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Behaviour analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236379/alcohol-consumption-and-low-risk-drinking-guidelines-among-adults-a-cross-sectional-analysis-from-alberta-s-tomorrow-project
#1
Darren R Brenner, Tiffany R Haig, Abbey E Poirier, Alianu Akawung, Christine M Friedenreich, Paula J Robson
INTRODUCTION: Moderate to heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for all-cause mortality and cancer incidence. Although cross-sectional data are available through national surveys, data on alcohol consumption in Alberta from a large prospective cohort were not previously available. The goal of these analyses was to characterize the levels of alcohol consumption among adults from the Alberta's Tomorrow Project in the context of cancer prevention guidelines. Furthermore, we conducted analyses to examine the relationships between alcohol consumption and other high-risk or risk-related behaviours...
December 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236067/how-well-do-health-mediation-programs-address-the-determinants-of-the-poor-health-status-of-roma-a-longitudinal-case-study
#2
Andrej Belak, Zuzana Dankulincova Veselska, Andrea Madarasova Geckova, Jitse P van Dijk, Sijmen A Reijneveld
In Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), health-mediation programs (HMPs) have become central policy instruments targeting health inequities between segregated Roma and general populations. Social determinants of health (SDH) represent the root causes behind health inequities. We therefore evaluated how an HMP based in Slovakia addressed known SDH in its agenda and its everyday implementation. To produce descriptive data on the HMP's agenda and everyday implementation we observed and consulted 70 program participants across organizational levels and 30 program recipients over the long-term...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235439/theoretical-analysis-of-angular-distribution-of-scattering-in-nozzle-components-using-a-response-function-method-for-proton-spot-scanning-therapy
#3
Hideaki Ueda, Michihiro Furusaka, Taeko Matsuura, Shusuke Hirayama, Kikuo Umegaki
In spot-scanning proton therapy, highly precise beam control is required in the treatment nozzle such that the proton beam does not spread out during transportation by restraining the divergence of the beam angle and spot size, simultaneously. In order to evaluate the beam-broadening behaviour induced by passing through the various nozzle components, we have developed a new method to calculate the angular divergence profile of a proton beam in the nozzle. The angular divergence of the proton beam for each nozzle component is calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation code, Geant4, assuming that the initial beam has no divergence...
December 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235189/predictors-of-smoking-cessation-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Muhammad Riaz, Sarah Lewis, Felix Naughton, Michael Ussher
AIM: To identify factors found in the research literature to be associated with smoking cessation in pregnancy. METHODS: Electronic searches of the bibliographic databases of PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Elsevier, Scopus and ISI Web of Science were conducted to April 2017. All studies reporting factors associated with smoking cessation or continuing smoking during pregnancy were included and systematically reviewed, irrespective of study design. The Newcastle Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale was used to assess the study quality...
December 13, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235170/scaling-up-integrated-early-childhood-development-programs-lessons-from-four-countries
#5
R Pérez-Escamilla, V Cavallera, M Tomlinson, T Dua
BACKGROUND: There is still limited knowledge regarding the translation of early child development (ECD) knowledge into effective policies and large-scale programmes. A variety of frameworks that outline the key steps in scaling up exist, but we argue that taking a complex adaptive systems (CAS) approach assists in understanding the complex, dynamic processes that result in programmes being taken to scale. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to examine the process of scaling up four major country-level ECD programmes through the application of a CAS framework...
January 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235128/-love-builds-brains-representations-of-attachment-and-children-s-brain-development-in-parenting-education-material
#6
Glenda Wall
A focus on early brain development has come to dominate expert child rearing advice over the past two decades. Recent scholars have noted a reinvigoration of the concept of attachment in this advice and changes in the ways that attachment is framed and understood. The extent to which the concept of attachment is drawn on, the way it is framed, and the consequences for mothers, families and parent-child relationships is examined through a discursive analysis of a current Canadian parental education campaign...
