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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640974/resistance-to-powdery-mildew8-1-boosts-pattern-triggered-immunity-against-multiple-pathogens-in-arabidopsis-and-rice
#1
Yan Li, Yong Zhang, Qing-Xia Wang, Ting-Ting Wang, Xiao-Long Cao, Zhi-Xue Zhao, Sheng-Li Zhao, Yong-Ju Xu, Zhi-Yuan Xiao, Jin-Lu Li, Jing Fan, Hui Yang, Fu Huang, Shunyuan Xiao, Wen-Ming Wang
The Arabidopsis gene RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8.1 (RPW8.1) confers resistance to virulent fungal and oomycete pathogens that cause powdery mildew and downy mildew, respectively. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that ectopic expression of RPW8.1 boosts pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) resulting in enhanced resistance against different pathogens in both Arabidopsis and rice. In Arabidopsis, transcriptome analysis revealed that ectopic expression of RPW8.1-YFP constitutively up-regulates expression of many pathogen-associated molecular pattern-(PAMP-) inducible genes...
June 22, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637323/evolution-of-transcription-activator-like-effectors-in-xanthomonas-oryzae
#2
Annett Erkes, Maik Reschke, Jens Boch, Jan Grau
Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are secreted by plant-pathogenic Xanthomonas bacteria into plant cells where they act as transcriptional activators and, hence, are major drivers in reprogramming the plant for the benefit of the pathogen. TALEs possess a highly repetitive DNA-binding domain of typically 34 amino acid tandem repeats, where amino acid 12 and 13, termed repeat variable di-residue (RVD), determine target specificity. Different Xanthomonas strains possess different repertoires of TALEs...
June 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628666/the-effector-avrrxo1-phosphorylates-nad-in-planta
#3
Teja Shidore, Corey D Broeckling, Jay S Kirkwood, John J Long, Jiamin Miao, Bingyu Zhao, Jan E Leach, Lindsay R Triplett
Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of plants and animals employ type III secreted effectors to suppress innate immunity. Most characterized effectors work through modification of host proteins or transcriptional regulators, although a few are known to modify small molecule targets. The Xanthomonas type III secreted avirulence factor AvrRxo1 is a structural homolog of the zeta toxin family of sugar-nucleotide kinases that suppresses bacterial growth. AvrRxo1 was recently reported to phosphorylate the central metabolite and signaling molecule NAD in vitro, suggesting that the effector might enhance bacterial virulence on plants through manipulation of primary metabolic pathways...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618083/low-abundant-species-facilitates-specific-spatial-organisation-that-promotes-multispecies-biofilm-formation
#4
Wenzheng Liu, Jakob Russel, Henriette L Røder, Jonas S Madsen, Mette Burmølle, Søren J Sørensen
Microorganisms frequently co-exist in matrix-embedded multispecies biofilms. Within biofilms, interspecies interactions influence the spatial organisation of member species, which likely play an important role in shaping the development, structure and function of these communities. Here, a reproducible four-species biofilm, composed of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Xanthomonas retroflexus, Microbacterium oxydans and Paenibacillus amylolyticus, was established to study the importance of individual species spatial organisation during multispecies biofilm development...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612041/structural-and-dynamic-insights-into-the-role-of-conformational-switching-in-the-nuclease-activity-of-the-xanthomonas-albilineans-cas2-in-crispr-mediated-adaptive-immunity
#5
Donghyun Ka, Suji Hong, Ugeene Jeong, Migyeong Jeong, Nayoung Suh, Jeong-Yong Suh, Euiyoung Bae
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins constitute a microbial, adaptive immune system countering invading nucleic acids. Cas2 is a universal Cas protein found in all types of CRISPR-Cas systems, and its role is implicated in new spacer acquisition into CRISPR loci. In subtype I-C CRISPR-Cas systems, Cas2 proteins are metal-dependent double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) nucleases, and a pH-dependent conformational transition has been proposed as a prerequisite for catalytic action...
