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Ganglion cell complex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096653/applicability-of-automatic-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-for-glaucoma-mass-screening
#1
Tadashi Nakano, Takeshi Hayashi, Toru Nakagawa, Toru Honda, Satoshi Owada, Hitoshi Endo, Masayuki Tatemichi
PURPOSE: To perform a preliminary evaluation of the applicability of automatic spectral domain optical coherence tomography (ASD-OCT) for glaucoma mass screening in a population-based setting. METHODS: Information using ASD-OCT (thicknesses of the macular retinal nerve fiber layer [mRNFL], disc retinal nerve fiber layer [dRNFL], ganglion cell layer [GCL] + inner plexiform layer [IPL]; GCL+, and ganglion cell complex [GCL + IPL + RNFL; GCL++]) was obtained from 245 eyes of 123 glaucomatous subjects and 1,454 eyes of 727 normal subjects...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089775/degenerative-effects-of-cobalt-chloride-treatment-on-neurons-and-microglia-in-a-porcine-retina-organ-culture-model
#2
S Kuehn, J Hurst, F Rensinghoff, T Tsai, S Grauthoff, Y Satgunarajah, H B Dick, S Schnichels, S C Joachim
In order to understand the pathological processes of retinal diseases, experimental models are necessary. Cobalt, as part of the vitamin B12 complex, is important for neuronal integrity. However, it is known that high quantities of cobalt induce cytotoxic mechanisms via hypoxia mimicry. Therefore, we tested the degenerative effect of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) on neurons and microglia in a porcine retina organ culture model. Organotypic cultures of porcine retinas were cultured and treated with different concentrations of CoCl2 (0, 100, 300 and 500 μM) for 48 h...
January 12, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078622/evidence-that-polycystins-are-involved-in-hydra-cnidocyte-discharge
#3
Susan McLaughlin
Like other cnidarians, the freshwater organism Hydra is characterized by the possession of cnidocytes (stinging cells). Most cnidocytes are located on hydra tentacles, where they are organized along with sensory cells and ganglion cells into battery complexes. The function of the battery complexes is to integrate multiple types of stimuli for the regulation of cnidocyte discharge. The molecular mechanisms controlling the discharge of cnidocytes are not yet fully understood, but it is known that discharge depends on extracellular Ca(2+) and that mechanically induced cnidocyte discharge can be enhanced by the presence of prey extracts and other chemicals...
March 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075051/bilateral-multifocal-upper-extremity-atypical-granular-cell-tumors-presenting-as-long-standing-right-wrist-and-left-hand-masses-in-a-15-year-old-african-american-female
#4
Michael DeWall, Corey O Montgomery, Jerad M Gardner
Granular cell tumor (GrCT) is a benign nerve sheath tumor. Atypical and malignant variants of GrCT are rare but have been well described. We report a case of multifocal symmetric atypical GrCT in the bilateral hand/wrists of a 15 year old African American female. The initial clinical impression for both masses were favored to be ganglion cysts. Ultrasound findings of both masses revealed hypoechoic soft tissue lesions with some internal echogenicity favoring complex cysts. On excision, both masses were histologically circumscribed, lobulated, and attached to tendon...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065797/characterising-the-developmental-profile-of-hesc-derived-medium-spiny-neuron-progenitors-and-assessing-mature-neuron-function-using-a-crispr-generated-human-darpp-32-wt-egfp-amp-reporter-line
#5
C P J Hunt, C W Pouton, J M Haynes
In the developing ventral telencephalon, cells of the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) give rise to all medium spiny neurons (MSNs). This development occurs in response to a highly orchestrated series of morphogenetic stimuli that pattern the resultant neurons as they develop. Striatal MSNs are characterised by expression of dopamine receptors, dopamine-and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP32) and the neurotransmitter GABA. In this study, we demonstrate that fine tuning WNT and SHH signaling early in human embryonic stem cell differentiation can induce a subpallial progenitor molecular profile...
January 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064040/bax-to-basics-how-the-bcl2-gene-family-controls-the-death-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#6
REVIEW
Margaret E Maes, Cassandra L Schlamp, Robert W Nickells
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is the principal consequence of injury to the optic nerve. For several decades, we have understood that the RGC death process was executed by apoptosis, suggesting that there may be ways to therapeutically intervene in this cell death program and provide a more direct treatment to the cells and tissues affected in diseases like glaucoma. A major part of this endeavor has been to elucidate the molecular biological pathways active in RGCs from the point of axonal injury to the point of irreversible cell death...
