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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535407/a-prospective-study-of-bipolar-disorder-vulnerability-in-relation-to-behavioural-activation-behavioural-inhibition-and-dysregulation-of-the-behavioural-activation-system
#1
R C Dempsey, P A Gooding, S H Jones
BACKGROUND: The weak regulation, or "dysregulation", of the Behavioural Activation System (BAS) is implicated in the development and recurrence of bipolar disorder. However, there has been a lack of prospective studies investigating the predictive role of BAS dysregulation in relation to bipolar-vulnerability. Furthermore, no studies have tested the prospective predictive utility of the DYS self-report measure of BAS dysregulation in an analogue sample. The goal of the current study was to redress this gap...
March 31, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535331/computer-and-mobile-technology-interventions-for-self-management-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
REVIEW
Catherine McCabe, Margaret McCann, Anne Marie Brady
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by airflow obstruction due to an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases, for example, cigarette smoke. The pattern of care for people with moderate to very severe COPD often involves regular lengthy hospital admissions, which result in high healthcare costs and an undesirable effect on quality of life. Research over the past decade has focused on innovative methods for developing enabling and assistive technologies that facilitate patient self-management...
May 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533833/application-of-the-socio-ecological-model-to-predict-physical-activity-behaviour-among-nigerian-university-students
#3
Inimfon Aniema Essiet, Anisah Baharom, Hayati Kadir Shahar, Benjamin Uzochukwu
INTRODUCTION: Physical activity among university students is a catalyst for habitual physical activity in adulthood. Physical activity has many health benefits besides the improvement in academic performance. The present study assessed the predictors of physical activity among Nigerian university students using the Social Ecological Model (SEM). METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited first-year undergraduate students in the University of Uyo, Nigeria by multistage sampling...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532994/johne-s-disease-in-the-eyes-of-irish-cattle-farmers-a-qualitative-narrative-research-approach-to-understanding-implications-for-disease-management
#4
Conor G McAloon, Áine Macken-Walsh, Lisa Moran, Paul Whyte, Simon J More, Luke O'Grady, Michael L Doherty
Bovine Johne's Disease (JD) is a disease characterised by chronic granulomatous enteritis which manifests clinically as a protein-losing enteropathy causing diarrhoea, hypoproteinaemia, emaciation and, eventually death. Some research exists to suggest that the aetiologic pathogen Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis may pose a zoonotic risk. Nationally coordinated control programmes have been introduced in many of the major milk producing countries across the world. However, JD is challenging to control in infected herds owing to limitations of diagnostic tests and the long incubation period of the disease...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532521/animal-board-invited-review-sheep-birth-distribution-in-past-herds-a-review-for-prehistoric-europe-6th-to-3rd-millennia-bc
#5
M Balasse, A Tresset, A Bălăşescu, E Blaise, C Tornero, H Gandois, D Fiorillo, É Á Nyerges, D Frémondeau, E Banffy, M Ivanova
In temperate latitudes sheep have a seasonal reproductive behaviour, which imposes strong constraints on husbandry in terms of work organization and availability of animal products. During the last 50 years, researchers have focused on understanding the mechanisms driving small ruminants' reproduction cycles and finding ways to control them. This characteristic is inherited from their wild ancestor. However, the history of its evolution over the 10 millennia that separates present day European sheep from their Near Eastern ancestors' remains to be written...
May 23, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532509/barriers-and-facilitators-to-healthcare-professional-behaviour-change-in-clinical-trials-using-the-theoretical-domains-framework-a-case-study-of-a-trial-of-individualized-temperature-reduced-haemodialysis
#6
Justin Presseau, Brittany Mutsaers, Ahmed A Al-Jaishi, Janet Squires, Christopher W McIntyre, Amit X Garg, Manish M Sood, Jeremy M Grimshaw
BACKGROUND: Implementing the treatment arm of a clinical trial often requires changes to healthcare practices. Barriers to such changes may undermine the delivery of the treatment making it more likely that the trial will demonstrate no treatment effect. The 'Major outcomes with personalized dialysate temperature' (MyTEMP) is a cluster-randomised trial to be conducted in 84 haemodialysis centres across Ontario, Canada to investigate whether there is a difference in major outcomes with an individualized dialysis temperature (IDT) of 0...
May 22, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532401/risk-reassurance-and-routine-a-qualitative-study-of-narrative-understandings-of-the-potential-for-hiv-self-testing-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-england
#7
T Charles Witzel, Peter Weatherburn, Alison J Rodger, Adam H Bourne, Fiona M Burns
BACKGROUND: HIV testing has seen a rapid evolution over the last decade with multiple modalities now in use globally. In recent years HIV self-testing (HIVST) has been legalised in the UK paving the way for further expansion of testing. Interventions are delivered in particular social contexts which shape uptake. It is therefore important to understand how novel interventions are likely to be received by their intended users. This study aims to understand how HIVST compliments existing testing strategies considered or adopted by men who have sex with men (MSM)...