September 2017: Structural Dynamics (Melville, N.Y.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605028/a-robust-protocol-for-the-isolation-of-cellular-proteins-from-xanthomonas-campestris-in-2d-gel-experiments
#6
Fabian Schulte, Markus Hardt, Karsten Niehaus
Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) is a key technique for the separation of complex protein samples to survey the protein inventory of prokaryotic micro-organisms. Although the preparation of proteins is a critical step in 2D-gel experiments, its effect on the outcome of proteome data is often underestimated. In this work, we show that the choice of protein isolation method can have a profound impact on the quality of 2D-gels of protein extracts from prokaryotes. Based on Xanthomonas campestris, a commercially relevant producer of the thickening agent xanthan, we validated a phenol extraction protocol for the purification of bacterial proteins that provides excellent 2D-gel separation...
June 12, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588570/the-profile-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-bacillus-lipopeptide-extracts-of-five-potential-biocontrol-strains
#7
Ivica Dimkić, Slaviša Stanković, Marija Nišavić, Marijana Petković, Petar Ristivojević, Djordje Fira, Tanja Berić
In this study the efficacy of two different methods for extracting lipopeptides produced by five Bacillus strains-ethyl acetate extraction, and acid precipitation followed by methanol extraction-was investigated using mass spectrometry. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) was also used for the simultaneous separation of complex mixtures of lipopeptide extracts and for the determination of antimicrobial activity of their components. The mass spectra clearly showed well-resolved groups of peaks corresponding to different lipopeptide families (kurstakins, iturins, surfactins, and fengycins)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577284/overexpression-of-rice-auxilin-like-protein-xb21-induces-necrotic-lesions-up-regulates-endocytosis-related-genes-and-confers-enhanced-resistance-to-xanthomonas-oryzae-pv-oryzae
#8
Chang-Jin Park, Tong Wei, Rita Sharma, Pamela C Ronald
BACKGROUND: The rice immune receptor XA21 confers resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). To elucidate the mechanism of XA21-mediated immunity, we previously performed a yeast two-hybrid screening for XA21 interactors and identified XA21 binding protein 21 (XB21). RESULTS: Here, we report that XB21 is an auxilin-like protein predicted to function in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We demonstrate an XA21/XB21 in vivo interaction using co-immunoprecipitation in rice...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570142/an-efficient-approach-to-explore-and-discriminate-anomalous-regions-in-bacterial-genomes-based-on-maximum-entropy
#9
Gesiele Almeida Barros-Carvalho, Marie-Anne Van Sluys, Fabricio Martins Lopes
Recently, there has been an increase in the number of whole bacterial genomes sequenced, mainly due to the advancing of next-generation sequencing technologies. In face of this, there is a need to provide new analytical alternatives that can follow this advance. Given our current knowledge about the genomic plasticity of bacteria and that those genomic regions can uncover important features about this microorganism, our goal was to develop a fast methodology based on maximum entropy (ME) to guide the researcher to regions that could be prioritized during the analysis...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562158/sulfate-binding-protein-sbp-from-xanthomonas-citri-structure-and-functional-insights
#10
Cristiane Tambascia Pereira, Cássia Roesler, Jéssica Nascimento Faria, Melissa Regina Fessel, Andrea Balan
The uptake and transport of sulfate in bacteria is mediated by an ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC transporter) encoded by sbpcysUWA genes, whose importance has been widely demonstrated due to their relevance in cysteine synthesis and bacterial growth. In Xanthomonas citri, the causative agent of canker disease, the expression of components from this ABC transporter and others related to uptake of organic sulfur sources has been shown during in vitro growth cultures. In this work, based on gene reporter and proteomics analyses, we showed the activation of the promoter that controls the sbpcysUWA operon in vitro and in vivo and the expression of sulfate-binding protein (Sbp), a periplasmic-binding protein, indicating that this protein plays an important function during growth and that the transport system is active during Citrus sinensis infection...