January 4, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045002/topographic-prominence-discriminator-for-the-detection-of-short-latency-spikes-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#7
Myoung-Hwan Choi, Jungryul Ahn, Daejin Park, Sang Min Lee, Kwangsoo Kim, Dong-Il Cho, Solomon Senok, Kyo-In Koo, Yongsook Goo
<i>Objective</i>: Direct stimulation of retinal ganglion cells in degenerate retinas by implanting epi-retinal prostheses is a recognized strategy for restoration of visual perception in patients with retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration. Elucidating the best stimulus-response paradigms in the laboratory using multielectrode arrays (MEA) is complicated by the fact that the short-latency spikes (within 10 ms) elicited by direct retinal ganglion cell (RGC) stimulation are obscured by the stimulus artifact which is generated by the electrical stimulator...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027875/bipolar-cell-reduction-precedes-retinal-ganglion-neuron-loss-in-a-complex-1-knockout-mouse-model
#8
Lanying Song, Alfred Yu, Karl Murray, Gino Cortopassi
Inherited mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency causes Leber's hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration, and optic neuropathies are common in many inherited mitochondrial diseases. How mitochondrial defects pathomechanistically trigger optic neuropathy remains unclear. We observe that complex 1 -deficient Ndufs4-/- mice present with acute vision loss around p30, and this vision loss is coincident with an 'inflammatory wave'. In order to understand what causes the inflammatory wave we explored retinal pathology that occurs from p20-p30...
December 24, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004155/-retinal-imaging-of-the-macula-and-optic-disc-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#9
G N Turski, S Schmitz-Valckenberg, F G Holz, R P Finger
BACKGROUND: Due to current demographic trends, the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia is expected to increase considerably. For potential new therapies it is important to identify patients at risk as early as possible. Currently, there is no population-based screening. Therefore, identification of biomarkers that will help screen the population at risk is urgently needed. Thus, a literature review on retinal pathology in neurodegenerative diseases was performed. METHODS: PubMed was searched for studies published up to August 2016 using the following keywords: "mild cognitive impairment", "dementia", "eye", "ocular biomarkers", "OCT" and "OCT angiography"...
December 21, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002564/subretinal-fluid-levels-of-signal-transduction-proteins-and-apoptosis-molecules-in-macula-off-retinal-detachment-undergoing-scleral-buckle-surgery
#10
Paolo Carpineto, Agbeanda Aharrh-Gnama, Vincenzo Ciciarelli, Enrico Borrelli, Francesco Petti, Raffaella Aloia, Alessia Lamolinara, Marta Di Nicola, Leonardo Mastropasqua
Purpose: To evaluate signal transduction and early apoptosis protein levels in subretinal fluid collected during scleral buckling surgery for macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Our aim was to assess both their relation with RRD features and their influence on the posttreatment outcome. Methods: Thirty-three eyes of 33 RRD patients scheduled for scleral buckle surgery were enrolled in the study. Undiluted subretinal fluid samples were collected during surgery and analyzed via magnetic bead-based immunoassay...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992968/establishment-of-in%C3%A2-vitro-model-of-erectile-dysfunction-for-the-study-of-high-glucose-induced-angiopathy-and-neuropathy
#11
G N Yin, S-H Park, K-M Song, A Limanjaya, K Ghatak, N N Minh, J Ock, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Penile erection requires complex interaction between vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and autonomic nerves. Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common causes of erectile dysfunction (ED) and multiple pathogenic factors, such as cavernous angiopathy and autonomic neuropathy, are associated with diabetic ED. Although a variety of animal models of diabetic ED play an important role in understanding pathophysiologic mechanisms of diabetes-induced ED, these animal models have limitations for addressing the exact cellular or molecular mechanisms involved in ED...
December 19, 2016: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989866/localization-and-expression-of-molt-inhibiting-hormone-and-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-the-green-shore-crab-carcinus-maenas-and-the-blackback-land-crab-gecarcinus-lateralis
#12
Natalie L Pitts, Donald L Mykles
In decapod crustaceans, molting is controlled by the pulsatile release of molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) from neurosecretory cells in the X-organ/sinus gland (XO/SG) complex in the eyestalk ganglia (ESG). A drop in MIH release triggers molting by activating the molting gland or Y-organ (YO). Post-transcriptional mechanisms ultimately control MIH levels in the hemolymph. Neurotransmitter-mediated electrical activity controls Ca(2+)-dependent vesicular release of MIH from the SG axon terminals, which may be modulated by nitric oxide (NO)...
October 27, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955999/neuroprotection-for-glaucoma-requirements-for-clinical-translation
#13
Leonard A Levin, Megan E Crowe, Harry A Quigley
Within the field of glaucoma research, neuroprotection is defined as slowing the functional loss in glaucoma by a mechanism independent of lowering of intraocular pressure. There is currently a great potential for research surrounding neuroprotection as it relates to glaucoma. Anatomical targets for neuroprotection should focus on upstream rather than downstream factors, and could include any part of the retinal ganglion cell, the glia, especially astrocytes or Muller cells, and vasculature. The great number of anatomical targets is exceeded only by the number of possible biochemical pathways and potential treatments...
