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Ganglion cell complex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790813/-express-increased-nav1-7-expression-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglion-contributes-to-pain-hypersensitivity-after-plantar-incision-in-rats
#1
Jiaoli Sun, Ningbo Li, Guangyou Duan, Yi Liu, Shanna Guo, Cong Wang, Changmao Zhu, Xianwei Zhang
Postoperative pain remains a complex problem that is difficult to manage in the clinical context, seriously affecting rehabilitation and the quality of life of patients after surgery. Nociceptors, of which the cell bodies are located in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), are crucial for initiating and conducting the pain signal. The peripheral voltage-gated sodium channels, including Nav1.7, which is mainly expressed in the DRG, are key to understanding the mechanism underlying postoperative pain. Nav1.7, in particular, of which mutations in the encoding gene (SCN9A) can determine whether pain occurs, has aroused most attention...
January 1, 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785739/in-vitro-formation-of-the-merkel-cell-neurite-complex-in-embryonic-mouse-whiskers-using-organotypic-co-cultures
#2
Kentaro Ishida, Tetsuichiro Saito, Toshiyuki Mitsui
A Merkel cell-neurite complex is a touch receptor composed of specialized epithelial cells named Merkel cells and peripheral sensory nerves in the skin. Merkel cells are found in touch-sensitive skin components including whisker follicles. The nerve fibers that innervate Merkel cells of a whisker follicle extend from the maxillary branch of the trigeminal ganglion. Whiskers as a sensory organ attribute to the complicated architecture of the Merkel cell-neurite complex, and therefore it is intriguing how the structure is formed...
May 22, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778487/clinical-characteristics-of-pediatric-optic-neuritis-with-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-seropositive-a-cohort-study
#3
Qian Chen, Guixian Zhao, Yongheng Huang, Zhenxin Li, Xinghuai Sun, Ping Lu, Yan San, Min Wang, Guohong Tian
BACKGROUND: The clinical characteristics of patients with pediatric optic neuritis with seropositive myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in Asia have not been reported. METHODS: Patients ≤18 years old with acute onset optic neuritis were enrolled. Serum myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and aquaporin-4 antibodies were detected and patients were followed-up for at least six months. The clinical features were evaluated among myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-seropositive optic neuritis, aquaporin-4-seropositive optic neuritis, and double seronegative optic neuritis...
March 13, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775216/neuroimmflammation-and-microglia-in-glaucoma-time-for-a-paradigm-shift
#4
REVIEW
Xin Wei, Kin-Sang Cho, Eric F Thee, Martine J Jager, Dong Feng Chen
Glaucoma is a complex neurodegenerative disease with many clinical subtypes. Some of its rare forms include pigmentary glaucoma, uveitic glaucoma and congenital glaucoma. While they all share common features of progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, optic nerve damage and corresponding visual field loss, the exact mechanisms underlying glaucomatous neuron loss are not clear. This has largely hindered the development of a real cure for this disease. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a known major risk factor of glaucoma; however, progressive degeneration of RGCs and axons can also be found in patients with a normal IOP, i...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766767/neural-architecture-from-cells-to-circuits
#5
Sarah E V Richards, Stephen D Van Hooser
Circuit operations are determined jointly by the properties of the circuit elements and the properties of the connections among these elements. In the nervous system, neurons exhibit diverse morphologies and branching patterns, allowing rich compartmentalization within individual cells, and complex synaptic interactions among groups of cells. Here, we summarize work detailing how neuronal morphology impacts neural circuit function. In particular, we consider example neurons in the retina, cerebral cortex, and the stomatogastric ganglion of crustaceans...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765300/detection-of-dna-double-strand-breaks-by-%C3%AE-h2ax-does-not-result-in-53bp1-recruitment-in-mouse-retinal-tissues
#6
Brigitte Müller, N M Ellinwood, Birgit Lorenz, Knut Stieger
Gene editing is an attractive potential treatment of inherited retinopathies. However, it often relies on endogenous DNA repair. Retinal DNA repair is incompletely characterized in humans and animal models. We investigated recruitment of the double stranded break (DSB) repair complex of γH2AX and 53bp1 in both developing and mature mouse neuroretinas. We evaluated the immunofluorescent retinal expression of these proteins during development (P07-P30) in normal and retinal degeneration models, as well as in potassium bromate induced DSB repair in normal adult (3 months) retinal explants...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765199/the-development-of-a-reference-database-with-the-topcon-3d-oct-1-maestro
#7
Michael Chaglasian, Murray Fingeret, Pinakin Gunvant Davey, Wei-Chieh Huang, Danny Leung, Edmund Ng, Charles A Reisman