May 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532327/heroic-struggles-criminals-and-scientific-breakthroughs-adhd-and-the-medicalization-of-child-behaviour-in-australian-newsprint-media-1999-2009
#8
Valerie Harwood, Sandra Jones, Andrew Bonney, Samantha McMahon
There is a dearth of scholarly analysis and critique of the Australian newsprint media's role in the medicalization of child behaviour. To begin to redress this lack this paper analyses newsprint media's use of metaphors that re/describe and construct realities of ADHD with a medicalizing effect. The interdisciplinary team used the Factiva(TM) database to locate and review 453 articles published in Australian national and metropolitan newspapers during the decade 1999-2009. Data analysis involved generating statistical descriptions of the dataset according to attributes such as: date, state, newspaper titles and author names...
June 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532322/the-overt-behaviour-scale-self-report-obs-sr-for-acquired-brain-injury-exploratory-analysis-of-reliability-and-validity
#9
Glenn Kelly, Grahame K Simpson, Suzanne Brown, Peter Kremer, Lauren Gillett
The objectives were to test the properties, via a psychometric study, of the Overt Behaviour Scale-Self-Report (OBS-SR), a version of the OBS-Adult Scale developed to provide a client perspective on challenging behaviours after acquired brain injury. Study sample 1 consisted of 37 patients with primary brain tumour (PBT) and a family-member informant. Sample 2 consisted of 34 clients with other acquired brain injury (mixed brain injury, MBI) and a service-provider informant. Participants completed the OBS-SR (at two time points), and the Awareness Questionnaire (AQ) and Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory-III (MPAI-III) once; informants completed the OBS-Adult and AQ once only...
May 23, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532176/synthesis-of-n-alkylated-chitosan-and-its-interactions-with-blood
#10
Yuchen Huang, Yi Zhang, Longbao Feng, Liumin He, Rui Guo, Wei Xue
When hydrophobically modified chitosan (HM-CHI) comes into contact with red blood cells (RBCs), it can cause agglomeration. This property leads HM-CHI to be a potential agent to form a rapid haemostatic plug to stop bleeding at wound sites. In this study, we investigated the properties of the HM-CHI biopolymer to act as an agent that rapidly clots blood. We have examined the synthesis and structural characteristics of HM-CHI - blood substances using X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis...
May 22, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532096/preparation-of-nanocrystalline-forsterite-by-combustion-of-different-fuels-and-their-comparative-in-vitro-bioactivity-dissolution-behaviour-and-antibacterial-studies
#11
Rajan Choudhary, Prasanth Manohar, Jana Vecstaudza, Maria Josefa Yáñez-Gascón, Horacio Pérez Sánchez, Ramesh Nachimuthu, Janis Locs, Sasikumar Swamiappan
This study presents different fuels (Glycine and Urea) that can be used to synthesize nanocrystalline forsterite by the sol-gel combustion method. The weight change of precursor during thermal treatment was studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Pure forsterite was characterized by heating microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The HAP (hydroxyapatite) deposition ability, degradation and dissolution behaviour of forsterite was examined in simulated body fluid (SBF)...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530660/endoglin-prevents-vascular-malformation-by-regulating-flow-induced-cell-migration-and-specification-through-vegfr2-signalling
#12
Yi Jin, Lars Muhl, Mikhail Burmakin, Yixin Wang, Anne-Claire Duchez, Christer Betsholtz, Helen M Arthur, Lars Jakobsson
Loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in the endothelial cell (EC)-enriched gene endoglin (ENG) cause the human disease hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia-1, characterized by vascular malformations promoted by vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). How ENG deficiency alters EC behaviour to trigger these anomalies is not understood. Mosaic ENG deletion in the postnatal mouse rendered Eng LOF ECs insensitive to flow-mediated venous to arterial migration. Eng LOF ECs retained within arterioles acquired venous characteristics and secondary ENG-independent proliferation resulting in arteriovenous malformation (AVM)...
May 22, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530460/unravelling-motor-learning-processes-in-theatre-performers
#13
Emmanuel Jacobs, Ann Hallemans, Jan Gielen, Luc Van den Dries, Annouk Van Moorsel, Jonas Rutgeerts, Nathalie Roussel
Theatre performers, more than common actors, experience high physical loadings. This study aimed at analysing the motor behaviour ofnovice performers (dancers/actors who were introduced to the acting method of Jan Fabre), by investigating the kinematics of a physical acting exercises in a prospective study. Two measurement sessions were organised, before and after the novice performers (n = 13) took part in seven workshops. Total body kinematics were registered using a 3D motion capture system. By using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), six factors were disseminated out of 30 kinematic parameters: Pelvic Motion, Speed of Progression, Lower Limb Position, Foot Motion, Lower Limb Motion and Trunk Position...
