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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913093/genome-of-the-carbapenemase-producing-clinical-isolate-elizabethkingia-miricola-em_chuv-and-comparative-genomics-with-elizabethkingia-meningoseptica-and-elizabethkingia-anophelis-evidence-for-intrinsic-multidrug-resistance-trait-of-emerging-pathogens
#1
Onya Opota, Seydina M Diene, Claire Bertelli, Guy Prod'hom, Philippe Eckert, Gilbert Greub
Elizabethkingia miricola is a Gram-negative non-fermenting rod emerging as a life-threatening human pathogen. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase-producing clinical isolate E. miricola EM_CHUV was recovered in the setting of severe nosocomial pneumonia. In this study, the genome of E. miricola EM_CHUV was sequenced and a functional analysis was performed, including a comparative genomic study with Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and Elizabethkingia anophelis. The resistome of EM_CHUV revealed the presence of a high number of resistance genes, including the presence of the blaGOB-13 and blaB-9 carbapenemase-encoding genes...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864179/prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-among-human-gut-derived-bifidobacteria
#2
Sabrina Duranti, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Leonardo Mancabelli, Francesca Turroni, Christian Milani, Marta Mangifesta, Chiara Ferrario, Rosaria Anzalone, Alice Viappiani, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
: The microbiota of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) may regularly be exposed to antibiotics, which are used to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. Bacterial communities of the gut retain a reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes, and antibiotic therapy thus positively selects for those microorganisms that harbor such genetic features, causing microbiota modulation. During the first months following birth, bifidobacteria represent one of the most dominant components of the human gut microbiota, though little is known about their AR gene complement (or resistome)...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825482/unraveling-genomic-and-phenotypic-nature-of-multidrug-resistant-mdr-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-vrfpa04-isolated-from-keratitis-patient
#3
Murugan N, Malathi J, Umashankar V, Madhavan H N
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa VRFPA04, obtained from a keratitis patient was found to exhibit resistance to betalactam (Penicillins, cephalosporins, including carbapenems, except aztreonam), aminoglycosides, quinolone group of drugs and susceptible to colistin. The complete genome sequencing of the ocular isolate to measure and ascertain the degree of multidrug resistance in VRFPA04 strain resulted in 6,818,030bp (6.8Mb) genome sizes, which happen to be the third largest genome available in the Genbank to date...
December 2016: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814534/changes-in-antibiotic-concentrations-and-antibiotic-resistome-during-commercial-composting-of-animal-manures
#4
Wan-Ying Xie, Xin-Ping Yang, Qian Li, Long-Hua Wu, Qi-Rong Shen, Fang-Jie Zhao
The over-use of antibiotics in animal husbandry in China and the concomitant enhanced selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manures are of serious concern. Thermophilic composting is an effective way of reducing hazards in organic wastes. However, its effectiveness in antibiotic degradation and ARG reduction in commercial operations remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of 15 common veterinary antibiotics and the abundances of 213 ARGs and 10 marker genes for mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in commercial composts made from cattle, poultry and swine manures in Eastern China...
October 27, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797963/molecular-characterization-of-the-psinb-plasmid-of-the-arsenite-oxidizing-metallotolerant-sinorhizobium-sp-m14-insight-into-the-heavy-metal-resistome-of-sinorhizobial-extrachromosomal-replicons
#5
Krzysztof Romaniuk, Lukasz Dziewit, Przemyslaw Decewicz, Sebastian Mielnicki, Monika Radlinska, Lukasz Drewniak
Sinorhizobium sp. M14 is an As(III)-oxidizing, psychrotolerant strain, capable of growth in the presence of extremely high concentrations of arsenic and many other heavy metals. Metallotolerant abilities of the M14 strain depend upon the presence of two extrachromosomal replicons, pSinA (∼ 109 kb) and pSinB (∼ 300 kb). The latter was subjected to complex analysis. The performed analysis demonstrated that the plasmid pSinB is a narrow-host-range repABC-type replicon, which is fully stabilized by the phd-vapC-like toxin-antitoxin stabilizing system...
October 18, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789705/card-2017-expansion-and-model-centric-curation-of-the-comprehensive-antibiotic-resistance-database
#6
Baofeng Jia, Amogelang R Raphenya, Brian Alcock, Nicholas Waglechner, Peiyao Guo, Kara K Tsang, Briony A Lago, Biren M Dave, Sheldon Pereira, Arjun N Sharma, Sachin Doshi, Mélanie Courtot, Raymond Lo, Laura E Williams, Jonathan G Frye, Tariq Elsayegh, Daim Sardar, Erin L Westman, Andrew C Pawlowski, Timothy A Johnson, Fiona S L Brinkman, Gerard D Wright, Andrew G McArthur
The Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD; http://arpcard.mcmaster.ca) is a manually curated resource containing high quality reference data on the molecular basis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), with an emphasis on the genes, proteins and mutations involved in AMR. CARD is ontologically structured, model centric, and spans the breadth of AMR drug classes and resistance mechanisms, including intrinsic, mutation-driven and acquired resistance. It is built upon the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO), a custom built, interconnected and hierarchical controlled vocabulary allowing advanced data sharing and organization...
