keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Ganglion cell complex

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150265/hypothesis-watershed-zones-in-the-human-eye-are-a-key-for-understanding-glaucomatous-retinal-damage
#1
Christian Albrecht May, Paul Rutkowski
The pathogenesis of glaucoma is complex which has led to numerous hypothesizes concerning the important factors creating this specific type of inner retinal degeneration namely apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells. We favor a primary vascular etiology and provide evidence that the pathogenesis of glaucoma should not be confined to changes exclusively at the optic nerve head but must include changes occurring in the peripheral retina with particular emphasis on the watershed zones of both the retina and choroid...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139045/electroretinography-in-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-comparison-of-the-pattern-erg-and-the-photopic-negative-response
#2
Jason C Park, Heather E Moss, J Jason McAnany
PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between electrophysiological measures of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) function in patients who have idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). METHODS: The pattern electroretinogram (pERG) and photopic negative response (PhNR) were recorded from 11 IIH patients and 11 age-similar controls. The pERG was elicited by a contrast-reversing checkerboard. The PhNR, a slow negative component following the flash ERG b-wave, was recorded in response to a long-wavelength flash presented against a short-wavelength adapting field...
November 14, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133640/evaluation-of-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-parameters-in-ocular-hypertension-preperimetric-and-early-glaucoma
#3
Tuğba Aydogan, BetÜl İlkay Sezgin Akçay, Esra Kardeş, Ahmet Ergin
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic ability of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), macular, optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in healthy subjects, ocular hypertension (OHT), preperimetric glaucoma (PPG), and early glaucoma (EG) patients, to reveal factors affecting the diagnostic ability of spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) parameters and risk factors for glaucoma. METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-six eyes (89 healthy, 77 OHT, 94 PPG, and 66 EG eyes) were analyzed...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126985/spatiotemporal-expression-pattern-of-connexin-43-during-early-chick-embryogenesis
#4
Karyn Jourdeuil, Lisa A Taneyhill
During embryogenesis, a single cell develops into new tissues and organs that are made up of a number of different cell types. The assembly of the trigeminal ganglion (cranial nerve V), an important component of the peripheral nervous system, typifies this process. The trigeminal ganglia perform key sensory functions, including sensing pain and touch in the face, and arise from cells of two different progenitor populations, the neural crest and the cranial placodes. One question that remains poorly understood is how these two populations of cells interact with each other during development to form a functional ganglion...
November 7, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116936/neurophysiological-aspects-of-the-trigeminal-sensory-system-an-update
#5
Frederic Van der Cruyssen, Constantinus Politis
The trigeminal system is one of the most complex cranial nerve systems of the human body. Research on it has vastly grown in recent years and concentrated more and more on molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology, but thorough reviews on this topic are lacking, certainly on the normal physiology of the trigeminal sensory system. Here we review the current literature on neurophysiology of the trigeminal nerve from peripheral receptors up to its central projections toward the somatosensory cortex. We focus on the most recent scientific discoveries and describe historical relevant research to substantiate further...
November 8, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114073/cellular-and-molecular-analysis-of-dendritic-morphogenesis-in-a-retinal-cell-type-that-senses-color-contrast-and-ventral-motion
#6
Jinyue Liu, Joshua R Sanes
As neuronal dendrites develop, they acquire cell type-specific features including characteristic size, shape, arborization, location and synaptic patterns. These features, in turn, are major determinants of type-specific neuronal function. Because neuronal diversity complicates the task of relating developmental programs to adult structure and function, we analyzed dendritic morphogenesis in a single retinal ganglion cell (RGC) type in mouse called J-RGC. We documented the emergence of five dendritic features that underlie J-RGC physiology: (1) dendritic field size, which approximate receptive field size; (2) dendritic complexity, which affects how J-RGCs sample space; (3) asymmetry, which contributes to direction-selectivity; (4) restricted lamination within the inner plexiform layer (IPL), which renders J-RGCs responsive to light decrements; and (5) distribution of synaptic inputs, which generate a color-opponent receptive field...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097269/geniculate-ganglion-neurons-are-multimodal-and-variable-in-receptive-field-characteristics
#7
Yusuke Yokota, Robert M Bradley
Afferent chorda tympani (CT) fibers innervating anterior tongue fungiform papillae have neuron cell bodies in the geniculate ganglion (GG). To characterize electrophysiological and receptive field properties, we recorded extracellular responses from single GG neurons to lingual application with chemical, thermal and mechanical stimuli. Receptive field size was mapped by electrical stimulation of individual fungiform papillae. Responses of GG neurons to room temperature chemical stimuli representing five taste qualities, and distilled water at 4 °C and mechanical stimulation were used...
