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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926578/tet-mediated-dna-hydroxymethylation-regulates-retinal-neurogenesis-by-modulating-cell-extrinsic-signaling-pathways
#1
Pawat Seritrakul, Jeffrey M Gross
DNA hydroxymethylation has recently been shown to play critical roles in regulating gene expression and terminal differentiation events in a variety of developmental contexts. However, little is known about its function during eye development. Methylcytosine dioxygenases of the Tet family convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), an epigenetic mark thought to serve as a precursor for DNA demethylation and as a stable mark in neurons. Here, we report a requirement for Tet activity during zebrafish retinal neurogenesis...
September 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919536/neuroprotective-effect-of-5%C3%A9-androst-3%C3%AE-5-6%C3%AE-triol-on-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-a-rat-chronic-ocular-hypertension-model
#2
Yan-Qiu Chen, Shu-Min Zhong, Shu-Ting Liu, Feng Gao, Fang Li, Yuan Zhao, Xing-Huai Sun, Yanying Miao, Zhongfeng Wang
Previous studies have demonstrated that 5ɑ-androst-3β,5,6β-triol (Triol), a synthesized steroid compound, showed notable neuroprotective effect in cultured cortical neurons. In the present study, we explored whether and how Triol have neuroprotective effect on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a chronic ocular hypertension (COH) rat model. COH model was produced by injecting superparamagnetic iron oxide micro-beads into the anterior chamber, and Triol was administrated (4.8μg/100g, i.p., once daily for 4 weeks)...
September 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915835/macular-retinal-and-choroidal-thickness-in-unilateral-amblyopia-using-swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography
#3
Syunsuke Araki, Atsushi Miki, Katsutoshi Goto, Tsutomu Yamashita, Go Takizawa, Kazuko Haruishi, Yoshiaki Ieki, Junichi Kiryu, Kiyoshi Yaoeda
BACKGROUND: To investigate macular retinal and choroidal thickness in amblyopic eyes compared to that in fellow and normal eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). METHODS: This study examined 31 patients with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia (6.9 ± 3.8 years, mean ± standard deviation), 15 patients with strabismic amblyopia without anisometropia (7.9 ± 4.2 years), and 24 age-matched controls (7.8 ± 3.3 years). Retinal and choroidal thickness was measured by 3D scans using SS-OCT...
September 15, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887785/bioplausible-multiscale-filtering-in-retino-cortical-processing-as-a-mechanism-in-perceptual-grouping
#4
Nasim Nematzadeh, David M W Powers, Trent W Lewis
Why does our visual system fail to reconstruct reality, when we look at certain patterns? Where do Geometrical illusions start to emerge in the visual pathway? How far should we take computational models of vision with the same visual ability to detect illusions as we do? This study addresses these questions, by focusing on a specific underlying neural mechanism involved in our visual experiences that affects our final perception. Among many types of visual illusion, 'Geometrical' and, in particular, 'Tilt Illusions' are rather important, being characterized by misperception of geometric patterns involving lines and tiles in combination with contrasting orientation, size or position...
September 8, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885451/visual-structure-and-function-in-collision-sport-athletes
#5
Danielle Leong, Christina Morettin, Leonard V Messner, Robert J Steinmetz, Yi Pang, Steven L Galetta, Laura J Balcer
BACKGROUND: Vision-based measures have been shown to be useful markers in multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer and Parkinson disease. Therefore, these testing paradigms may have applications to populations explaining repetitive head trauma that has been associated with long-term neurodegenerative sequelae. We investigated retinal structure and visual function in professional collision sport athletes compared to age- and race-matched control participants. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, participants underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC = ganglion cell + inner plexiform layers) thickness...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867588/light-deprivation-produces-distinct-morphological-orchestrations-on-rgcs-and-cortical-cells-in-a-depressive-like-yfp-h-mouse-model
#6
Chanyi Lu, Qi-Qin Li, Yao-Yao Li, Hua-Zhen Lin, Jia Qu, Yun Wang, Yun-Feng Zhang
Neural physiological functions and synaptic changes underlying the pathogenesis of depression have obtained great achievements. However, neuronal morphological changes under a depressive state have not been well understood yet. Here a depressive-like YFP-H transgenic mouse model was produced by light deprivation (LD), and morphological changes of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and primary visual and auditory cortical layer 5 pyramidal cells (L5PCs) were investigated. Three distinct RGC subtypes were identified based on soma- and dendritic field (DF) size...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860699/alteration-of-retinal-layers-in-healthy-subjects-over-60-years-of-age-until-nonagenarians
#7
Lebriz Altay, Cheryl Jahn, Mücella Arikan Yorgun, Albert Caramoy, Tina Schick, Carel B Hoyng, Anneke I den Hollander, Sascha Fauser