October 26, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789378/whole-genome-sequencing-for-m-xdr-tuberculosis-surveillance-and-for-resistance-testing
#7
REVIEW
T Walker, M Merker, T Kohl, D W Crook, S Niemann, F Z Borstel, P Peto
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) can help relate Mycobacterium tuberculosis genomes to one another to assess genetic relatedness and infer the likelihood of transmission between cases. The same sequence data is now increasingly being used to predict drug resistance and susceptibility as well. Controlling the spread of tuberculosis and providing patients with the correct treatment are central to the World Health Organization's target to 'End TB' by 2035, to which the global prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis remains one of the main obstacles to success...
October 24, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767072/evaluating-the-mobility-potential-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-environmental-resistomes-without-metagenomics
#8
Katariina Pärnänen, Antti Karkman, Manu Tamminen, Christina Lyra, Jenni Hultman, Lars Paulin, Marko Virta
Antibiotic resistance genes are ubiquitous in the environment. However, only a fraction of them are mobile and able to spread to pathogenic bacteria. Until now, studying the mobility of antibiotic resistance genes in environmental resistomes has been challenging due to inadequate sensitivity and difficulties in contig assembly of metagenome based methods. We developed a new cost and labor efficient method based on Inverse PCR and long read sequencing for studying mobility potential of environmental resistance genes...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766372/translational-metagenomics-and-the-human-resistome-confronting-the-menace-of-the-new-millennium
#9
Matthias Willmann, Silke Peter
The increasing threat of antimicrobial resistance poses one of the greatest challenges to modern medicine. The collection of all antimicrobial resistance genes carried by various microorganisms in the human body is called the human resistome and represents the source of resistance in pathogens that can eventually cause life-threatening and untreatable infections. A deep understanding of the human resistome and its multilateral interaction with various environments is necessary for developing proper measures that can efficiently reduce the spread of resistance...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765485/antibiotics-pharmacokinetics-toxicity-resistance-and-multidrug-efflux-pumps
#10
Çiğdem Yılmaz, Gülay Özcengiz
The discovery of penicillin followed by streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalosporins and other natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic antimicrobials completely revolutionized medicine by reducing human morbidity and mortality from most of the common infections. However, shortly after they were introduced to clinical practice, the development of resistance was emerged. The decreasing interest from antibiotic industry in spite of rapid global emergence of antibiotic resistance is a tough dilemma from the pointview of public health...
October 17, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750121/identification-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-community-and-a-geochip-based-study-of-resistome-in-urban-watersheds
#11
Adrian Low, Charmaine Ng, Jianzhong He
Urban watersheds from point sources are potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, few studies have investigated urban watersheds of non-point sources. To understand the type of ARGs and bacteria that might carry such genes, we investigated two non-point source urban watersheds with different land-use profiles. Antibiotic resistance levels of two watersheds (R1, R3) were examined using heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) as a culturing method to obtain counts of bacteria resistant to seven antibiotics belonging to different classes (erythromycin, kanamycin, lincomycin, norfloxacin, sulfanilamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim)...
September 20, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736752/deciphering-the-resistome-of-the-widespread-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-sequence-type-175-international-high-risk-clone-through-whole-genome-sequencing
#12
Gabriel Cabot, Carla López-Causapé, Alain A Ocampo-Sosa, Lea M Sommer, María Ángeles Domínguez, Laura Zamorano, Carlos Juan, Fe Tubau, Cristina Rodríguez, Bartolomé Moyà, Carmen Peña, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Patrick Plesiat, Antonio Oliver
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used for the characterization of the frequently extensively drug resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa sequence type 175 (ST175) high-risk clone. A total of 18 ST175 isolates recovered from 8 different Spanish hospitals were analyzed; 4 isolates from 4 different French hospitals were included for comparison. The typical resistance profile of ST175 included penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. In the phylogenetic analysis, the four French isolates clustered together with two isolates from one of the Spanish regions...
