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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532352/understanding-glaucomatous-optic-neuropathy-the-synergy-between-clinical-observation-and-investigation
#1
Harry A Quigley
Glaucoma is a complex disorder of aging defined by the death of retinal ganglion cells and remodeling of connective tissues at the optic nerve head. Intraocular pressure-induced axonal injury at the optic nerve head leads to apoptosis. Loss of retinal ganglion cells follows a slowly progressive sequence. Clinical features of the disease have suggested and corroborated pathological events. The death of retinal ganglion cells causes secondary loss of neurons in the brain, but only as a by-product of injury to the retinal ganglion cells...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526132/old-and-novel-functions-of-caspase-2
#2
M A Miles, T Kitevska-Ilioski, C J Hawkins
Although caspase-2 is a highly conserved protease that has received a lot of research attention, consensus about its roles and the molecular mechanisms that underpin them has been elusive. Recent improvements to our understanding of the activities of caspase-2 have been facilitated by the development and refinement of techniques allowing identification of cellular processes instigated by this caspase. Following DNA damage, caspase-2 can be activated in a molecular complex called the "PIDDosome"; however, other stimuli provoke caspase-2-dependent activities that do not appear to involve this complex...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508989/evaluation-of-inner-retinal-layers-with-optic-coherence-tomography-in-vigabatrin-exposed-patients
#3
Betül Tuğcu, Mesrure Köseoğlu Bitnel, Fatma Selin Kaya, Betül Tekin Güveli, Dilek Ataklı
In order to reveal the underlying retinal pathology leading to dysfunction in vigabatrin-exposed patients, we aimed to evaluate the inner retinal layers encompassing ganglion cell complex (GCC) layer and inner plexiform layer with new generation optic coherence tomography (OCT). Fourteen patients with epilepsy and exposure to vigabatrin and 12 clinically normal individuals, constituting the control group, were included. Retinal images were obtained using spectral-domain OCT (Optovue RTVue Fourier domain). Nasal and superior quadrants of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) were found to be significantly lower in the patient group compared to the controls (p < 0...
May 16, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505617/ganglion-cell-complex-in-early-and-intermediate-age-related-macular-degeneration-evidence-by-sd-oct-manual-segmentation
#4
Pedro Camacho, Marco Dutra-Medeiros, Liliana Páris
PURPOSE: To evaluate ganglion cell layer (GCL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness manually by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in subjects with early and intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 12 locations on the horizontal meridian. METHODS: A total of 450 eyes (specifically, 246 eyes classified as having early/intermediate AMD plus 204 control eyes) were studied. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare values between the healthy controls and the AMD group and also between the subgroups under study...
May 16, 2017: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499933/major-review-molecular-genetics-of-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#5
REVIEW
Yutao Liu, R Rand Allingham
Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common type, is a complex inherited disorder that is characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death, optic nerve head excavation, and visual field loss. The discovery of a large, and growing, number of genetic and chromosomal loci has been shown to contribute to POAG risk, which carry implications for disease pathogenesis. Differential gene expression analyses in glaucoma-affected tissues as well as animal models of POAG are enhancing our mechanistic understanding in this common, blinding disorder...
May 9, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491470/effect-of-active-and-passive-smoking-on-retinal-nerve-fibre-layer-and-ganglion-cell-complex
#6
Amany Abd El-Fattah El-Shazly, Yousra Ahmed Thabet Farweez, Lamia Salah Elewa, Yasser Abdelmageuid Elzankalony, Botheina Ahmed Thabet Farweez
Aim. To evaluate the possible structural and functional changes in the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) and the ganglion cell complex (GCC) of chronic smokers and compare them with those of passive healthy smokers using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and pattern electroretinogram (PERG). Materials and Methods. We include 80 active chronic smokers and 80 age- and sex-matched healthy passive smokers. After a full ophthalmological examination, SD-OCT and PERG were tested for all participants...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487632/nicotinamide-and-wld-s-act-together-to-prevent-neurodegeneration-in-glaucoma
#7
Pete A Williams, Jeffrey M Harder, Nicole E Foxworth, Brynn H Cardozo, Kelly E Cochran, Simon W M John
Glaucoma is a complex neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive visual dysfunction leading to vision loss. Retinal ganglion cells are the primary affected neuronal population, with a critical insult damaging their axons in the optic nerve head. This insult is typically secondary to harmfully high levels of intraocular pressure (IOP). We have previously determined that early mitochondrial abnormalities within retinal ganglion cells lead to neuronal dysfunction, with age-related declines in NAD (NAD(+) and NADH) rendering retinal ganglion cell mitochondria vulnerable to IOP-dependent stresses...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472701/optical-coherence-tomography-findings-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#8
Mohamed A Khalil, Alia A Saleh, Sherif M Gohar, Dalia Hamed Khalil, Mohamed Said
BACKGROUND: Research in bipolar disorder suggests the presence of structural brain abnormalities. It is not clear whether these findings are trait markers or operate with the onset and progress with disease severity and duration. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique that detects degenerative changes in the retina reflecting brain degeneration. This study aimed at detecting these changes and relating them to disease severity and clinical characteristics. METHODS: A case-control study conducted in Psychiatry and Addiction Medicine hospital, Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461015/diagnostic-accuracy-of-spectralis-sd-oct-automated-macular-layers-segmentation-to%C3%A2-discriminate-normal-from-early-glaucomatous-eyes
#9
Marta Pazos, Agnieszka Anna Dyrda, Marc Biarnés, Alicia Gómez, Carlos Martín, Clara Mora, Gianluca Fatti, Alfonso Antón
PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of the macular retinal layer segmentation software of the Spectralis spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) device (Heidelberg Engineering, Inc., Heidelberg, Germany) to discriminate between healthy and early glaucoma (EG) eyes. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Forty EG eyes and 40 healthy controls were included. METHODS: All participants were examined using the standard posterior pole and the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) protocols of the Spectralis OCT device...