Importance: The paper presents the range for measurements taken with a new spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) device to establish a reference database for discrimination purposes. Objective: To report the range of thickness values for the new Topcon Maestro 3D OCT device with 2 scan size settings: the 12×9 mm wide field and 6×6 mm scans. Design: Prospective, multicenter cohort study conducted at 7 clinical sites across the USA...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751772/expression-profiling-of-cell-intrinsic-regulators-in-the-process-of-differentiation-of-human-ipscs-into-retinal-lineages
#8
Jen-Hua Chuang, Aliaksandr A Yarmishyn, De-Kuang Hwang, Chih-Chien Hsu, Mong-Lien Wang, Yi-Ping Yang, Ke-Hung Chien, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Chi-Hsien Peng, Shih-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into retinal lineages offers great potential for medical application. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to know the key intrinsic regulators of differentiation and the specific biomarker signatures of cell lineages. METHODS: In this study, we used microarrays to analyze transcriptomes of terminally differentiated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) lineages, as well as intermediate retinal progenitor cells of optic vesicles (OVs) derived from hiPSCs...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749568/structural-changes-of-macula-and-optic-disk-of-the-fellow-eye-in-patients-with-nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#9
R Duman, G F Yavas, I Veliyev, M Dogan, R Duman
PURPOSE: The aim was to assess the ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic disk features in the affected eyes (AE) and unaffected fellow eyes (FE) of subjects with unilateral nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and to compare with healthy control eyes (CE) using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: This study included 28 patients and age, sex and refraction-matched 28 control subjects...
May 10, 2018: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746890/use-of-a-capillary-alginate-gel-capgel%C3%A2-to-study-the-three-dimensional-development-of-sensory-nerves-reveals-the-formation-of-a-rudimentary-perineurium
#10
Wesley A Anderson, Alicia R Willenberg, Alexander J Bosak, Bradley J Willenberg, Stephen Lambert
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathies affect approximately 20 million people in the United States and often stem from other chronic conditions, such as diabetes. In vitro methodologies to facilitate the understanding and treatment of these disorders often lack the cellular and functional complexity required to accurately model peripheral neuropathies. In particular, they are often 2D and fail to faithfully reproduce the 3D in vivo microenvironment. NEW METHOD: Embryonic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants were inserted into laminin derivatized capillary alginate gel (Capgel™), a bioabsorbable, self-assembling biomaterial, possessing parallel microchannel architecture, and cultured to mimic normal nerve development, including Schwann cell myelination...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746463/nonlinear-decoding-of-a-complex-movie-from-the-mammalian-retina
#11
Vicente Botella-Soler, Stéphane Deny, Georg Martius, Olivier Marre, Gašper Tkačik
Retina is a paradigmatic system for studying sensory encoding: the transformation of light into spiking activity of ganglion cells. The inverse problem, where stimulus is reconstructed from spikes, has received less attention, especially for complex stimuli that should be reconstructed "pixel-by-pixel". We recorded around a hundred neurons from a dense patch in a rat retina and decoded movies of multiple small randomly-moving discs. We constructed nonlinear (kernelized and neural network) decoders that improved significantly over linear results...
May 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716524/cochlear-morphology-in-the-developing-inner-ear-of-the-porcine-model-of-spontaneous-deafness
#12
Wei Chen, Qing-Qing Hao, Li-Li Ren, Wei Ren, Hui-Sang Lin, Wei-Wei Guo, Shi-Ming Yang
BACKGROUND: Auditory function and cochlear morphology have previously been described in a porcine model with spontaneous WS2-like phenotype. In the present study, cochlear histopathology was further investigated in the inner ear of the developing spontaneous deafness pig. RESULTS: We found that the stria vascularis transformed into a complex tri-laminar tissue at embryonic 85 days (E85) in normal pigs, but not in the MITF-/- pigs. As the neural crest (NC) of cochlea was derived by melanocytes...
May 2, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709504/the-pleiotropic-transcriptional-regulator-coup-tfi-plays-multiple-roles-in-neural-development-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Michele Bertacchi, Josephine Parisot, Michèle Studer
Transcription factors are expressed in a dynamic fashion both in time and space during brain development, and exert their roles by activating a cascade of multiple target genes. This implies that understanding the precise function of a transcription factor becomes a challenging task. In this review, we will focus on COUP-TFI (or NR2F1), a nuclear receptor belonging to the superfamily of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptors, and considered to be one of the major transcriptional regulators orchestrating cortical arealization, cell-type specification and maturation...
