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Jose J G Marin, Oscar Briz, Elisa Herraez, Elisa Lozano, Maitane Asensio, Silvia Di Giacomo, Marta R Romero, Luis M Osorio-Padilla, Ana I Santos-Llamas, Maria A Serrano, Carolina Armengol, Thomas Efferth, Rocio I R Macias
A characteristic shared by most frequent types of primary liver cancer, i.e., hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in adults, and in a lesser extent hepatoblastoma (HB) mainly in children, is their high refractoriness to chemotherapy. This is the result of synergic interactions among complex and diverse mechanisms of chemoresistance (MOC) in which more than 100 genes are involved. Pharmacological treatment, although it can be initially effective, frequently stimulates the expression of MOC genes, which results in the relapse of the tumor, usually with a more aggressive and less chemosensitive phenotype...
March 12, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Olga L Voronina, Marina S Kunda, Natalia N Ryzhova, Ekaterina I Aksenova, Natalia E Sharapova, Andrey N Semenov, Elena L Amelina, Alexandr G Chuchalin, Alexandr L Gintsburg
BACKGROUND: Microbes infecting cystic fibrosis patients' respiratory tract are important in determining patients' functional status. Representatives of Burkholderiales order are the most dangerous. The goal of our investigation was to reveal the diversity of Burkholderiales, define of their proportion in the microbiome of various parts of respiratory tract and determine the pathogenicity of the main representatives. RESULTS: In more than 500 cystic fibrosis patients, representing all Federal Regions of Russia, 34...
February 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
Raphael Eisenhofer, Laura S Weyrich
Santiago-Rodriguez et al. [1] report on the putative gut microbiome and resistome of Inca and Italian mummies, and find that Italian mummies exhibit higher bacterial diversity compared to the Inca mummies.[...].
February 26, 2018: Genes
Trestan Pillonel, Patrice Nordmann, Claire Bertelli, Guy Prod' Hom, Laurent Poirel, Gilbert Greub
Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae are increasingly reported worldwide (1, 2).….
February 26, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Marc W Van Goethem, Rian Pierneef, Oliver K I Bezuidt, Yves Van De Peer, Don A Cowan, Thulani P Makhalanyane
BACKGROUND: Soil bacteria naturally produce antibiotics as a competitive mechanism, with a concomitant evolution, and exchange by horizontal gene transfer, of a range of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Surveys of bacterial resistance elements in edaphic systems have originated primarily from human-impacted environments, with relatively little information from remote and pristine environments, where the resistome may comprise the ancestral gene diversity. METHODS: We used shotgun metagenomics to assess antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) distribution in 17 pristine and remote Antarctic surface soils within the undisturbed Mackay Glacier region...
February 23, 2018: Microbiome
Ana Caroline L de Paula, Julliane D Medeiros, Analice C de Azevedo, Jéssica M de Assis Chagas, Vânia L da Silva, Cláudio G Diniz
Antibiotic resistance poses an important threat to global public health and has become a challenge to modern medicine. The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a broad range of foods has led to a growing concern about the impact that food may have as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Considering Minas Frescal Cheese (MFC)-a typical Brazilian white soft cheese-and its economic and cultural values, in this study, medically relevant antimicrobial-resistance genetic markers (AR genes) were screened, and the occurrence of integrons were evaluated in manufactured MFC using culture-independent approaches...
February 19, 2018: Genes
Andrés González, María F Fillat, Ángel Lanas
Antibiotics have saved millions of lives over the past decades. However, the accumulation of so many antibiotic resistance genes by some clinically relevant pathogens has begun to lead to untreatable infections worldwide. The current antibiotic resistance crisis will require greater efforts by governments and the scientific community to increase the research and development of new antibacterial drugs with new mechanisms of action. A major challenge is the identification of novel microbial targets, essential for in vivo growth or pathogenicity, whose inhibitors can overcome the currently circulating resistome of human pathogens...
February 20, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Robert Häsler, Christian Kautz, Ateequr Rehman, Rainer Podschun, Volker Gassling, Pius Brzoska, Jon Sherlock, Jan-Thorsten Gräsner, Gesine Hoppenstedt, Sabine Schubert, Astrid Ferlinz, Wolfgang Lieb, Matthias Laudes, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Jens Scholz, Dag Harmsen, Andre Franke, Swantje Eisend, Thomas Kunze, Helmut Fickenscher, Stephan Ott, Philip Rosenstiel, Stefan Schreiber
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant bacteria represent a substantial global burden for human health, potentially fuelled by migration waves: in 2015, 476,649 refugees applied for asylum in Germany mostly as a result of the Syrian crisis. In Arabic countries, multiresistant bacteria cause significant problems for healthcare systems. Currently, no data exist describing antibiotic resistances in healthy refugees. Here, we assess the microbial landscape and presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in refugees and German controls...