April 28, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449024/secretagogin-is-expressed-by-developing-neocortical-gabaergic-neurons-in-humans-but-not-mice-and-increases-neurite-arbor-size-and-complexity
#10
Chandrasekhar S Raju, Julien Spatazza, Amelia Stanco, Phillip Larimer, Shawn F Sorrells, Kevin W Kelley, Cory R Nicholas, Mercedes F Paredes, Jan H Lui, Andrea R Hasenstaub, Arnold R Kriegstein, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, John L Rubenstein, Michael C Oldham
The neocortex of primates, including humans, contains more abundant and diverse inhibitory neurons compared with rodents, but the molecular foundations of these observations are unknown. Through integrative gene coexpression analysis, we determined a consensus transcriptional profile of GABAergic neurons in mid-gestation human neocortex. By comparing this profile to genes expressed in GABAergic neurons purified from neonatal mouse neocortex, we identified conserved and distinct aspects of gene expression in these cells between the species...
April 26, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447589/neuroretinal-evaluation-using-optical-coherence-tomography-in-patients-affected-by-pituitary-tumors
#11
Yasar Altun, Ayse Sevgi Karadag, Seyho Cem Yucetas, Sadullah Saglam, A Z A Tak, Ilhan Cag, Yusuf Ehi
AIM: To investigate the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), the ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and choroid thickness (CT) in patients with pituitary tumours, microadenoma and macroadenoma, using spectral optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: Thirty six patients who had micro and macroadenoma, and 34 healthy participants (control group) were included in the study. Spectral OCT was used to measure the RNFL, GCL, IPL, and CT values for all patients...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441398/the-effects-of-immune-protein-cd3%C3%AE-development-and-degeneration-of-retinal-neurons-after-optic-nerve-injury
#12
Tao He, Xavier Mortensen, Ping Wang, Ning Tian
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and their receptors play fundamental roles in neuronal death during diseases. T-cell receptors (TCR) function as MHCI receptor on T-cells and both MHCI and a key component of TCR, CD3ζ, are expressed by mouse retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and displaced amacrine cells. Mutation of these molecules compromises the development of RGCs. We investigated whether CD3ζ regulates the development and degeneration of amacrine cells after RGC death. Surprisingly, mutation of CD3ζ not only impairs the proper development of amacrine cells expressing CD3ζ but also those not expressing CD3ζ...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430358/regulation-of-axon-arborization-pattern-in-the-developing-chick-ciliary-ganglion-possible-involvement-of-caspase-3
#13
Hidetaka Katow, Teppei Kanaya, Tomohisa Ogawa, Ryo Egawa, Hiromu Yawo
During a certain critical period in the development of the central and peripheral nervous systems, axonal branches and synapses are massively reorganized to form mature connections. In this process, neurons search their appropriate targets, expanding and/or retracting their axons. Recent work suggested that the caspase superfamily regulates the axon morphology. Here, we tested the hypothesis that caspase 3, which is one of the major executioners in apoptotic cell death, is involved in regulating the axon arborization...
April 21, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429427/the-assessment-of-optical-coherence-tomographic-parameters-in-subjects-with-a-positive-family-history-of-glaucoma
#14
Omer Karti, Bora Yuksel, Umut Duygu Uzunel, Eyyup Karahan, Mehmet Ozgur Zengin, Tuncay Kusbeci
PURPOSE: The aim was to compare the optical coherence tomographic (OCT) parameters of subjects with and without a family history of glaucoma to determine whether positive family history has an impact on retinal nerve fibre layer and ganglion cell complex analyses. METHODS: Forty eyes of 40 normal subjects with a proven positive family history (first-degree relatives) for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) (study group) and age-matched 40 eyes of 40 control subjects without a family history for glaucoma (control group) were enrolled...
