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M Probst, M Gómez-Brandón, T Bardelli, M Egli, H Insam, J Ascher-Jenull
Deadwood decay employs a complex metabolism and provides carbon and nutrients for soils. Although being highly diverse, the contribution of the bacterial deadwood colonising community is underexplored compared to the fungal one. Therefore, we performed an in-field mesocosm study and monitored the bacterial communities in decaying experimental Picea abies wood blocks and their underlying soil on north- and south exposed slopes in the Italian Alps over a 2-year period. The faster deadwood decay at the south-facing slope was associated with higher bacterial richness and a higher number of specialist operational taxonomic units (OTUs) which were more strongly correlated to environmental parameters than other bacterial community members...
July 13, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Andres F Gutierrez, Jeffrey W Hoy, Collins A Kimbeng, Niranjan Baisakh
Leaf scald, caused by Xanthomonas albilineans , is a major sugarcane disease worldwide. The disease is managed primarily with resistant cultivars obtained through classical breeding. However, erratic symptom expression hinders the reliability and reproducibility of selection for resistance. The development and use of molecular markers associated with incompatible/compatible reactions could overcome this limitation. The aim of the present work was to find leaf scald resistance-associated molecular markers in sugarcane to facilitate marker-assisted breeding...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mariane Noronha Domingues, Flavio Henrique Moreira Souza, Plínio Salmazo Vieira, Mariana Abrahão Bueno de Morais, Letícia Maria Zanphorlin, Camila Ramos Dos Santos, Renan Augusto Siqueira Pirolla, Rodrigo Vargas Honorato, Paulo Sergio Lopes de Oliveira, Fabio Cesar Gozzo, Mário Tyago Murakami
The classical microbial strategy for depolymerization of β-mannan-containing polysaccharides involves the synergistic action of at least two enzymes, endo-1,4-β-mannanases and β-mannosidases. In this work, we describe the first exo-β-mannanase from the GH2 family, isolated from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri(XacMan2A), which can efficiently hydrolyze both manno-oligosaccharides (MOS) and β-mannan into mannose. It represents a valuable process simplification in the microbial carbon uptake that could be of potential industrial interest...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Xue-Qiang Cao, Jia-Yuan Wang, Lian Zhou, Bo Chen, Yu Jin, Ya-Wen He
Xanthomonadins are yellow pigments that are produced by the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). A pig cluster is responsible for xanthomonadin biosynthesis. Previously, Xcc4014 of the cluster was characterized as a bifunctional chorismatase that produces 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (3-HBA) and 4-HBA. In this study, genetic analysis identified 11 genes within the pig cluster to be essential for xanthomonadin biosynthesis. Biochemical and bioinformatics analysis suggest that xanthomonadins are synthesized via an unusual type II polyketide synthase pathway...
July 11, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Andrés M P Nuñez, Gabriel A A Rodríguez, Fernando P Monteiro, Amanda F Faria, Julio C P Silva, Ana C A Monteiro, Carolina V Carvalho, Luiz A A Gomes, Ricardo M Souza, Jorge T de Souza, Flávio H V Medeiros
Black rot of crucifers, (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris) is the principal yield-limiting and destructive pathogen of cruciferous crop worldwide. In order to validate a bio-based control alternative for this disease, whey, lime sulfur, biofertilizer, Bordeaux mixture or raw milk were applied to kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) plants. The disease control was achieved by most of the tested products. Milk-based products (raw milk and whey) and biofertilizer reduced the severity by 44 and 56% in the field...
July 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Henriette L Røder, Jakob Herschend, Jakob Russel, Michala F Andersen, Jonas S Madsen, Søren J Sørensen, Mette Burmølle
Microbial communities primarily consist of multiple species that affect one another's fitness both directly and indirectly. This study showed that the cocultivation of Paenibacillus amylolyticus and Xanthomonas retroflexus exhibited facultative mutualistic interactions in a static environment, during the course of which a new adapted phenotypic variant of X. retroflexus appeared. Although the emergence of this variant was not directly linked to the presence of P. amylolyticus, its establishment in the coculture enhanced the productivity of both species due to mutations that stimulated biofilm formation...