April 27, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701256/homonymous-hemiretinal-macular-ganglion-cell-complex-thinning-following-occipital-lobe-trauma
#14
Stephen J Vincent, Damien Fisher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697793/sequence-structure-and-expression-of-opsins-in-the-monochromatic-stomatopod-squilla-empusa
#15
Juan C Valdez-Lopez, Mary W Donohue, Michael J Bok, Julia Wolf, Thomas W Cronin, Megan L Porter
Most stomatopod crustaceans have complex retinas in their compound eyes, with up to 16 spectral types of photoreceptors, but members of the superfamily Squilloidea have much simpler retinas, thought to contain a single photoreceptor spectral class. In the Atlantic stomatopod Squilla empusa, microspectrophotometry shows that all photoreceptors absorb light maximally at 517 nm, indicating that a single visual pigment is present in all photoreceptors in the retina. However, six distinct, but partial, long wavelength sensitive (LWS) opsin transcripts, which encode the protein component of the visual pigment, have been previously isolated through RT-PCR...
April 25, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682502/frontiers-of-complex-disease-mechanisms-membrane-surface-tension-may-link-genotype-to-phenotype-in-glaucoma
#16
Howard R Petty
Although many monogenic diseases are understood based upon structural changes of gene products, less progress has been made concerning polygenic disease mechanisms. This article presents a new interdisciplinary approach to understand complex diseases, especially their genetic polymorphisms. I focus upon primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Although elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and oxidative stress are glaucoma hallmarks, the linkages between these factors and cell death are obscure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote the formation of oxidatively truncated phosphoglycerides (OTP), free fatty acids, lysophosphoglycerides, oxysterols, and other chemical species that promote membrane disruption and decrease membrane surface tension...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682070/capsuloganglionic-germinoma-a-rare-site-for-uncommon-childhood-tumor
#17
Kuntal Kanti Das, Jeena Joseph, Amit Kumar Singh, Pradeep Sharma, Jayesh Sardhara, Kamlesh Singh Bhaisora, Anant Mehrotra, Arun Kumar Srivastava, Sushila Jaiswal, Rabi Narayan Sahu, Awadhesh Kumar Jaiswal, Sanjay Behari
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare intracranial tumors with a strong predilection for children. Commonly, these tumors arise either in the suprasellar or the pineal region. The basal ganglia-thalamus complex represents a rare site of nonmidline intracranial GCTs. Such basal ganglionic GCTs have been reported to produce certain interesting clinico-radiological features, the knowledge of which may provide important diagnostic clues preoperatively. We present the case of a 9.5-year-old boy who presented with right hemiparesis and precocious puberty...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680839/decreased-migration-of-dendritic-cells-into-the-jugular-nodose-ganglia-by-the-cxcl12-neutraligand-chalcone-4-in-ovalbumin-sensitized-asthmatic-mice
#18
Sebastian Heck, François Daubeuf, Duc Dung Le, Martina Sester, Dominique Bonnet, Robert Bals, Nelly Frossard, Quoc Thai Dinh
OBJECTIVE: The chemokine CXCL12 interacting with the CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been reported to play a role in the development and progression of bronchial asthma, but its mechanism of action is still unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the CXCL12 neutraligand chalcone 4 on the migration of dendritic cells (DCs) in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. METHODS: A 21-day ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic-airway TH2 inflammation model in BALB/c mice was used...
April 20, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679953/antinociception-by-the-anti-oxidized-phospholipid-antibody-e06
#19
Milad Mohammadi, Beatrice Oehler, Jan Kloka, Corinna Martin, Alexander Brack, Robert Blum, Heike L Rittner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their downstream molecules such as oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channels in vivo and in vitro shaping thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in inflammatory pain. E06/T15 is a monoclonal autoantibody against oxidized phosphatidylcholine (OxPC) used in diagnostics in arteriosclerosis. Recently, we provided evidence that E06 also ameliorates inflammatory pain...
April 21, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677375/characteristics-of-retinal-structural-and-microvascular-alterations-in-early-type-2-diabetic-patients
#20
Qi Chen, Fan Tan, Yufei Wu, Xiran Zhuang, Chaoming Wu, Yuheng Zhou, Yingzi Li, Dan Cheng, Jianhua Wang, Fan Lu, Meixiao Shen
Purpose: To investigate early retinal structural and microvascular changes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and to analyze relationships among the retinal structure, microvasculature, and choroid. Methods: Seventy-seven patients with type 2 DM (40 with no diabetic retinopathy [DR], 37 with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy [NPDR]), and 34 control subjects were enrolled. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, operating in radial 18-line mode, obtained macular images of the eight intraretinal layers and the choroid...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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