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Katariina Pärnänen, Antti Karkman, Manu Tamminen, Christina Lyra, Jenni Hultman, Lars Paulin, Marko Virta
Antibiotic resistance genes are ubiquitous in the environment. However, only a fraction of them are mobile and able to spread to pathogenic bacteria. Until now, studying the mobility of antibiotic resistance genes in environmental resistomes has been challenging due to inadequate sensitivity and difficulties in contig assembly of metagenome based methods. We developed a new cost and labor efficient method based on Inverse PCR and long read sequencing for studying mobility potential of environmental resistance genes...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Matthias Willmann, Silke Peter
The increasing threat of antimicrobial resistance poses one of the greatest challenges to modern medicine. The collection of all antimicrobial resistance genes carried by various microorganisms in the human body is called the human resistome and represents the source of resistance in pathogens that can eventually cause life-threatening and untreatable infections. A deep understanding of the human resistome and its multilateral interaction with various environments is necessary for developing proper measures that can efficiently reduce the spread of resistance...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Çiğdem Yılmaz, Gülay Özcengiz
The discovery of penicillin followed by streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalosporins and other natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic antimicrobials completely revolutionized medicine by reducing human morbidity and mortality from most of the common infections. However, shortly after they were introduced to clinical practice, the development of resistance was emerged. The decreasing interest from antibiotic industry in spite of rapid global emergence of antibiotic resistance is a tough dilemma from the pointview of public health...
October 17, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Adrian Low, Charmaine Ng, Jianzhong He
Urban watersheds from point sources are potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, few studies have investigated urban watersheds of non-point sources. To understand the type of ARGs and bacteria that might carry such genes, we investigated two non-point source urban watersheds with different land-use profiles. Antibiotic resistance levels of two watersheds (R1, R3) were examined using heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) as a culturing method to obtain counts of bacteria resistant to seven antibiotics belonging to different classes (erythromycin, kanamycin, lincomycin, norfloxacin, sulfanilamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim)...
September 20, 2016: Water Research
Gabriel Cabot, Carla López-Causapé, Alain A Ocampo-Sosa, Lea M Sommer, María Ángeles Domínguez, Laura Zamorano, Carlos Juan, Fe Tubau, Cristina Rodríguez, Bartolomé Moyà, Carmen Peña, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Patrick Plesiat, Antonio Oliver
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used for the characterization of the, frequently extensively-drug resistant (XDR), P. aeruginosa high-risk clone ST175. A total of eighteen ST175 isolates recovered from 8 different Spanish hospitals were analyzed; four isolates from four different French hospitals were included for comparison. The typical resistance profile of ST175 included penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. In the phylogenetic analysis, the four French isolates clustered together with the two isolates from one of the Spanish regions...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Abiola Olumuyiwa Olaitan, Jean-Marc Rolain
Antibiotic resistance is an ancient biological mechanism in bacteria, although its proliferation in our contemporary world has been amplified through antimicrobial therapy. Recent studies conducted on ancient environmental and human samples have uncovered numerous antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. The resistance genes that have been reported from the analysis of ancient bacterial DNA include genes coding for several classes of antibiotics, such as glycopeptides, β-lactams, tetracyclines, and macrolides...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Chandan Pal, Johan Bengtsson-Palme, Erik Kristiansson, D G Joakim Larsson
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are widespread but cause problems only when present in pathogens. Environments where selection and transmission of antibiotic resistance frequently take place are likely to be characterized by high abundance and diversity of horizontally transferable ARGs. Large-scale quantitative data on ARGs is, however, lacking for most types of environments, including humans and animals, as is data on resistance genes to potential co-selective agents, such as biocides and metals...
October 7, 2016: Microbiome
Shraddha Chakradhar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Nature Medicine
Débora Farage Knupp Dos Santos, Paula Istvan, Betania Ferraz Quirino, Ricardo Henrique Kruger
Antibiotic resistance has become a major concern for human and animal health, as therapeutic alternatives to treat multidrug-resistant microorganisms are rapidly dwindling. The problem is compounded by low investment in antibiotic research and lack of new effective antimicrobial drugs on the market. Exploring environmental antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) will help us to better understand bacterial resistance mechanisms, which may be the key to identifying new drug targets. Because most environment-associated microorganisms are not yet cultivable, culture-independent techniques are essential to determine which organisms are present in a given environmental sample and allow the assessment and utilization of the genetic wealth they represent...
October 5, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Song Yeob Kim, Saranya Kuppusamy, Jang Hwan Kim, Young-Eun Yoon, Kwon-Rae Kim, Yong Bok Lee
Reports on the occurrence and diversity of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes, which are considered to be emerging pollutants worldwide, have, to date, not been published on South Korean agricultural soils. This is the first study to investigate the persistence of tetracycline (oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and chlortetracycline)-resistant bacterial community and genes in natural and long-term fertilized (NPK, pig, and cattle manure composts) agricultural soils in South Korea. The results showed that oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline could be the dominant residues in animal manures; regular fertilization of manures, particularly pig manures, may be the prime cause for the spread and abundance of tetracycline resistance in South Korean agricultural soils...
September 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yongfei Hu, Xi Yang, Jing Li, Na Lv, Fei Liu, Jun Wu, Ivan Y C Lin, Na Wu, Bart C Weimer, George F Gao, Yulan Liu, Baoli Zhu
: Horizontally acquired antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in bacteria are highly mobile and have been ranked as principal risk resistance determinants. However, the transfer network of the mobile resistome and the forces driving mobile ARG transfer are largely unknown. Here, we present the whole profile of the mobile resistome in 23,425 bacterial genomes and explore the effects of phylogeny and ecology on the recent transfer (≥99% nucleotide identity) of mobile ARGs. We found that mobile ARGs are mainly present in four bacterial phyla and are significantly enriched in Proteobacteria...