December 9, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932951/high-pressure-induced-mtdna-alterations-in-retinal-ganglion-cells-and-subsequent-apoptosis
#14
Sheng-Hai Zhang, Feng-Juan Gao, Zhong-Mou Sun, Ping Xu, Jun-Yi Chen, Xing-Huai Sun, Ji-Hong Wu
Purpose: Our previous study indicated that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and mutations are crucial to the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a glaucomatous rat model. In this study, we examined whether high pressure could directly cause mtDNA alterations and whether the latter could lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and RGC death. Methods: Primary cultured rat RGCs were exposed to 30 mm Hg of hydrostatic pressure (HP) for 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. mtDNA alterations and mtDNA repair/replication enzymes OGG1, MYH and polymerase gamma (POLG) expressions were also analyzed...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930757/association-between-regular-cannabis-use-and-ganglion-cell-dysfunction
#15
Thomas Schwitzer, Raymund Schwan, Eliane Albuisson, Anne Giersch, Laurence Lalanne, Karine Angioi-Duprez, Vincent Laprevote
Importance: Because cannabis use is a major public health concern and cannabis is known to act on central neurotransmission, studying the retinal ganglion cells in individuals who regularly use cannabis is of interest. Objective: To determine whether the regular use of cannabis could alter the function of retinal ganglion cells in humans. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this case-control study, individuals who regularly use cannabis, as well as healthy controls, were recruited, and data were collected from February 11 to October 28, 2014...
January 1, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928400/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-a-patient-with-optic-atrophy-after-non-arteritic-anterior-ischaemic-optic-neuropathy
#16
Tomoaki Higashiyama, Yusuke Ichiyama, Sanae Muraki, Yasuhiro Nishida, Masahito Ohji
A 75-year-old female noticed a lower visual field (VF) defect in the right eye. A diagnosis of non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) was made. The lower VF defect in the right eye did not change after onset. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiograms on the disc and the macula showed decreased retinal perfusion in the upper retina of the right eye. Retinal nerve fibre layer loss and ganglion cell complex loss in the upper retina were also seen in the right eye. OCT angiography could non-invasively detect the decrease of the retinal perfusion due to NAION...
June 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928393/the-optical-coherence-tomographic-profile-of-leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy
#17
Thomas R Hedges, Marisa Gobuty, Richard A Manfready, Natalie Erlich-Malona, Caitlin Monaco, Carlos E Mendoza-Santiesteban
The objective of this study was to describe the changes in the retinal ganglion cell complex (GCC) relative to the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) over time in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) patients. Average RNFL and GCC thickness was measured in seven patients in the early acute (123, 68.4 μm), late acute (113.5, 57.4 μm), and chronic (72.7, 50.8 μm) phases. Patients showed thinning of the GCC with RNFL swelling in the early acute phase. GCC thinning became severe within weeks and persisted...
June 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917684/the-long-term-effect-of-oral-isotretinoin-therapy-on-macula-ganglion-cell-complex-thickness
#18
Gülizar Demirok, Yasemin Topalak, Özge Gündüz, Dilsun Yıldırım, Mehmet Fatih Kocamaz, Ahmet Sengun
PURPOSE: To evaluate the long term effect of oral isotretinoin therapy on macula ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Newly diagnosed cystic acne patients who received low dose for a long time systemic isotretinoin therapy were included to study. Thorough ophthalmic evaluation and GCC thickness analysis by using SD-OCT were performed at baseline, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment...
December 4, 2016: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916698/cellular-mechanisms-of-noise-induced-hearing-loss
#19
Arwa Kurabi, Elizabeth M Keithley, Gary D Housley, Allen F Ryan, Ann C-Y Wong
Exposure to intense sound or noise can result in purely temporary threshold shift (TTS), or leave a residual permanent threshold shift (PTS) along with alterations in growth functions of auditory nerve output. Recent research has revealed a number of mechanisms that contribute to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The principle cause of NIHL is damage to cochlear hair cells and associated synaptopathy. Contributions to TTS include reversible damage to hair cell (HC) stereocilia or synapses, while moderate TTS reflects protective purinergic hearing adaptation...
December 2, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911114/changes-of-tangential-traction-after-macular-peeling-correlation-between-en-face-analysis-and-macular-sensitivity
#20
Mario R Romano, Gilda Cennamo, Ida Cesarano, Domenico Cardone, Giuseppe Nicoletti, Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Giovanni Cennamo
PURPOSE: To assess the epi- and intra-retinal morphology changes of the tangential tractions following vitreoretinal surgery for epiretinal membranes and to investigate the correlation between the depth of retinal changes and functional macular sensitivity (MS). METHODS: This is a prospective cross-sectional interventional study, in which 73 eyes of 73 patients with diagnosis of idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) were evaluated. All patients received complete ophthalmic evaluation, including axial and en-face scanning spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) analysis and microperimetry...
December 2, 2016: Current Eye Research
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