May 22, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530049/examining-the-effects-of-hiv-self-testing-compared-to-standard-hiv-testing-services-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Cheryl C Johnson, Caitlin Kennedy, Virginia Fonner, Nandi Siegfried, Carmen Figueroa, Shona Dalal, Anita Sands, Rachel Baggaley
INTRODUCTION: HIV self-testing (HIVST) is a discreet and convenient way to reach people with HIV who do not know their status, including many who may not otherwise test. To inform World Health Organization (WHO) guidance, we assessed the effect of HIVST on uptake and frequency of testing, as well as identification of HIV-positive persons, linkage to care, social harm, and risk behaviour. METHODS: We systematically searched for studies comparing HIVST to standard HIV testing until 1 June 2016...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530039/transition-from-paediatric-to-adult-care-of-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-sub-saharan-africa-challenges-youth-friendly-models-and-outcomes
#15
Désiré Lucien Dahourou, Chloé Gautier-Lafaye, Chloe A Teasdale, Lorna Renner, Marcel Yotebieng, Sophie Desmonde, Samuel Ayaya, Mary-Ann Davies, Valériane Leroy
INTRODUCTION: The number of adolescents with perinatally or behaviourally acquired HIV is increasing in low-income countries, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV prevalence and incidence are the highest. As they survive into adulthood in the era of antiretroviral therapy, there is a pressing need to transfer them from paediatric to adult care, known as the transition of care. We conducted a narrative review of recent evidence on their transition outcomes in Africa, highlighting the specific needs and challenges in these populations and settings, and the different models of care for transition...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529392/school-composition-school-culture-and-socioeconomic-inequalities-in-young-people-s-health-multi-level-analysis-of-the-health-behaviour-in-school-aged-children-hbsc-survey-in-wales
#16
Graham F Moore, Hannah J Littlecott, Rhiannon Evans, Simon Murphy, Gillian Hewitt, Adam Fletcher
Health inequalities emerge during childhood and youth, before widening in adulthood. Theorising, testing and interrupting the mechanisms through which inequalities are perpetuated and sustained is vital. Schools are viewed as settings through which inequality in young people's health may be addressed, but few studies examine the social processes via which institutional structures reproduce or mitigate health inequalities. Informed by Markham and Aveyard's theory of human functioning and school organisation, including their concept of institutional boundaries, critical theories of marketisation and the concept of micro-political practices within schools, this paper presents analysis of student survey data (N = 9055) from 82 secondary schools in Wales...
April 2017: British Educational Research Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529383/the-pelskin-project-part-ii-investigating-the-physical-coupling-between-flexible-filaments-in-an-oscillating-flow
#17
Alistair Revell, Joseph O'Connor, Abhishek Sarkar, Cuicui Li, Julien Favier, Laura Kamps, Christoph Brücker
The fluid-structure interaction mechanisms of a coating composed of flexible flaps immersed in a periodically oscillating channel flow is here studied by means of numerical simulation, employing the Euler-Bernoulli equations to account for the flexibility of the structures. A set of passively actuated flaps have previously been demonstrated to deliver favourable aerodynamic impact when attached to a bluff body undergoing periodic vortex shedding. As such, the present configuration is identified to provide a useful test-bed to better understand this mechanism, thought to be linked to experimentally observed travelling waves...
2017: Meccanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529114/perceptions-of-healthy-eating-amongst-indian-adolescents-in-india-and-canada
#18
Natasha Correa, Divya Rajaraman, Sumathi Swaminathan, Mario Vaz, K G Jayachitra, Scott A Lear, Zubin Punthakee
INTRODUCTION: Dietary patterns have contributed to the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity among Indian adolescents. Yet there are limited studies on their perspectives on healthy eating. The purpose of this study was to understand perceptions and attitudes of Indian-origin adolescents in India and Canada that may contribute to healthy eating behaviour. METHODS: Qualitative data collection and analysis of 13 focus group discussions (FGD) was conducted among 34 boys and 39 girls (total number of participants: 73) of different weight and socioeconomic status (SES) in rural and urban India, and urban Canada aged 11-18 years...
May 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528860/purifying-selection-and-concerted-evolution-of-rna-sensing-toll-like-receptors-in-migratory-waders
#19
Nynke Raven, Simeon Lisovski, Marcel Klaassen, Nathan Lo, Thomas Madsen, Simon Y W Ho, Beata Ujvari
Migratory birds encounter a broad range of pathogens during their journeys, making them ideal models for studying immune gene evolution. Despite the potential value of these species to immunoecology and disease epidemiology, previous studies have typically focused on their adaptive immune gene repertoires. In this study, we examined the evolution of innate immune genes in three long-distance migratory waders (order Charadriiformes). We analysed two parts of the extracellular domains of two Toll-like receptors (TLR3 and TLR7) involved in virus recognition in the Sanderling (Calidris alba), Red-necked Stint (Calidris ruficollis), and Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres)...
May 18, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528753/healthcare-access-and-quality-index-based-on-mortality-from-causes-amenable-to-personal-health-care-in-195-countries-and-territories-1990-2015-a-novel-analysis-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#20
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on high-income countries and faced several methodological challenges. In the present analysis, we use the highly standardised cause of death and risk factor estimates generated through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) to improve and expand the quantification of personal health-care access and quality for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015...
May 18, 2017: Lancet
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