September 9, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
A Karkaba, J Benschop, K E Hill, A Grinberg
AIMS: To characterise methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from infection sites in animals in New Zealand and assess the prevalence of subclinical MRSA colonisation in dogs and cats attending veterinary clinics in Auckland. METHODS: MRSA isolates from clinical specimens obtained by the main New Zealand veterinary diagnostic laboratories between June 2012 and June 2013, were genotypically characterised by DNA microarray hybridisation analysis and spa typing...
September 7, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Erica M Hartmann, Roxana Hickey, Tiffany Hsu, Clarisse M Betancourt Román, Jing Chen, Randall Schwager, Jeff Kline, G Z Brown, Rolf U Halden, Curtis Huttenhower, Jessica L Green
Antibiotic resistance is increasingly widespread, largely due to human influence. Here, we explore the relationship between antibiotic resistance genes and the antimicrobial chemicals triclosan, triclocarban, and methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben in the dust microbiome. Dust samples from a mixed-use athletic and educational facility were subjected to microbial and chemical analyses using a combination of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, shotgun metagenome sequencing, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Marcin Adamczuk, Lukasz Dziewit
The draft genome of multidrug-resistant Aeromonas sp. ARM81 isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in Warsaw (Poland) was obtained. Sequence analysis revealed multiple genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, β-lactams or tetracycline. Three different β-lactamase genes were identified, including an extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene bla PER-1. The antibiotic susceptibility was experimentally tested. Genome sequencing also allowed us to investigate the plasmidome and transposable mobilome of ARM81...
September 2, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Kurt Fuursted, Marc Stegger, Steen Hoffmann, Lotte Lambertsen, Paal Skytt Andersen, Mette Deleuran, Marianne Kragh Thomsen
BACKGROUND: During a 27 month period, we detected four incidents of penicillin-resistant (PR) Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) isolated from blood cultures of three patients. METHODS: The 4 PR-SDSE were compared phenotypically and molecularly (using WGS) with 36 penicillin-susceptible SDSE from blood cultures obtained in the same catchment area and time period. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis showed that the four PR-SDSE belonged to a single clone and a possible epidemiological link between the three patients was identified to be a dermatology department...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Raees Khan, Hyun Gi Kong, Yong-Hoon Jung, Jinhee Choi, Kwang-Yeol Baek, Eul Chul Hwang, Seon-Woo Lee
Triclosan (TCS) is a widely used antimicrobial agent and TCS resistance is considered to have evolved in diverse organisms with extensive use of TCS, but distribution of TCS resistance has not been well characterized. Functional screening of the soil metagenome in this study has revealed that a variety of target enoyl acyl carrier protein reductases (ENR) homologues are responsible for the majority of TCS resistance. Diverse ENRs similar to 7-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7-α-HSDH), FabG, or the unusual YX7K-type ENR conferred extreme tolerance to TCS...
2016: Scientific Reports
Molly K Gibson, Bin Wang, Sara Ahmadi, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Phillip I Tarr, Barbara B Warner, Gautam Dantas
Development of the preterm infant gut microbiota is emerging as a critical research priority(1). Since preterm infants almost universally receive early and often extended antibiotic therapy(2), it is important to understand how these interventions alter gut microbiota development(3-6). Analysis of 401 stools from 84 longitudinally sampled preterm infants demonstrates that meropenem, cefotaxime and ticarcillin-clavulanate are associated with significantly reduced species richness. In contrast, vancomycin and gentamicin, the antibiotics most commonly administered to preterm infants, have non-uniform effects on species richness, but these can be predicted with 85% accuracy based on the relative abundance of only two bacterial species and two antibiotic resistance (AR) genes at treatment initiation...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Pierre-Louis Toutain, Aude A Ferran, Alain Bousquet-Melou, Ludovic Pelligand, Peter Lees
Given that: (1) the worldwide consumption of antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in food-producing animals will increase over the coming decades; (2) the prudent use of AMDs will not suffice to stem the rise in human antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of animal origin; (3) alternatives to AMD use are not available or not implementable, there is an urgent need to develop novel AMDs for food-producing animals. This is not for animal health reasons, but to break the link between human and animal resistomes. In this review we establish the feasibility of developing for veterinary medicine new AMDs, termed "green antibiotics," having minimal ecological impact on the animal commensal and environmental microbiomes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Eulyn Pagaling, Joao Gatica, Kun Yang, Eddie Cytryn, Tao Yan
The aim of this study was to determine the phylogenetic diversity of ceftriaxone resistance and the presence of known extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes in culturable soil resistomes. Libraries of soil bacterial isolates resistant to ceftriaxone were established from six physicochemically diverse soils collected in Hawaii (USA) and Israel. The phylogenetic affiliation, ceftriaxone and multidrug resistance levels, and presence of known ESBL genes of the isolates were determined. The soil bacterial isolates were phylogenetically grouped with the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes...
September 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Birgit Wolters, Arum Widyasari-Mehta, Robert Kreuzig, Kornelia Smalla
Pig manures are frequently used as fertilizer or co-substrate in biogas plants (BGPs) and typically contain antibiotic residues (ARs), as well as bacteria carrying resistance genes (RGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). A survey of manures from eight pig fattening and six pig breeding farms and digestates from eight BGPs in Lower Saxony, Germany was conducted to evaluate the link between antibiotic usage and ARs to RGs and MGEs present in organic fertilizers. In total, 11 different antibiotics belonging to six substance classes were applied in the farms investigated...
November 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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