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Ganglion cell complex

Christian M Felix, Marc H Levin, Alan S Verkman
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, is often associated with retinal abnormalities including thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer and microcystic changes. Here, we demonstrate that passive transfer of an anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody (AQP4-IgG) produces primary retinal pathology. METHODS: AQP4-IgG was delivered to adult rat retinas by intravitreal injection. Rat retinas and retinal explant cultures were assessed by immunofluorescence...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Sang-Yoon Lee, Eun Kyoung Lee, Ki Ho Park, Dong Myung Kim, Jin Wook Jeoung
PURPOSE: To report an asymmetry analysis of macular inner retinal layers using swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to evaluate the utility for glaucoma diagnosis. DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy normal healthy subjects and 62 glaucoma patients. METHODS: Three-dimensional scans were acquired from 70 normal subjects and 62 open angle glaucoma patients by swept-source OCT...
2016: PloS One
Snezhina S Kostianeva, Marieta I Konareva-Kostianeva, Marin A Atanassov
AIM: To assess relationships between functional changes in visual field and structural changes in advanced open-angle glaucoma (OAG) found using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: Thirty-one eyes of 25 patients with OAG were included in this study. Besides the routine ophthalmological exam the patients underwent standard automated perimetry (SAP) (Humphrey Field Analyzer) and SD-OCT (RTVue-100) performed within 6 months. The global perimetric indices in the study group were as follows: mean deviation (MD) 12...
September 1, 2016: Folia Medica
George Taylor-Walker, Savannah A Lynn, Eloise Keeling, Rosie Munday, David A Johnston, Anton Page, Jennifer A Scott, Srini Goverdhan, Andrew J Lotery, J Arjuna Ratnayaka
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common, irreversible blinding condition that leads to the loss of central vision. AMD has a complex aetiology with both genetic as well as environmental risks factors, and share many similarities with Alzheimer's disease. Recent findings have contributed significantly to unravelling its genetic architecture that is yet to be matched by molecular insights. Studies are made more challenging by observations that aged and AMD retinas accumulate the highly pathogenic Alzheimer's-related Amyloid beta (Aβ) group of peptides, for which there appears to be no clear genetic basis...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Dina El-Fayoumi, Nashwa M Badr Eldine, Amanne F Esmael, Dalia Ghalwash, Hend M Soliman
Purpose: To determine whether type 1 diabetes (T1DM) in children with a mean age of 12.21 ± 3.04 years affects the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) when compared to age- and sex-matched healthy children. Methods: Forty-six children with T1DM with no diabetic retinopathy (DR) and 50 normal age- and sex-matched controls underwent full clinical ophthalmic and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) examination. Using RTVue Fourier-Domain OCT (version 6...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Gülizar Demirok, Mehmet Fatih Kocamaz, Yasemin Topalak, Yeşim Altay, Burcu Tabakci, Ahmet Şengün
PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes in the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness and central macular thickness (CMT) as measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) post-argon laser panretinal photocoagulation (PRP). METHODS: The medical records of 25 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) who underwent PRP, 29 patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 29 patients with diabetes but without diabetic retinopathy (DR) were analyzed...