July 5, 2018: ISME Journal
Shu-Fen Weng, Yung-Chieh Fu, Juey-Wen Lin, Tsai-Tien Tseng
Virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases (VAPGH) in bacteriophages are potential antimicrobials. Xop411 is a syphophage infecting the Gram-negative Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae that causes bacterial leaf blight in rice plants. The Xop411 gp21 protein was identified here as a peptidoglycan glycohydrolase by Western blotting and zymogram assay, and localized to the phage tail by immunogold-labelling electron microscopy. This protein showed an apparent molecular mass of 17 kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide gels, larger than that calculated from the amino acid sequence, 15 kDa with 130 residues...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
Zahra Soleymanpour, Maryam Nikzad, Farid Talebnia, Vahid Niknezhad
Xanthan gum is an exo-polysaccharide industrially produced by fermentation using simple sugars. In this study, broomcorn stem was introduced as a low-cost- and widely available carbon source for xanthan gum fermentation. Broomcorn stem was hydrolyzed using sulphuric acid to liberate reducing sugar which was then used as a carbon source for biosynthesis of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas campesteris . Effects of hydrolysis time (15, 30, 45 and 60 min), sulphuric acid concentration (2, 4, 6 and 8% v/v) and solid loading (3, 4, 5 and 6% w/v) on the yield of reducing sugar and consequent xanthan production were investigated...
July 2018: 3 Biotech
Natalia Gottig, Cecilia V Vranych, Germán G Sgro, Ainelén Piazza, Jorgelina Ottado
Like several pathogenic bacteria, Xanthomonas infect host plants through the secretion of effector proteins by the Hrp pilus of the Type Three Protein Secretion System (T3SS). HrpE protein was identified as the major structural component of this pilus. Here, using the Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) HrpE as a model, a novel role for this protein as an elicitor of plant defense responses was found. HrpE triggers defense responses in host and non-host plants revealed by the development of plant lesions, callose deposition, hydrogen peroxide production and increase in the expression levels of genes related to plant defense responses...
June 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tomasz J Sanko, Astrid S Kraemer, Niklaas Niemann, Arvind K Gupta, Bradley C Flett, Charlotte Mienie, Carlos C Bezuidenhout
Maize bacterial leaf streak disease has spread across maize crops in South Africa and therefore potentially poses a threat to maize production and food security. Until recently, this pathogen was identified as a Xanthomonas campestris pathovar, whereas our South African genomes seem to be more divergent and create their own subclade.
June 28, 2018: Genome Announcements
Jun Qin, Xiaogang Zhou, Lifan Sun, Kailun Wang, Fan Yang, Haicheng Liao, Wei Rong, Junjie Yin, Huamin Chen, Xuewei Chen, Jie Zhang
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the causative agent of rice bacterial leaf blight. While the type III secretion system of X. oryzae pv. oryzae is essential for virulence, the biochemical activities and virulence mechanisms of non-transcription activator-like (non-TAL) effectors delivered by this system are largely unknown. Here, by screening for non-TAL effectors that contribute to X. oryzae pv. oryzae virulence, we revealed that Xanthomonas outer protein K (XopK) inhibits pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity upstream of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades...
June 27, 2018: New Phytologist
Zoe Dubrow, Sukumaran Sunitha, Jung-Gun Kim, Christopher Aakre, Anil Madhusoodana Girija, Guy Sobol, Doron Teper, Yun-Chu Chen, Nejla Ozbaki-Yagan, Hilary Vance, Guido Sessa, Mary Beth Mudgett
14-3-3s are phospho-binding proteins with scaffolding activity that play central roles in the regulation of enzymes and signaling complexes in eukaryotes. In plants, 14-3-3 isoforms are required for disease resistance and key targets of pathogen effectors. Here, we examined the requirement of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) 14-3-3 (TFT) protein family for Xv3 disease resistance in response to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas euvesicatoria. In addition, we determined if tomato 14-3-3 proteins interact with the repertoire of X...
June 27, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Fabrício E Eustáquio Lanza, Weber Marti, Geraldo José Silva Junior, Franklin Behlau
During the development of a citrus fruit, many cycles of infection of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri may occur leading to the development of a range of characteristics of citrus canker lesions scattered across the fruit surface. This study aimed to determine whether the size of the lesions, their distance from the peduncle, and the number and time of appearance of the lesions on fruit of sweet orange were associated with premature fruit drop. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed a negative relationship between the fruit detachment force and the lesion diameter, the proximity of the nearest lesion to the peduncle and the number of lesions...