July 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556915/a-microbially-derived-tyrosine-sulfated-peptide-mimics-a-plant-peptide-hormone
#11
Rory N Pruitt, Anna Joe, Weiguo Zhang, Wei Feng, Valley Stewart, Benjamin Schwessinger, José R Dinneny, Pamela C Ronald
The biotrophic pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) produces a sulfated peptide named RaxX, which shares similarity to peptides in the PSY (plant peptide containing sulfated tyrosine) family. We hypothesize that RaxX mimics the growth-stimulating activity of PSY peptides. Root length was measured in Arabidopsis and rice treated with synthetic RaxX peptides. We also used comparative genomic analyses and reactive oxygen species burst assays to evaluate the activity of RaxX and PSY peptides. Here we found that a synthetic sulfated RaxX derivative comprising 13 residues (RaxX13-sY), highly conserved between RaxX and PSY, induces root growth in Arabidopsis and rice in a manner similar to that triggered by PSY...
May 30, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555192/the-use-of-xanthan-gum-as-vaccine-adjuvant-an-evaluation-of-immunostimulatory-potential-in-balb-c-mice-and-cytotoxicity-in-vitro
#12
Rodrigo Andrade Schuch, Thaís Larré Oliveira, Thaís Farias Collares, Leonardo Garcia Monte, Guilherme Roig Inda, Odir Antonio Dellagostin, Claire Tondo Vendruscolo, Angelita da Silveira Moreira, Daiane Drawanz Hartwig
The successful production of new, safe, and effective vaccines that generate immunological memory is directly related to adjuvant feature, which is responsible for increasing and/or modulating the immune response. Several compounds display adjuvant activity, including carbohydrates. These compounds play important roles in the immune response, as well as having biocompatible properties in vaccine formulations. One such carbohydrate is xanthan gum, a polysaccharide that is produced by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas spp...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550013/an-essential-regulatory-system-originating-from-polygenic-transcriptional-rewiring-of-phop-phoq-of-xanthomonas-campestris
#13
Bao-Yu Peng, Yue Pan, Ru-Jiao Li, Jin-Wei Wei, Fang Liang, Li Wang, Fang-Fang Wang, Wei Qian
How essential, regulatory genes originate and evolve is intriguing because mutations of these genes not only lead to lethality in organisms, but also have pleiotropic effects since they control the expression of multiple downstream genes. Therefore, the evolution of essential, regulatory genes is not only determined by genetic variations of their own sequences, but also by the biological function of downstream genes and molecular mechanisms of regulation. To understand the origin of essential, regulatory genes, experimental dissection of the complete regulatory cascade is needed...
May 26, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542513/structural-features-of-phox-one-of-the-phosphate-binding-proteins-from-pho-regulon-of-xanthomonas-citri
#14
Vanessa R Pegos, Rodrigo M L Santos, Francisco J Medrano, Andrea Balan
In Escherichia coli, the ATP-Binding Cassette transporter for phosphate is encoded by the pstSCAB operon. PstS is the periplasmic component responsible for affinity and specificity of the system and has also been related to a regulatory role and chemotaxis during depletion of phosphate. Xanthomonas citri has two phosphate-binding proteins: PstS and PhoX, which are differentially expressed under phosphate limitation. In this work, we focused on PhoX characterization and comparison with PstS. The PhoX three-dimensional structure was solved in a closed conformation with a phosphate engulfed in the binding site pocket between two domains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540496/phenotyping-of-vigs-mediated-gene-silencing-in-rice-using-a-vector-derived-from-a-dna-virus
#15
Ravi Kant, Indranil Dasgupta
Target genes in rice can be optimally silenced if inserted in antisense or hairpin orientation in the RTBV-derived VIGS vector and plants grown at 28 °C and 80% humidity after inoculation. Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a method used to transiently silence genes in dicot as well as monocot plants. For the important monocot species rice, the Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV)-derived VIGS system (RTBV-VIGS), which uses agroinoculation to initiate silencing, has not been standardized for optimal use...