October 31, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067402/optic-nerve-hypoplasia-is-a-pervasive-subcortical-pathology-of-visual-system-in-neonates
#8
Chen Liang, Alicia Kerr, Yangfengzhong Qiu, Francesca Cristofoli, Hilde Van Esch, Michael A Fox, Konark Mukherjee
Purpose: Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is the most common cause of childhood congenital blindness in developed nations, yet the fundamental pathobiology of ONH remains unknown. The objective of this study was to employ a 'face validated' murine model to determine the timing of onset and the pathologic characteristics of ONH. Methods: Based on the robust linkage between X-linked CASK haploinsufficiency and clinically diagnosed ONH, we hypothesized that heterozygous deletion of CASK (CASK(+/-)) in rodents will produce an optic nerve pathology closely recapitulating ONH...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063243/characterization-of-charcot-marie-tooth-optic-neuropathy
#9
Benjamin Botsford, Laurel N Vuong, Thomas R Hedges Iii, Carlos E Mendoza-Santiesteban
Varying degrees of optic neuropathy can be seen in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. To define and characterize the extent of optic neuropathy in patients with CMT2A and CMT1A, two patients from both sub-classifications were evaluated. All patients underwent complete neuro-ophthalmic examinations, and optical coherence (OCT) measurements of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer complex (GCC) were obtained, along with pattern visual evoked potential (VEP) and pattern electroretinogram (ERG) recordings...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063110/-the-structure-and-function-of-habenula
#10
Bai-Bing Zhang, Jiu-Lin Du
The habenula (Hb) is an evolutionarily conserved diencephalic structure in vertebrates. It is considered as an emotion center and plays critical roles in regulating diverse types of emotion-related behaviors, including anxiety, fear, reward, depression, and nicotine withdrawal. On the one hand, action selection- and emotion-relevant inputs are transferred to the Hb through the basal ganglia and limbic system, respectively. At the same time, sensory inputs of multiple modalities also converge on the Hb. Among them, the visual input of the Hb from the retina ganglion cells ‒ thalamus pathway has been found to play a critical role in light-preference behavior of zebrafish...
October 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050924/-progression-of-nerve-fiber-layer-defects-in-retrobulbar-optic-neuritis-by-the-macular-ganglion-cell-complex
#11
D Hong, C Bosc, F Chiambaretta
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies with SD OCT had shown early axonal damage to the macular ganglion cell complex (which consists of the three innermost layers of the retina: Inner Plexiform Layer [IPL], Ganglion Cell Layer [GCL], Retinal Nerve Fibre layer [RNFL]) in optic nerve pathology. Retrobulbar optic neuritis (RBON), occurring frequently in demyelinating diseases, leads to atrophy of the optic nerve fibers at the level of the ganglion cell axons, previously described in the literature...
November 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046428/spatio-temporal-characteristics-of-retinal-response-to-network-mediated-photovoltaic-stimulation
#12
Elton Ho, Richard Smith, Georges A Goetz, Xin Lei, Ludwig Galambos, Theodore I Kamins, James Harris, Keith Mathieson, Daniel Palanker, Alexander Sher
Subretinal prostheses aim at restoring sight to patients blinded by photoreceptor degeneration using electrical activation of the surviving inner retinal neurons. Today, such implants deliver visual information with low-frequency stimulation, resulting in discontinuous visual percepts. We measured retinal responses to complex visual stimuli delivered at video rate via a photovoltaic subretinal implant and by visible light. Using a multielectrode array to record from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the healthy and degenerated rat retina ex-vivo, we estimated their spatio-temporal properties from the spike-triggered average (STA) responses to photovoltaic binary white noise stimulus with 70μm pixel size at 20Hz frame rate...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045838/p75-is-required-for-the-establishment-of-postnatal-sensory-neuron-diversity-by-potentiating-ret-signaling
#13
Zhijiang Chen, Christopher R Donnelly, Bertha Dominguez, Yoshinobu Harada, Weichun Lin, Alan S Halim, Tasha G Bengoechea, Brian A Pierchala, Kuo-Fen Lee
Producing the neuronal diversity required to adequately discriminate all elements of somatosensation is a complex task during organogenesis. The mechanisms guiding this process during dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neuron specification remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the p75 neurotrophin receptor interacts with Ret and its GFRα co-receptor upon stimulation with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Furthermore, we demonstrate that p75 is required for GDNF-mediated Ret activation, survival, and cell surface localization of Ret in DRG neurons...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040550/rescue-of-cell-death-and-inflammation-of-a-mouse-model-of-complex-1-mediated-vision-loss-by-repurposed-drug-molecules
#14
Alfred K Yu, Sandipan Datta, Marissa Z McMackin, Gino A Cortopassi
Inherited mitochondrial optic neuropathies, such as Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) are caused by mutant mitochondrial proteins that lead to defects in mitochondrial complex 1-driven ATP synthesis, and cause specific retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss. Complex 1 defects also occur in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), in which there is specific RGC loss. The treatment of mitochondrial optic neuropathy in the US is only supportive. The Ndufs4 knockout (Ndufs4 KO) mouse is a mitochondrial complex 1-deficient model that leads to RGC loss and rapid vision loss and allows for streamlined testing of potential therapeutics...