June 27, 2018: Phytopathology
Xiaojing Fan, Jing Guo, Yinghui Zhou, Tao Zhuo, Xun Hu, Huasong Zou
Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri ( Xcc ) is the major causal agent of citrus canker disease. The XAC1347 gene, which encodes a conserved membrane protein in Xcc , is required for virulence during infection. However, the molecular events mediated by XAC1347 remain unclear. In this study, we reported that XAC1347 gene is positively regulated by two component regulatory system ColRS and required for type III secretion system function. A non-polar deletion mutant of the XAC1347 gene resulted in a Hrp minus phenotype in plants and reduced copper homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Valentina Fiorilli, Candida Vannini, Francesca Ortolani, Daniel Garcia-Seco, Marco Chiapello, Mara Novero, Guido Domingo, Valeria Terzi, Caterina Morcia, Paolo Bagnaresi, Lionel Moulin, Marcella Bracale, Paola Bonfante
Besides improved mineral nutrition, plants colonised by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi often display increased biomass and higher tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Notwithstanding the global importance of wheat as an agricultural crop, its response to AM symbiosis has been poorly investigated. We focused on the role of an AM fungus on mineral nutrition of wheat, and on its potential protective effect against Xanthomonas translucens. To address these issues, phenotypical, molecular and metabolomic approaches were combined...
June 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xianpeng Song, Pei Li, Mingwei Li, Anming Yang, Lu Yu, Liangzhi Luo, Deyu Hu, Baoan Song
Various 1,3,4-oxadiazole thioether derivatives containing 2-chloro-5-methylene pyridine, 2-chloro-5-methylene thiazole, 3,4-dimethoxy-2-methylene pyridine, and N,N-dimethyl-2-ethylamino moieties were designed, synthesized, and assessed for their antibacterial activities against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) via the turbidimeter test in vitro. Preliminary bioassay results confirmed good antibacterial activities for most of these compounds. Among these substances, compound 6r showed the best inhibitory effect against Xoo, and its half-maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) value is 4...
May 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Khandker Shazia Afrin, Md Abdur Rahim, Jong-In Park, Sathishkumar Natarajan, Hoy-Taek Kim, Ill-Sup Nou
Heading cabbage is a nutritionally rich and economically important cruciferous vegetable. Black rot disease, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, reduces both the yield and quality of the cabbage head. Nucleotide binding site (NBS)-encoding resistance (R) genes play a vital role in the plant immune response to various pathogens. In this study, we analyzed the expression and DNA sequence variation of 31 NBS-encoding genes in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata). These genes encoded TIR, NBS, LRR and RPW8 protein domains, all of which are known to be involved in disease resistance...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Sanju Kunwar, Fanny Iriarte, Qiurong Fan, Eduardo Evaristo da Silva, Laura Ritchie, Nghi Song Nguyen, Joshua H Freeman, Robert E Stall, Jeffrey B Jones, Gerald V Minsavage, James Colee, Jay Scott, Gary E Vallad, Cyril Zipfel, Diana Horvath, Jack Westwood, Samuel Hutton, Mathews Lal Paret
Field trials were conducted at two locations in Florida to evaluate transgenic tomatoes expressing the EFR gene from Arabidopsis thaliana, the Bs2 gene from pepper, or both Bs2/EFR for managing bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas perforans. Expression of EFR or Bs2/EFR, in the susceptible genotype, Fla. 8000, significantly reduced bacterial wilt incidence (50-100%) and increased total yield (57-114%) relative to lines expressing only Bs2 or non-transformed Fla...
June 20, 2018: Phytopathology
Manoj Kumar Sriramoju, Tzu-Jing Yang, Shang-Te Danny Hsu
Ornithine transcarbamylases (OTCs) are conserved enzymes involved in arginine biosynthesis in microbes and the urea cycle in mammals. Recent bioinformatics analyses identified two unique OTC variants, N-succinyl-l-ornithine transcarbamylase from Bacteroides fragilis (BfSOTC) and N-acetyl-l-ornithine transcarbamylase from Xanthomonas campestris (XcAOTC). These two variants diverged from other OTCs during evolution despite sharing the common tertiary and quaternary structures, with the exception that the substrate recognition motifs are topologically knotted...
June 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Suji Hong, Donghyun Ka, Seo Jeong Yoon, Nayoung Suh, Migyeong Jeong, Jeong-Yong Suh, Euiyoung Bae
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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