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sad person scale

Suzannah Stuijfzand, Minet De Wied, Maaike Kempes, Jolien Van de Graaff, Susan Branje, Wim Meeus
Although gender differences in affective empathy are well established, evidence of gender differences in the development of affective empathy is inconsistent. Consideration of same-sex versus other-sex affective empathy may assist in elucidating these inconsistencies. Gender differences were investigated in the experience of empathic sadness towards same- versus other-sex targets. The relationships were studied cross-sectionally (N = 730) and longitudinally (N = 318) with Dutch adolescents using the empathic sadness scale of the Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents (IECA; Bryant 1982)...
2016: Sex Roles
Nadja Deris, Christian Montag, Martin Reuter, Bernd Weber, Sebastian Markett
According to Jaak Panksepp's Affective Neuroscience Theory and the derived self-report measure, the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS), differences in the responsiveness of primary emotional systems form the basis of human personality. In order to investigate neuronal correlates of personality, the underlying neuronal circuits of the primary emotional systems were analyzed in the present fMRI-study by associating the ANPS to functional connectivity in the resting brain. N = 120 healthy participants were invited for the present study...
November 26, 2016: NeuroImage
Lloyd Balbuena, Rudy Bowen, Marilyn Baetz, Steven Marwaha
BACKGROUND: Mood instability (MI) and irritability are related to depression but are not considered core symptoms. Instruments typically code clusters of symptoms that are used to define syndromic depression, but the place of MI and irritability has been under-investigated. Whether they are core symptoms can be examined using Rasch analysis. METHOD: We used the UK Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2000 data (n = 8,338) to determine whether the nine ICD/DSM symptoms, plus MI and irritability, constitute a valid depression scale...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Hans M Nordahl, Patrick A Vogel, Gunnar Morken, Tore C Stiles, Pål Sandvik, Adrian Wells
BACKGROUND: The most efficacious treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD) are the SSRIs and cognitive therapy (CT). Combined treatment is advocated for SAD but has not been evaluated in randomized trials using CT and SSRI. Our aim was to evaluate whether one treatment is more effective than the other and whether combined treatment is more effective than the single treatments. METHODS: A total of 102 patients were randomly assigned to paroxetine, CT, the combination of CT and paroxetine, or pill placebo...
2016: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Carlos Crivelli, James A Russell, Sergio Jarillo, José-Miguel Fernández-Dols
We report 2 studies on how residents of Papua New Guinea interpret facial expressions produced spontaneously by other residents of Papua New Guinea. Members of a small-scale indigenous society, Trobrianders (Milne Bay Province; N = 32, 14 to 17 years) were shown 5 facial expressions spontaneously produced by members of another small-scale indigenous society, Fore (Eastern Highlands Province) that Ekman had photographed, labeled, and published in The Face ofMan (1980), each as an expression of a basic emotion: happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, and disgust...
October 13, 2016: Emotion
Björn Karlsson, Robert Sigström, Svante Östling, Margda Waern, Anne Börjesson-Hanson, Ingmar Skoog
OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of social anxiety disorders (SAD) with (DSM-IV) and without (DSM-5) the person's own assessment that the fear was unreasonable, in a population sample of older adults. Further, to determine whether clinical and sociodemographic correlates of SAD differ depending on the criteria applied. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: General population in Gothenburg, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: A random population-based sample of 75- and 85-year olds (N = 1200) without dementia...
August 3, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Astrid Baljé, Anja Greeven, Anne van Giezen, Kees Korrelboom, Arnoud Arntz, Philip Spinhoven
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) with comorbid avoidant personality disorder (APD) has a high prevalence and is associated with serious psychosocial problems and high societal costs. When patients suffer from both SAD and APD, the Dutch multidisciplinary guidelines for personality disorders advise offering prolonged cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Recently there is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of schema therapy (ST) for personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder and cluster C personality disorders...