August 10, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Pooja Teotia, Divyan A Chopra, Shashank Manohar Dravid, Matthew J Van Hook, Fang Qiu, John Morrison, Angie Rizzino, Iqbal Ahmad
Glaucoma is a complex group of diseases wherein a selective degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) leads to irreversible loss of vision. A comprehensive approach to glaucomatous RGC degeneration may include stem cells to functionally replace dead neurons through transplantation and understand RGCs vulnerability using a disease in a dish stem cell model. Both approaches require the directed generation of stable, functional, and target-specific RGCs from renewable sources of cells, i.e., the embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
October 6, 2016: Stem Cells
Tomofumi Oga, Tsuguhisa Okamoto, Ichiro Fujita
Neurons in the mammalian primary visual cortex (V1) are systematically arranged across the cortical surface according to the location of their receptive fields (RFs), forming a visuotopic (or retinotopic) map. Within this map, the foveal visual field is represented by a large cortical surface area, with increasingly peripheral visual fields gradually occupying smaller cortical areas. Although cellular organization in the retina, such as the spatial distribution of ganglion cells, can partially account for the eccentricity-dependent differences in the size of cortical representation, whether morphological differences exist across V1 neurons representing different eccentricities is unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Yumi Ueki, Grisela Ramirez, Ernesto Salcedo, Maureen E Stabio, Frances Lefcort
Familial dysautonomia (FD) is an autosomal recessive congenital neuropathy that is caused by a mutation in the gene for inhibitor of kappa B kinase complex-associated protein (IKBKAP). Although FD patients suffer from multiple neuropathies, a major debilitation that affects their quality of life is progressive blindness. To determine the requirement for Ikbkap in the developing and adult retina, we generated Ikbkap conditional knockout (CKO) mice using a TUBA1a promoter-Cre (Tα1-Cre). In the retina, Tα1-Cre expression is detected predominantly in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)...
September 2016: ENeuro
Zeynep Kayaarası Öztürker, Kadir Eltutar, Belma Karini, Sezin Özdogan Erkul, Özen Ayrancı Osmanbaşoğlu, Pınar Sultan
PURPOSE: To compare optic nerve head parameters, the thicknesses of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), the macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), the ganglion cell complex (GCC), and the ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) in macrodisks and normal-sized healthy disks using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 88 healthy eyes (42 macrodisks and 46 normal-sized disks) were prospectively enrolled in the study...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Da-Ming Cui, Tao Zeng, Jie Ren, Ke Wang, Yi Jin, Lin Zhou, Liang Gao
AIMS: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is induced by complex primary and secondary mechanisms that give rise to cell death, inflammation, and neurological dysfunction. Understanding the mechanisms that drive neurological damage as well as those that promote repair can guide the development of therapeutic drugs for TBI. Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) has been reported to negatively regulate axon regeneration of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) through inhibition of JAK-STAT3 signaling. However, the role of KLF4 in TBI remains unreported...
September 27, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Sylvia Tielens, Sandra Huysseune, Juliette D Godin, Alain Chariot, Brigitte Malgrange, Laurent Nguyen
The migration of cortical interneurons is a fundamental process for the establishment of cortical connectivity and its impairment underlies several neurological disorders. During development, these neurons are born in the ganglionic eminences and they migrate tangentially to populate the cortical layers. This process relies on various morphological changes that are driven by dynamic cytoskeleton remodelings. By coupling time lapse imaging with molecular analyses, we show that the Elongator complex controls cortical interneuron migration in mouse embryos by regulating nucleokinesis and branching dynamics...
October 2016: Cell Research
Burçin Çakır, Erkan Çelik, Emine Doğan, Gürsoy Alagöz
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of smoking on ganglion cell complex and inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: The right eyes of 36 smoking (study group) and 36 never-smoking (control group) healthy subjects were included in this study. After full ophthalmologic examination, axial length measurement (AL), ganglion cell complex-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and central macular thickness (CMT) values were measured by OCT...
September 24, 2016: International Ophthalmology
Xinbo Zhang, Anna Dastiridou, Brian A Francis, Ou Tan, Rohit Varma, David S Greenfield, Joel S Schuman, Mitra Sehi, Vikas Chopra, David Huang
PURPOSE: To identify baseline structural parameters that predict the progression of visual field (VF) loss in patients with open angle glaucoma. DESIGN: Multicenter cohort study. METHODS: Participants from Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma (AIG) study were enrolled and followed-up. VF progression is defined as either a confirmed progression event on Humphrey Progression Analysis or a significant (p<0.05) negative slope for VF index (VFI). Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) was used to measure optic disc, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (NFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness parameters...
