li, Zhuomin Zhang
A new dynamic covalent polymer (DCP) gel was well designed and constructed based on imine chemistry. Polycondensation of 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxaldehyde and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbohydrazide via Schiff-base reaction resulted in an acylhydrazone bond gel (AB-gel) DCP. AB-gel DCP had three-dimensional network of interconnected nanoparticles with hierarchically porous structure. AB-gel DCP was successfully fabricated as a monolithic column by an in-situ chemical bonding method for online enrichment and separation purpose with excellent permeability...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885748/extensive-study-on-physicochemical-properties-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-a-commercial-ion-trap-mass-spectrometer-relevance-in-analytical-and-environmental-chemistry
#20
R Narizzano, F Risso, A Magherini, G Cordone, M Ottonelli, E Smirnova, S Nadotti, L Rivara, R La Rocca, E Magi, S Lottici, S Maggiolo, C E Pepe, M Garbarino
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exist as 209 congeners, consisting of biphenyl molecules, where the number and substitution positions of halogen atoms are known to affect industrial uses, environmental transport mechanisms, distribution, fate, and toxicity. The complexity of the problem requires accurate physicochemical studies of an increasing number of congeners in order to understand the environmental and biological processes at play. This work presents a systematic study on the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of PCBs by quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
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