April 20, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427062/emerging-issues-for-optical-coherence-tomography
#15
Luisa Pierro, Alessandro Rabiolo
Almost 25 years after its introduction, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is still a crucial test in the evaluation of patients affected by diabetic retinopathy. In this chapter, the authors provide an extensive overview of the posterior segment pathological changes induced by diabetes, characterized using OCT. OCT plays a key role in diabetic macular edema (DME) as it assesses related retinal changes both in a qualitative (i.e., DME pattern, presence and aspects of cysts, fluid localization, integrity, and reflectivity of retinal layers) and quantitative (i...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424747/association-between-optic-nerve-head-microcirculation-and-macular-ganglion-cell-complex-thickness-in-eyes-with-untreated-normal-tension-glaucoma-and-a-hemifield-defect
#16
Ayako Anraku, Kyoko Ishida, Nobuko Enomoto, Seiji Takagi, Hiroyuki Ito, Asuka Takeyama, Fumihiko Yagi, Goji Tomita
Purpose. We evaluated the association between optic nerve head (ONH) microcirculation and macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) thickness in patients with untreated normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and a hemifield defect. Methods. The medical records of 47 patients with untreated NTG were retrospectively reviewed. Laser speckle flowgraphy was used to obtain mean blur rate (MBR), a relative measure of blood flow. Average total deviation (TD), mGCC, and the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness were also analyzed...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424493/regulation-of-intraocular-pressure-by-microrna-cluster-mir-143-145
#17
Xinyu Li, Fangkun Zhao, Mei Xin, Guorong Li, Coralia Luna, Guigang Li, Qinbo Zhou, Yuguang He, Bo Yu, Eric Olson, Pedro Gonzalez, Shusheng Wang
Glaucoma is a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which causes optic nerve damage and retinal ganglion cell death, is the primary risk factor for blindness in glaucoma patients. IOP is controlled by the balance between aqueous humor secretion from the ciliary body (CB) and its drainage through the trabecular meshwork (TM). How microRNAs (miRs) regulate IOP and glaucoma in vivo is largely unknown. Here we show that miR-143 and miR-145 expression is enriched in the smooth muscle and trabecular meshwork in the eye...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422669/bioinspired-approach-to-modeling-retinal-ganglion-cells-using-system-identification-techniques
#18
Philip J Vance, Gautham P Das, Dermot Kerr, Sonya A Coleman, T Martin McGinnity, Tim Gollisch, Jian K Liu
The processing capabilities of biological vision systems are still vastly superior to artificial vision, even though this has been an active area of research for over half a century. Current artificial vision techniques integrate many insights from biology yet they remain far-off the capabilities of animals and humans in terms of speed, power, and performance. A key aspect to modeling the human visual system is the ability to accurately model the behavior and computation within the retina. In particular, we focus on modeling the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) as they convey the accumulated data of real world images as action potentials onto the visual cortex via the optic nerve...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412554/prompt-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-induced-by-a-hierarchically-aligned-fibrin-nanofiber-hydrogel
#19
Jinrong Du, Jianheng Liu, Shenglian Yao, Haiquan Mao, Jiang Peng, Xun Sun, Zheng Cao, Yongdong Yang, Bo Xiao, Yiguo Wang, Peifu Tang, Xiumei Wang
Fibrin plays a crucial role in peripheral nerve regeneration, which could occur spontaneously in the format of longitudinally oriented fibrin cables during the initial stage of nerve regeneration. This fibrin cable can direct migration and proliferation of Schwann cells and axonal regrowth, which is very important to nerve regeneration. In the present study, we prepared a three-dimensional hierarchically aligned fibrin nanofiber hydrogel (AFG) through electrospinning and molecular self-assembly to resemble the architecture and biological function of the native fibrin cable...
April 12, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395083/pathological-confirmation-of-optic-neuropathy-in-familial-dysautonomia
#20
Carlos E Mendoza-Santiesteban, Jose-Alberto Palma, Thomas R Hedges, Nora V Laver, Nada Farhat, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Horacio Kaufmann
Clinical data suggest that optic neuropathy and retinal ganglion cell loss are the main cause of visual decline in patients with familial dysautonomia, but this has not previously been confirmed by pathological analyses. We studied retinas and optic nerves in 6 eyes from 3 affected patients obtained at autopsy. Analyses included routine neurohistology and immunohistochemistry for neurofilaments, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), and melanopsin-containing ganglion cells. We observed profound axon loss in the temporal portions of optic nerves with relative preservation in the nasal portions; this correlated with clinical and optical coherence tomography findings in 1 patient...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
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