February 20, 2018: Microbiome
Andrey Vladimirovich Gorovtsov, Ivan Sergeevich Sazykin, Marina Alexandrovna Sazykina
The minireview is devoted to the analysis of the influence of soil pollution with heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the distribution of antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in soil microbiomes. It is shown that the best understanding of ARGs distribution process requires studying the influence of pollutants on this process in natural microbiocenoses. Heavy metals promote co-selection of genes determining resistance to them together with ARGs in the same mobile elements of a bacterial genome, but the majority of studies focus on agricultural soils enriched with ARGs originating from manure...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhe Tian, Yu Zhang, Min Yang
We evaluated the chronic impact of oxytetracycline (OTC) on performance and antibiotic resistance development during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of antibiotic-containing biomass. Mesophilic AD was conducted in a completely stirred tank reactor by constantly feeding municipal excess sludge spiked with increasing concentrations of OTC (0-1000 mg L -1 ) under a solid retention time of 20 days over a period of 265 days. Results showed that methane generation of mesophilic AD was inhibited when the OTC concentration in digested sludge was increased to around 18,000 mg kg -1 (OTC dose, 1000 mg L -1 ), due to the inhibition of fermenting and acidogenic bacteria...
February 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yanting Zhao, Xu-Xiang Zhang, Zhonghua Zhao, Cuilan Duan, Huangen Chen, Miaomiao Wang, Hongqiang Ren, Ying Yin, Lin Ye
Antibiotic resistance disseminating from animals and their environments is a public issue that poses significant threats to human health. In the present study, the diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in 15 samples from the guts and related aquaculture environments (water and sediment) of shrimp were investigated. In total, 60 ARGs, 102 ARGs and 67 ARGs primarily belonging to 13, 15 and 15 different types were detected in the shrimp gut, pond water and sediment samples, respectively...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Wenguang Xiong, Yulin Wang, Yongxue Sun, Liping Ma, Qinglin Zeng, Xiaotao Jiang, Andong Li, Zhenling Zeng, Tong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial agents have been widely used in animal farms to prevent and treat animal diseases and to promote growth. Antimicrobial agents may change the bacterial community and enhance the resistome in animal feces. We used metagenome-wide analysis to investigate the changes in bacterial community, variations in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and their bacterial hosts in the feces of broiler chickens over a full-treatment course of chlortetracycline at low and therapeutic dose levels...
February 13, 2018: Microbiome
Renxin Zhao, Jie Feng, Xiaole Yin, Jie Liu, Wenjie Fu, Thomas U Berendonk, Tong Zhang, Xiaoyan Li, Bing Li
High throughput sequencing-based metagenomic analysis and network analysis were applied to investigate the broad-spectrum profiles of ARGs in landfill leachate from 12 cities in China. In total, 526 ARG subtypes belonging to 21 ARG types were detected with abundances ranging from 1.1 × 10-6 to 2.09 × 10-1 copy of ARG/copy of 16S rRNA gene. 68 ARG subtypes that accounted for 73.4%-93.4% of the total ARG abundances were shared by all leachate samples. The four most abundant ARGs, sul1, sul2, aadA and bacA can be served as ARG indicators to quantitatively predict the total abundances by linear functions (r2 = 0...
February 5, 2018: Water Research
G L Vanstone, S Woodhead, K Roulston, H Sharma, E Wey, E R Smith, D Mack, I Balakrishnan
PURPOSE: Carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) can be resistant to almost all β-lactams and represent an increasing threat in healthcare facilities. Detection of these organisms in routine diagnostic laboratories is difficult; here we evaluate four commercially available CPO detection assays and assess their suitability for the clinical laboratory. METHODOLOGY: A panel of 95 clinical multidrug-resistant organisms (22 NDM, 24 OXA-48, 19 VIM, 4 OXA-23, 3 KPC, 4 NDM+OXA-48, 1 OXA23+NDM, 1 IMI, 1 IMP-1, 9 ESBL, 3 derepressed AmpC and 4 inducible AmpC producers) were tested by the RESIST-3 O...
February 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Sumayah F Rahman, Matthew R Olm, Michael J Morowitz, Jillian F Banfield
Antibiotic resistance in pathogens is extensively studied, and yet little is known about how antibiotic resistance genes of typical gut bacteria influence microbiome dynamics. Here, we leveraged genomes from metagenomes to investigate how genes of the premature infant gut resistome correspond to the ability of bacteria to survive under certain environmental and clinical conditions. We found that formula feeding impacts the resistome. Random forest models corroborated by statistical tests revealed that the gut resistome of formula-fed infants is enriched in class D beta-lactamase genes...