October 8, 2016: Trials
Frederick S Barrett, Petr Janata
Nostalgia is an emotion that is most commonly associated with personally and socially relevant memories. It is primarily positive in valence and is readily evoked by music. It is also an idiosyncratic experience that varies between individuals based on affective traits. We identified frontal, limbic, paralimbic, and midbrain brain regions in which the strength of the relationship between ratings of nostalgia evoked by music and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal was predicted by affective personality measures (nostalgia proneness and the sadness scale of the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales) that are known to modulate the strength of nostalgic experiences...
August 13, 2016: Neuropsychologia
A Tsanas, K E A Saunders, A C Bilderbeck, N Palmius, M Osipov, G D Clifford, G Μ Goodwin, M De Vos
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, assessment of psychiatric symptoms has been relying on their retrospective report to a trained interviewer. The emergence of smartphones facilitates passive sensor-based monitoring and active real-time monitoring through time-stamped prompts; however there are few validated self-report measures designed for this purpose. METHODS: We introduce a novel, compact questionnaire, Mood Zoom (MZ), embedded in a customised smart-phone application...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Paula Glenda Ferrer Cheng, Roann Munoz Ramos, Jó Ágila Bitsch, Stephan Michael Jonas, Tim Ix, Portia Lynn Quetulio See, Klaus Wehrle
BACKGROUND: Language reflects the state of one's mental health and personal characteristics. It also reveals preoccupations with a particular schema, thus possibly providing insights into psychological conditions. Using text or lexical analysis in exploring depression, negative schemas and self-focusing tendencies may be depicted. As mobile technology has become highly integrated in daily routine, mobile devices have the capacity for ecological momentary assessment (EMA), specifically the experience sampling method (ESM), where behavior is captured in real-time or closer in time to experience in one's natural environment...
2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
C De Oliveira, H Rahioui, M Smadja, M A Gorsane, F Louppe
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND: The borderline personality disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder that represents a high number of patients in a psychiatric adult service. Even if some therapies have shown to be effective in the therapeutic care of the borderline personality disorder they only target certain symptoms (e.g. anxiety, sadness, self-mutilation). The aim of this paper is to introduce a therapeutic model little known in France: the mentalization based therapy (MBT) developed in 2004 by Bateman and Fonagy...
July 15, 2016: L'Encéphale
Dora S Wynchank, Denise Bijlenga, Femke Lamers, Tannetje I Bron, Wim H Winthorst, Suzan W Vogel, Brenda W Penninx, Aartjan T Beekman, J Sandra Kooij
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether the association between Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) was mediated by the circadian rhythm. METHOD: Data of 2239 persons from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used. Two groups were compared: with clinically significant ADHD symptoms (N = 175) and with No ADHD symptoms (N = 2064). Sleep parameters were sleep-onset and offset times, mid sleep and sleep duration from the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire...
October 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
G Dorard, M Khorramian-Pour
OBJECTIVES: Our two objectives were: (1) to investigate the relationship between binge eating disorder, dimensions of personality (according to the Big Five model of Costa and McCrae) and those of emotionality in the "tripartite" model of emotions of Watson and Clark; (2) to evaluate the correspondence between the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) scores. METHOD: Four self-administered questionnaires were completed on a shared doc website: the EDI-2, the BES, the BFI-Fr (Big Five Inventory-French version) and the EPN-31 (Positive and Negative Emotionality Scale)...
June 30, 2016: L'Encéphale
Massimiliano Orri, Alexandra Rouquette, Jean-Baptiste Pingault, Caroline Barry, Catherine Herba, Sylvana M Côté, Sylvie Berthoz
The Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS) is a personality instrument based on six evolutionary-related brain systems that are at the foundation of human emotions and behaviors: SEEKING, CARING, PLAYFULNESS, FEAR, ANGER, and SADNESS. We sought to assess for the short and long versions of the ANPS: (a) the longitudinal measurement invariance and long-term (4-year) stability and (b) the sex measurement invariance. Using data from a Canadian cohort (N = 518), we used single-group confirmatory factor analysis to assess longitudinal invariance and multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis to assess sex invariance, according to a five-step approach evaluating five invariance levels (configural, metric, scalar, residual, and complete)...