December 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726801/ancient-resistome
#13
Abiola Olumuyiwa Olaitan, Jean-Marc Rolain
Antibiotic resistance is an ancient biological mechanism in bacteria, although its proliferation in our contemporary world has been amplified through antimicrobial therapy. Recent studies conducted on ancient environmental and human samples have uncovered numerous antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. The resistance genes that have been reported from the analysis of ancient bacterial DNA include genes coding for several classes of antibiotics, such as glycopeptides, β-lactams, tetracyclines, and macrolides...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717408/the-structure-and-diversity-of-human-animal-and-environmental-resistomes
#14
Chandan Pal, Johan Bengtsson-Palme, Erik Kristiansson, D G Joakim Larsson
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are widespread but cause problems only when present in pathogens. Environments where selection and transmission of antibiotic resistance frequently take place are likely to be characterized by high abundance and diversity of horizontally transferable ARGs. Large-scale quantitative data on ARGs is, however, lacking for most types of environments, including humans and animals, as is data on resistance genes to potential co-selective agents, such as biocides and metals...
October 7, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711055/reservoirs-of-resistance-to-understand-why-antibiotics-fail-geneticists-chase-the-resistome
#15
Shraddha Chakradhar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709246/functional-metagenomics-as-a-tool-for-identification-of-new-antibiotic-resistance-genes-from-natural-environments
#16
Débora Farage Knupp Dos Santos, Paula Istvan, Betania Ferraz Quirino, Ricardo Henrique Kruger
Antibiotic resistance has become a major concern for human and animal health, as therapeutic alternatives to treat multidrug-resistant microorganisms are rapidly dwindling. The problem is compounded by low investment in antibiotic research and lack of new effective antimicrobial drugs on the market. Exploring environmental antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) will help us to better understand bacterial resistance mechanisms, which may be the key to identifying new drug targets. Because most environment-associated microorganisms are not yet cultivable, culture-independent techniques are essential to determine which organisms are present in a given environmental sample and allow the assessment and utilization of the genetic wealth they represent...
October 5, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638788/occurrence-and-diversity-of-tetracycline-resistance-genes-in-the-agricultural-soils-of-south-korea
#17
Song Yeob Kim, Saranya Kuppusamy, Jang Hwan Kim, Young-Eun Yoon, Kwon-Rae Kim, Yong Bok Lee
Reports on the occurrence and diversity of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes, which are considered to be emerging pollutants worldwide, have, to date, not been published on South Korean agricultural soils. This is the first study to investigate the persistence of tetracycline (oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and chlortetracycline)-resistant bacterial community and genes in natural and long-term fertilized (NPK, pig, and cattle manure composts) agricultural soils in South Korea. The results showed that oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline could be the dominant residues in animal manures; regular fertilization of manures, particularly pig manures, may be the prime cause for the spread and abundance of tetracycline resistance in South Korean agricultural soils...
September 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613679/the-bacterial-mobile-resistome-transfer-network-connecting-the-animal-and-human-microbiomes
#18
Yongfei Hu, Xi Yang, Jing Li, Na Lv, Fei Liu, Jun Wu, Ivan Y C Lin, Na Wu, Bart C Weimer, George F Gao, Yulan Liu, Baoli Zhu
: Horizontally acquired antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in bacteria are highly mobile and have been ranked as principal risk resistance determinants. However, the transfer network of the mobile resistome and the forces driving mobile ARG transfer are largely unknown. Here, we present the whole profile of the mobile resistome in 23,425 bacterial genomes and explore the effects of phylogeny and ecology on the recent transfer (≥99% nucleotide identity) of mobile ARGs. We found that mobile ARGs are mainly present in four bacterial phyla and are significantly enriched in Proteobacteria The recent mobile ARG transfer network, which comprises 703 bacterial species and 16,859 species pairs, is shaped by the bacterial phylogeny, while an ecological barrier also exists, especially when interrogating bacteria colonizing different human body sites...
November 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604152/characterisation-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clinical-isolates-from-animals-in-new-zealand-2012-2013-and-subclinical-colonisation-in-dogs-and-cats-in-auckland
#19
A Karkaba, J Benschop, K E Hill, A Grinberg
AIMS: To characterise methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from infection sites in animals in New Zealand and assess the prevalence of subclinical MRSA colonisation in dogs and cats attending veterinary clinics in Auckland. METHODS: MRSA isolates from clinical specimens obtained by the main New Zealand veterinary diagnostic laboratories between June 2012 and June 2013, were genotypically characterised by DNA microarray hybridisation analysis and spa typing...
September 7, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599587/antimicrobial-chemicals-are-associated-with-elevated-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-the-indoor-dust-microbiome
#20
Erica M Hartmann, Roxana Hickey, Tiffany Hsu, Clarisse M Betancourt Román, Jing Chen, Randall Schwager, Jeff Kline, G Z Brown, Rolf U Halden, Curtis Huttenhower, Jessica L Green
Antibiotic resistance is increasingly widespread, largely due to human influence. Here, we explore the relationship between antibiotic resistance genes and the antimicrobial chemicals triclosan, triclocarban, and methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben in the dust microbiome. Dust samples from a mixed-use athletic and educational facility were subjected to microbial and chemical analyses using a combination of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, shotgun metagenome sequencing, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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