September 17, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Yuriko Minegishi, XunLun Sheng, Kazutoshi Yoshitake, Yuri Sergeev, Daisuke Iejima, Yoshio Shibagaki, Norikazu Monma, Kazuho Ikeo, Masaaki Furuno, Wenjun Zhuang, Yani Liu, Weining Rong, Seisuke Hattori, Takeshi Iwata
Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a hereditary early-onset retinal dystrophy that is accompanied by severe macular degeneration. In this study, novel compound heterozygous mutations were identified as LCA-causative in chaperonin-containing TCP-1, subunit 2 (CCT2), a gene that encodes the molecular chaperone protein, CCTβ. The zebrafish mutants of CCTβ are known to exhibit the eye phenotype while its mutation and association with human disease have been unknown. The CCT proteins (CCT α-θ) forms ring complex for its chaperon function...
2016: Scientific Reports
Juan Manuel Chao de la Barca, Gilles Simard, Patrizia Amati-Bonneau, Zainab Safiedeen, Delphine Prunier-Mirebeau, Stéphanie Chupin, Cédric Gadras, Lydie Tessier, Naïg Gueguen, Arnaud Chevrollier, Valérie Desquiret-Dumas, Marc Ferré, Céline Bris, Judith Kouassi Nzoughet, Cinzia Bocca, Stéphanie Leruez, Christophe Verny, Dan Miléa, Dominique Bonneau, Guy Lenaers, M Carmen Martinez, Vincent Procaccio, Pascal Reynier
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (MIM#535000), the commonest mitochondrial DNA-related disease, is caused by mutations affecting mitochondrial complex I. The clinical expression of the disorder, usually occurring in young adults, is typically characterized by subacute, usually sequential, bilateral visual loss, resulting from the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. As the precise action of mitochondrial DNA mutations on the overall cell metabolism in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is unknown, we investigated the metabolomic profile of the disease...
September 15, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Renu Dhasmana, Sonal Sah, Neeti Gupta
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic retina undergoes degenerative changes in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in addition to vascular changes. Loss of RNFL with changes in inner retina and their association with metabolic control have been studied with varied results in diabetic patients. AIM: To compare the RNFL thickness between diabetic patients and age matched healthy controls and to correlate the thickness to metabolic control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and sixty five patients were enrolled in the study out of which 50 served as controls, 58 patients were diabetic without retinopathy and 57 patients had diabetic retinopathy...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Arezoo Miraftabi, Navid Amini, Esteban Morales, Sharon Henry, Fei Yu, Abdolmonem Afifi, Anne L Coleman, Joseph Caprioli, Kouros Nouri-Mahdavi
PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that the macular ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness demonstrates a stronger structure-function (SF) relationship and extends the useful range of macular measurements compared with combined macular inner layer or full thickness. METHODS: Ninety-eight glaucomatous eyes and eight normal eyes with macular spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volume scans and 10-2 visual fields were enrolled. Inner plexiform layer (IPL), GCL, macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), and full thickness (FT) measurements were calculated for 8 × 8 arrays of 3° superpixels...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Inês Dinis Aires, António Francisco Ambrósio, Ana Raquel Santiago
Glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness worldwide, is a degenerative disease characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and optic nerve atrophy. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a main risk factor for onset and progression of the disease. Since increased IOP is the only modifiable risk factor, relevant models for glaucoma would comprise RGC and optic nerve damage triggered by ocular hypertension. Animal models of glaucoma have greatly contributed to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this pathology, and they have also facilitated the development of new pharmacological interventions...
September 13, 2016: Ophthalmic Research
Linlin Yang, Quanmin Li, Xinming Liu, Shiguang Liu
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common chronic medical problem worldwide; one of its complications is painful peripheral neuropathy, which can substantially erode quality of life and increase the cost of management. Despite its clinical importance, the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is complex and incompletely understood. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) link many physiological processes to electrical activity by controlling action potentials in all types of excitable cells. Two isoforms of VGSCs, NaV1...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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