PURPOSE: To assess alterations of retinal layers in healthy subjects over 60 years old. METHODS: Retinal layers of 160 healthy subjects (aged 60-100 years) without any retinal pathology were imaged using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Mean thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer (GCLIPL), inner nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer/outer nuclear layer, photoreceptor complex (PR) and retinal thickness (RT) were measured in a 3...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858152/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-segmentation-errors-in-the-peripapillary-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-and-macular-ganglion-cell-complex-in-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-images
#8
Astuya Miki, Miho Kumoi, Shinichi Usui, Takao Endo, Rumi Kawashima, Takeshi Morimoto, Kenji Matsushita, Takashi Fujikado, Kohji Nishida
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of errors in segmentation of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) boundary in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) images, and to identify factors associated with the errors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Peripapillary RNFL circle scans and macular three-dimensional scans of consecutive cases imaged with SDOCT (RS-3000 Advance; Nidek, Gamagori, Japan) were retrospectively reviewed by a glaucoma specialist...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856242/3d-visualization-of-individual-regenerating-retinal-ganglion-cell-axons-reveals-surprisingly-complex-growth-paths
#9
Eric R Bray, Markus Noga, Kinjal Thakor, Yunfang Wang, Vance P Lemmon, Kevin K Park, Pantelis Tsoulfas
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the sole output cells of the retina, are a heterogeneous population of neurons that project axons to visual targets in the brain. Like most CNS neurons, RGCs are considered incapable of mounting long distance axon regeneration. Using immunolabeling-enabled 3D imaging of solvent-cleared organs (iDISCO) in transgenic mice, we tracked the entire paths of individual RGC axons and show that adult RGCs are highly capable of spontaneous long-distance regeneration, even without any treatment...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852792/human-pancreatic-neuro-insular-network-in-health-and-fatty-infiltration
#10
Shiue-Cheng Tang, Luc Baeyens, Chia-Ning Shen, Shih-Jung Peng, Hung-Jen Chien, David W Scheel, Chester E Chamberlain, Michael S German
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Identification of a pancreatic neuro-insular network in mice suggests that a similar integration of islets and nerves may be present in the human pancreas. To characterise the neuro-insular network and the intra-pancreatic ganglia in a clinically related setting, we examined human pancreases in health and with fatty infiltration via 3-dimensional (3D) histology and compared the human pancreatic microenvironment with its counterpart in mice. METHODS: Human pancreatic specimens from individuals with normal BMI, high BMI (≥ 25) and type 2 diabetes were used to investigate the neuro-insular network...
August 29, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852381/soxc-transcription-factors-in-retinal-development-and-regeneration
#11
REVIEW
Kun-Che Chang, Jonathan Hertz
Glaucoma and other optic neuropathies result in optic nerve degeneration and the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) through complex signaling pathways. Although the mechanisms that regulate RGC development remain unclear, uncovering novel developmental pathways may support new strategies to regenerate the optic nerve or replace RGCs. Here we review recent studies that provide strong evidence that the Sry-related high-mobility-group C (SoxC) subfamily of transcription factors (TFs) are necessary and sufficient for axon guidance and RGC fate specification...
July 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834578/phenotypic-change-in-trigeminal-ganglion-neurons-associated-with-satellite-cell-activation-via-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-phosphorylation-is-involved-in-lingual-neuropathic-pain
#12
Lou Mikuzuki, Hiroto Saito, Ayano Katagiri, Shinji Okada, Shiori Sugawara, Asako Kubo, Kinuyo Ohara, Jun Lee, Akira Toyofuku, Koichi Iwata
Iatrogenic trigeminal nerve injuries remain a common and complex clinical problem. Satellite glial cell (SGC) activation, associated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and neuropeptide expression in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) are known to be involved in trigeminal neuropathic pain related to trigeminal nerve injury. However, the involvement of these molecules in orofacial neuropathic pain mechanisms is still unknown. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in lingual nerve crush (LNC) rats was observed in SGCs...
August 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826482/anti-nociceptive-action-of-peripheral-mu-opioid-receptors-by-g-beta-gamma-protein-mediated-inhibition-of-trpm3-channels
#13
Sandeep Dembla, Marc Behrendt, Florian Mohr, Christian Goecke, Julia Sondermann, Franziska M Schneider, Marlene Schmidt, Julia Stab, Raissa Enzeroth, Michael G Leitner, Paulina Nuñez-Badinez, Jochen Schwenk, Bernd Nürnberg, Alejandro Cohen, Stephan E Philipp, Wolfgang Greffrath, Moritz Bünemann, Dominik Oliver, Eleonora Zakharian, Manuela Schmidt, Johannes Oberwinkler
Opioids, agonists of µ-opioid receptors (µORs), are the strongest pain killers clinically available. Their action includes a strong central component, which also causes important adverse effects. However, µORs are also found on the peripheral endings of nociceptors and their activation there produces meaningful analgesia. The cellular mechanisms downstream of peripheral µORs are not well understood. Here, we show in neurons of murine dorsal root ganglia that pro-nociceptive TRPM3 channels, present in the peripheral parts of nociceptors, are strongly inhibited by µOR activation, much more than other TRP channels in the same compartment, like TRPV1 and TRPA1...