June 24, 2016: Assessment
Sigmund Karterud, Geir Pedersen, Merete Johansen, Theresa Wilberg, Ken Davis, Jaak Panksepp
There is a longstanding tradition that connects temperament pathology and personality disorders. Emotions are the major constituents of temperament. In mammals, seven primary emotions have been identified: SEEKING, FEAR, CARE, RAGE, SADNESS/PANIC, LUST and PLAY. The study aimed at exploring the relationship between primary emotions and personality disorders (PDs). Five hundred forty-six patients with different degrees and qualities of personality pathology, admitted to treatment in specialized PD services, were diagnosed according to Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders, and their primary emotional profiles were assessed by the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales...
June 3, 2016: Personality and Mental Health
Vincenzo Zanardo, Catia Gabrieli, Gianluca Straface, Francesca Savio, Gino Soldera
Late preterm birth, a rapidly growing segment of premature deliveries, has the potential to cause deleterious effects on women's psycho-emotional experience of labor and the establishment of successful lactation. We compared personality traits by the Lüscher Colour Test, the mother-to-infant bonding attitudes by the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS), and lactation outcome, between mothers of late preterm and at term infants. Our results indicated that mothers idealize their condition and wish to enjoy this magic and extraordinary time in spite of feeling stressed...
May 17, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Tatjana Crönlein, Berthold Langguth, Peter Eichhammer, Volker Busch
INTRODUCTION: Recently it has been shown that acute sleep loss has a direct impact on emotional processing in healthy individuals. Here we studied the effect of chronically disturbed sleep on emotional processing by investigating two samples of patients with sleep disorders. METHODS: 25 patients with psychophysiologic insomnia (23 women and 2 men, mean age: 51.6 SD; 10.9 years), 19 patients with sleep apnea syndrome (4 women and 15 men, mean age: 51.9; SD 11.1) and a control sample of 24 subjects with normal sleep (15 women and 9 men, mean age 45...
2016: PloS One
Walter Wurm, Katrin Vogel, Anna Holl, Christoph Ebner, Dietmar Bayer, Sabrina Mörkl, Istvan-Szilard Szilagyi, Erich Hotter, Hans-Peter Kapfhammer, Peter Hofmann
BACKGROUND: Whether burnout is a distinct phenomenon rather than a type of depression and whether it is a syndrome, limited to three "core" components (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment) are subjects of current debate. We investigated the depression-burnout overlap, and the pertinence of these three components in a large, representative sample of physicians. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, all Austrian physicians were invited to answer a questionnaire that included the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), the Hamburg Burnout Inventory (HBI), as well as demographic and job-related parameters...
2016: PloS One
Lisanne M Jenkins, Katharine J Drummond, David G Andrewes
Psychological distress has a high prevalence in brain tumour patients, and understanding the emotional and personality changes that may follow neurosurgery is important for clinical management of these patients. We aimed to characterise these emotional and personality changes using subjective, observer-rated and clinical measures. We examined subjective changes in emotional experience and observer-rated changes to personality disturbances following neurosurgery for brain tumours (n=44), compared to a control group that had undergone spinal surgery (n=26)...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Rebecca E Ready, Gennarina D Santorelli, Molly A Mather
OBJECTIVES: Theoretical models of adult development suggest changes in emotion systems with age. This study determined how younger and older adults judged and classified 70 emotion terms that varied in valence and arousal, and that have been used in previous studies of adult aging and emotion. The terms were from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule - Expanded (PANAS-X) and the (KS) affect scales. METHOD: Older (n = 32) and younger adults (n = 111) engaged in a card sort task which determined how the 70 emotion terms were classified (i...
February 16, 2016: Aging & Mental Health
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