January 2018: MSystems
C Urbaniak, A Checinska Sielaff, K G Frey, J E Allen, N Singh, C Jaing, K Wheeler, K Venkateswaran
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health issue. In an effort to minimize this threat to astronauts, who may be immunocompromised and thus at a greater risk of infection from antimicrobial resistant pathogens, a comprehensive study of the ISS "resistome' was conducted. Using whole genome sequencing (WGS) and disc diffusion antibiotic resistance assays, 9 biosafety level 2 organisms isolated from the ISS were assessed for their antibiotic resistance. Molecular analysis of AMR genes from 24 surface samples collected from the ISS during 3 different sampling events over a span of a year were analyzed with Ion AmpliSeq™ and metagenomics...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Val F Lanza, Fernando Baquero, José Luís Martínez, Ricardo Ramos-Ruíz, Bruno González-Zorn, Antoine Andremont, Antonio Sánchez-Valenzuela, Stanislav Dusko Ehrlich, Sean Kennedy, Etienne Ruppé, Willem van Schaik, Rob J Willems, Fernando de la Cruz, Teresa M Coque
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a major global health challenge. Metagenomics allows analyzing the presence and dynamics of "resistomes" (the ensemble of genes encoding antimicrobial resistance in a given microbiome) in disparate microbial ecosystems. However, the low sensitivity and specificity of available metagenomic methods preclude the detection of minority populations (often present below their detection threshold) and/or the identification of allelic variants that differ in the resulting phenotype...
January 15, 2018: Microbiome
Thomas C A Hitch, Ben J Thomas, Jessica C A Friedersdorff, Helen Ougham, Christopher J Creevey
Antibiotic resistance is an increasingly important environmental pollutant with direct consequences for human health. Identification of environmental sources of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) makes it possible to follow their evolution and prevent their entry into the clinical setting. ARGs have been found in environmental sources exogenous to the original source and previous studies have shown that these genes are capable of being transferred from livestock to humans. Due to the nature of farming and the slaughter of ruminants for food, humans interact with these animals in close proximity, and for this reason it is important to consider the risks to human health...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Annie N Cowell, Eva S Istvan, Amanda K Lukens, Maria G Gomez-Lorenzo, Manu Vanaerschot, Tomoyo Sakata-Kato, Erika L Flannery, Pamela Magistrado, Edward Owen, Matthew Abraham, Gregory LaMonte, Heather J Painter, Roy M Williams, Virginia Franco, Maria Linares, Ignacio Arriaga, Selina Bopp, Victoria C Corey, Nina F Gnädig, Olivia Coburn-Flynn, Christin Reimer, Purva Gupta, James M Murithi, Pedro A Moura, Olivia Fuchs, Erika Sasaki, Sang W Kim, Christine H Teng, Lawrence T Wang, Aslı Akidil, Sophie Adjalley, Paul A Willis, Dionicio Siegel, Olga Tanaseichuk, Yang Zhong, Yingyao Zhou, Manuel Llinás, Sabine Ottilie, Francisco-Javier Gamo, Marcus C S Lee, Daniel E Goldberg, David A Fidock, Dyann F Wirth, Elizabeth A Winzeler
Chemogenetic characterization through in vitro evolution combined with whole-genome analysis can identify antimalarial drug targets and drug-resistance genes. We performed a genome analysis of 262 Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to 37 diverse compounds. We found 159 gene amplifications and 148 nonsynonymous changes in 83 genes associated with drug-resistance acquisition, where gene amplifications contributed to one-third of resistance acquisition events. Beyond confirming previously identified multidrug-resistance mechanisms, we discovered hitherto unrecognized drug target-inhibitor pairs, including thymidylate synthase and a benzoquinazolinone, farnesyltransferase and a pyrimidinedione, and a dipeptidylpeptidase and an arylurea...
January 12, 2018: Science
Qian Xiang, Qing-Lin Chen, Dong Zhu, Xin-Li An, Xiao-Ru Yang, Jian-Qiang Su, Min Qiao, Yong-Guan Zhu
With the rapid development of urbanization and industrialization, the peri-urban areas are often the sites for waste dumps, which may exacerbate the occurrence and spread of antibiotic resistance from waste to soil bacteria. However, the profiles of antibiotic resistomes and the associated factors influencing their dissemination in peri-urban areas have not been fully explored. Here, we characterized the antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in peri-urban arable and pristine soils in four seasons at the watershed scale, by using high-throughput qPCR...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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