July 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537271/tal-effector-driven-induction-of-a-sweet-gene-confers-susceptibility-to-bacterial-blight-of-cotton
#16
Kevin L Cox, Fanhong Meng, Katherine E Wilkins, Fangjun Li, Ping Wang, Nicholas J Booher, Sara C D Carpenter, Li-Qing Chen, Hui Zheng, Xiquan Gao, Yi Zheng, Zhangjun Fei, John Z Yu, Thomas Isakeit, Terry Wheeler, Wolf B Frommer, Ping He, Adam J Bogdanove, Libo Shan
Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors from Xanthomonas citri subsp. malvacearum (Xcm) are essential for bacterial blight of cotton (BBC). Here, by combining transcriptome profiling with TAL effector-binding element (EBE) prediction, we show that GhSWEET10, encoding a functional sucrose transporter, is induced by Avrb6, a TAL effector determining Xcm pathogenicity. Activation of GhSWEET10 by designer TAL effectors (dTALEs) restores virulence of Xcm avrb6 deletion strains, whereas silencing of GhSWEET10 compromises cotton susceptibility to infections...
May 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534133/silencing-of-the-rice-gene-lrr1-compromises-rice-xa21-transcript-accumulation-and-xa21-mediated-immunity
#17
Daniel F Caddell, Chang-Jin Park, Nicholas C Thomas, Patrick E Canlas, Pamela C Ronald
BACKGROUND: The rice immune receptor XA21 confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight. We previously demonstrated that an auxilin-like protein, XA21 BINDING PROTEIN 21 (XB21), positively regulates resistance to Xoo. RESULTS: To further investigate the function of XB21, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen. We identified 22 unique XB21 interacting proteins, including LEUCINE-RICH REPEAT PROTEIN 1 (LRR1), which we selected for further analysis...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508261/functional-roles-of-the-pepper-leucine-rich-repeat-protein-and-its-interactions-with-pathogenesis-related-and-hypersensitive-induced-proteins-in-plant-cell-death-and-immunity
#18
REVIEW
Jeum Kyu Hong, In Sun Hwang, Byung Kook Hwang
Pepper leucine-rich repeat protein (CaLRR1) interacts with defense response proteins to regulate plant cell death and immunity. This review highlights the current understanding of the molecular functions of CaLRR1 and its interactor proteins. Plant cell death and immune responses to microbial pathogens are controlled by complex and tightly regulated molecular signaling networks. Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv)-inducible pepper (Capsicum annuum) leucine-rich repeat protein 1 (CaLRR1) serves as a molecular marker for plant cell death and immunity signaling...
May 15, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507764/-actinomyces-provencensis-sp-nov-corynebacterium-bouchesdurhonense-sp-nov-corynebacterium-provencense-sp-nov-and-xanthomonas-massiliensis-sp-nov-4-new-species-isolated-from-fresh-stools-of-obese-french-patients
#19
S Ndongo, C Andrieu, P-E Fournier, J-C Lagier, D Raoult
We report the main characteristics of 'Actinomyces provencensis' strain SN12(T) sp. nov., 'Corynebacterium bouchesdurhonense' strain SN14(T) sp. nov., 'Corynebacterium provencense' strain SN15(T) sp. nov. and 'Xanthomonas massiliensis' strain SN8(T) sp. nov., which were all isolated from stool samples from obese French patients.
July 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507553/virus-bacteria-rice-co-infection-in-africa-field-estimation-reciprocal-effects-molecular-mechanisms-and-evolutionary-implications
#20
Charlotte Tollenaere, Severine Lacombe, Issa Wonni, Mariam Barro, Cyrielle Ndougonna, Fatoumata Gnacko, Drissa Sérémé, Jonathan M Jacobs, Eugénie Hebrard, Sebastien Cunnac, Christophe Brugidou
Simultaneous infection of a single plant by various pathogen species is increasingly recognized as an important modulator of host resistance and a driver of pathogen evolution. Because plants in agro-ecosystems are the target of a multitude of pathogenic microbes, co-infection could be frequent, and consequently important to consider. This is particularly true for rapidly intensifying crops, such as rice in Africa. This study investigated potential interactions between pathogens causing two of the major rice diseases in Africa: the Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) and the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzicola (Xoc) in order to: 1/ document virus-bacteria co-infection in rice in the field, 2/ explore experimentally their consequences in terms of symptom development and pathogen multiplication, 3/ test the hypothesis of underlying molecular mechanisms of interactions and 4/ explore potential evolutionary consequences...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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