October 12, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030174/growth-hormone-protects-against-kainate-excitotoxicity-and-induces-bdnf-and-nt3-expression-in-chicken-neuroretinal-cells
#15
C G Martinez-Moreno, T Fleming, M Carranza, J Ávila-Mendoza, M Luna, S Harvey, C Arámburo
There is increasing evidence to suggest a beneficial neuroprotective effect of growth hormone (GH) in the nervous system. While our previous studies have largely focused on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), we have also found conclusive evidence of a pro-survival effect of GH in cells of the inner nuclear layer (INL) as well as a protective effect on the dendritic trees of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) in the retina. The administration of GH in primary neuroretinal cell cultures protected and induced neural outgrowths...
October 10, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018820/the-effect-of-lasik-procedure-on-peripapillary-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-and-macular-ganglion-cell-inner-plexiform-layer-thickness-in-myopic-eyes
#16
Maja Zivkovic, Vesna Jaksic, Athanassios Giarmoukakis, Michael Grentzelos, Marko Zlatanovic, Gordana Zlatanovic, Aleksandra Miljkovic, Svetlana Jovanovic, Miroslav Stamenkovic, George Kymionis
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of applied suction during microkeratome-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) procedure on peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness as well as macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness. METHODS: 89 patients (124 eyes) with established myopia range from -3.0 to -8.0 diopters and no associated ocular diseases were included in this study. RNFL and GC-IPL thickness measurements were performed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) one day before LASIK and at 1 and 6 months postoperatively...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991833/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-vessel-density-measurements-in-eyes-with-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-and-disc-hemorrhage
#17
Harsha L Rao, Zia S Pradhan, Robert N Weinreb, Srilakshmi Dasari, Mohammed Riyazuddin, Jayasree P Venugopal, Narendra K Puttaiah, Dhanaraj A S Rao, Sathi Devi, Kaweh Mansouri, Carroll A B Webers
PURPOSE: To compare the vessel density measurements of optic nerve head, peripapillary and macular regions in severity-matched primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes with and without disc hemorrhage (DH) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography, and to compare their diagnostic abilities with that of the rim area, retinal nerve fiber layer and the ganglion cell complex thickness measurements on OCT. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 66 eyes of 46 control subjects, 34 eyes of 33 POAG patients with DH (median mean deviation=-3...
October 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984725/ganglion-cell-layer-complex-measurements-in-compressive-optic-neuropathy
#18
REVIEW
Laurel N Vuong, Thomas R Hedges
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuroophthalmologists and neurosurgeons are often asked by their patients what their visual prognosis will be after decompression of an optic chiasm lesion. Previous methods have been studied but have not provided consistent guidance. However, a recent algorithm which allows for retinal ganglion cell analysis from optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be more helpful. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that ganglion cell layer complex (GCC) measurements from OCT strongly correlate with the visual field loss associated with compressive optic neuropathies...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982957/macular-pigment-is-associated-with-glare-affected-visual-function-and-central-visual-field-loss-in-glaucoma
#19
We Fong Siah, Colm O'Brien, James J Loughman
AIM: To evaluate the relationship between macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and glare disability in open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data (88 subjects; median age, 67 (range 36-84) years) collected during the Macular Pigment and Glaucoma Trial (ISRCTN registry number: 56985060). MPOD at 0.25°, 0.5° and 1° of retinal eccentricity was measured using customised heterochromatic flicker photometry. Mesopic contrast sensitivity with glare (mCSg), photostress recovery time (PRT) and self-reported glare symptoms were evaluated...
October 5, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980562/-structural-retinal-and-optic-nerve-changes-in-patients-with-post-geniculate-visual-pathway-damage
#20
N M Eliseeva, N K Serova, V P Erichev, L A Panyushkina
AIM: To establish the possibility of retrograde trans-synaptic neural degeneration following acquired post-geniculate visual pathway damage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-two patients with homonymous hemianopia caused by acquired post-geniculate visual pathway damage were examined. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and ganglion cell complex (GCC) measurements were assessed with RTVue-100 Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). RESULTS: In 12 out of 22 patients we detected binocular GCC thinning that was ipsilateral to post-geniculate involvement...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
keyword
keyword
29313
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"