August 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821276/inflammatory-demyelination-alters-subcortical-visual-circuits
#14
Sheila Espírito Santo Araújo, Henrique Rocha Mendonça, Natalie A Wheeler, Paula Campello-Costa, Kimberle M Jacobs, Flávia C A Gomes, Michael A Fox, Babette Fuss
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease classically associated with axonal damage and loss; more recently, however, synaptic changes have been recognized as additional contributing factors. An anatomical area commonly affected in MS is the visual pathway; yet, changes other than those associated with inflammatory demyelination of the optic nerve, i.e., optic neuritis, have not been described in detail. METHODS: Adult mice were subjected to a diet containing cuprizone to mimic certain aspects of inflammatory demyelination as seen in MS...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817571/automated-segmentation-of-mouse-oct-volumes-asimov-validation-clinical-study-of-a-light-damage-model
#15
Bhavna Josephine Antony, Byung-Jin Kim, Andrew Lang, Aaron Carass, Jerry L Prince, Donald J Zack
The use of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is becoming commonplace for the in vivo longitudinal study of murine models of ophthalmic disease. Longitudinal studies, however, generate large quantities of data, the manual analysis of which is very challenging due to the time-consuming nature of generating delineations. Thus, it is of importance that automated algorithms be developed to facilitate accurate and timely analysis of these large datasets. Furthermore, as the models target a variety of diseases, the associated structural changes can also be extremely disparate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814415/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-enhances-the-detection-of-optic-nerve-damage-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Rebecca I Spain, Liang Liu, Xinbo Zhang, Yali Jia, Ou Tan, Dennis Bourdette, David Huang
BACKGROUND: Quantitative assessment of optic nerve damage is important in the evaluation of optic neuritis (ON) and multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To detect optic nerve damage using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography in MS. METHODS: Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (NFL) thickness, macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness and Optic Nerve Head Flow Index (ONH-FI) were measured. The ONH-FI was defined as flow signal averaged over the optic disc...
August 16, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813592/3d-printed-phema-materials-for-topographical-and-biochemical-modulation-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-cell-response
#17
Adina Badea, Joselle M McCracken, Emily G Tillmaand, Mikhail E Kandel, Aaron W Oraham, Molly B Mevis, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Gabriel Popescu, Jonathan V Sweedler, Ralph G Nuzzo
Understanding and controlling the interactions occurring between cells and engineered materials are central challenges toward progress in the development of biomedical devices. In this work, we describe materials for direct ink writing (DIW), an extrusion-based type of 3D printing, that embed a custom synthetic protein (RGD-PDL) within the microfilaments of 3D-hydrogel scaffolds to modify these interactions and differentially direct tissue-level organization of complex cell populations in vitro. The RGD-PDL is synthesized by modifying poly-d-lysine (PDL) to varying extents with peptides containing the integrin-binding motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)...
September 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806189/the-use-of-optical-coherence-tomography-in-neuro-ophthalmology
#18
Noel C Y Chan, Carmen K M Chan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the last decade, with the advances of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, different imaging protocols and analysis algorithms have been introduced to maximize the potential of this diagnostic tool in the evaluation of different eye diseases. This review aims to provide an update on these additional features, with respect to the management of a diverse range of neuro-ophthalmologic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) analysis has been shown to be superior to peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) analysis in certain settings, such as differentiating Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy from functional visual loss; monitoring neurodegenerative diseases or multiple sclerosis; and predicting visual loss in nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801670/ectodomain-shedding-of-limbic-system-associated-membrane-protein-lsamp-by-adam-metallopeptidases-promotes-neurite-outgrowth-in-drg-neurons
#19
Ricardo L Sanz, Gino B Ferraro, Marie-Pier Girouard, Alyson E Fournier
IgLONs are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion proteins implicated in the process of neuronal outgrowth, cell adhesion and subdomain target recognition. IgLONs form homophilic and heterophilic complexes on the cell surface that repress or promote growth depending on the neuronal population, the developmental stage and surface repertoire of IgLON family members. In the present study, we identified a metalloproteinase-dependent mechanism necessary to promote growth in embryonic dorsal root ganglion cells (DRGs)...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797550/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-the-peripapillary-retina-in-primary-angle-closure-glaucoma
#20
Shunhua Zhang, Chan Wu, Liang Liu, Yali Jia, Yao Zhang, Yang Zhang, Hua Zhang, Yong Zhong, David Huang
PURPOSE: To measure the change of peripapillary retinal vessel density (VD) in eyes with a history of acute primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive Chinese patients with history of unilateral acute PACG were enrolled. Eyes with acute PACG constituted the case group, while the contralateral eyes without attack constituted the control. All patients underwent ophthalmic examinations including best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and visual field (VF)...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
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