December 12, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233658/between-and-within-laboratory-reliability-of-mouse-behaviour-recorded-in-home-cage-and-open-field
#7
Lianne Robinson, Barry Spruijt, Gernot Riedel
BACKGROUND: Reproducibility of behavioural findings between laboratories is difficult due to behaviour being sensitive to environmental factors and interactions with genetics. The objective of this study was to investigate reproducibility of behavioural data between laboratories using the PhenoTyper home cage observation system and within laboratory reproducibility using different lighting regimes. NEW METHOD: The ambulatory activity of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice was tested in PhenoTypers in two laboratories under near identical housing and testing conditions (Exp...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233605/measuring-vaccine-acceptance-among-canadian-parents-a-survey-of-the-canadian-immunization-research-network
#8
Eve Dubé, Dominique Gagnon, Manale Ouakki, Julie A Bettinger, Holly O Witteman, Shannon MacDonald, William Fisher, Vineet Saini, Devon Greyson
Parental decision making about childhood vaccinations is complex and multidimensional. There is a perception that the number of parents having concerns regarding childhood vaccinations has been increasing in Canada. The aim of this study was to explore vaccine hesitancy among Canadian parents and to examine factors associated with a parent's intention to vaccinate his/her child. Informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) this study assesses potential associations between parents' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs toward vaccination and their intention to vaccinate their child in the future...
December 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233254/factors-associated-with-four-atypical-cases-of-congenital-syphilis-in-england-2016-to-2017-an-ecological-analysis
#9
Martina Furegato, Helen Fifer, Hamish Mohammed, Ian Simms, Paul Vanta, Sharon Webb, Kirsty Foster, Margaret Kingston, André Charlett, Bhavita Vishram, Claire Reynolds, Noel Gill, Gwenda Hughes
Four isolated cases of congenital syphilis born to mothers who screened syphilis negative in the first trimester were identified between March 2016 and January 2017 compared with three cases between 2010 and 2015. The mothers were United Kingdom-born and had no syphilis risk factors. Cases occurred in areas with recent increases in sexually-transmitted syphilis among women and men who have sex with men, some behaviourally bisexual, which may have facilitated bridging between sexual networks.
December 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233157/medical-student-intervention-to-promote-effective-nicotine-dependence-and-tobacco-healthcare-mind-the-gap-single-centre-feasibility-randomised-trial-results
#10
Anusha Kumar, Kenneth D Ward, Lisa Mellon, Miriam Gunning, Sinead Stynes, Anne Hickey, Ronán Conroy, Shane MacSweeney, David Horan, Liam Cormican, Seamus Sreenan, Frank Doyle
BACKGROUND: Although brief cessation advice from healthcare professionals increases quit rates, smokers typically do not get this advice during hospitalisation, possibly due to resource issues, lack of training and professionals' own attitudes to providing such counselling. Medical students are a potentially untapped resource who could deliver cessation counselling, while upskilling themselves and changing their own attitudes to delivering such advice in the future; however, no studies have investigated this...
December 11, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231747/practice-patterns-to-improve-pre-and-post-transplant-medication-adherence-in-heart-transplant-centres-a-secondary-data-analysis-of-the-international-bright-study
#11
Yuliya Senft, Monika Kirsch, Kris Denhaerynck, Fabienne Dobbels, Remon Helmy, Cynthia L Russell, Lut Berben, Sabina De Geest
BACKGROUND: As medication non-adherence is a major risk factor for poor post-transplant outcomes, we explored how adherence is assessed, enhanced and integrated across the transplant continuum. AIM: The aim of this study was to study practice patterns regarding pre- and post-transplant medication adherence assessment and interventions in international heart transplant centres. METHODS: We used data from the Building Research Initiative Group: chronic illness management and adherence in heart transplantation (BRIGHT) study, a cross-sectional study conducted in 36 heart transplant centres in 11 countries...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230867/sleep-patterns-and-problems-in-infants-and-young-children-in-ireland
#12
S Hanafin
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing recognition that sleep is an important aspect of health and well-being, and this is particularly the case in infancy and early childhood where sleep behaviours and patterns can result in substantial problems. METHODS: This paper draws on Wave 1, 2, and 3 data from Growing Up in Ireland, the national longitudinal study of children in Ireland to provide an overview of sleep patterns in a population of children aged 9 months (n = 11,112), 3 years (n = 9,790), and 5 years (n = 8,996)...
December 12, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229659/a-smoking-prevention-photoageing-intervention-for-secondary-schools-in-brazil-delivered-by-medical-students-protocol-for-a-randomised-trial
#13
Bianca Lisa Faria, Christian M Brieske, Ioana Cosgarea, Albert J Omlor, Fabian N Fries, Christian Olber Moreira de Faria, Henrique Augusto Lino, Ana Carla Cruz Oliveira, Oscar Campos Lisboa, Joachim Klode, Dirk Schadendorf, Breno Bernardes-Souza, Titus J Brinker
INTRODUCTION: Most smokers start smoking during their early adolescence, often with the idea that smoking is glamorous; the dramatic health consequences are too far in the future to fathom. We recently designed and tested an intervention that takes advantage of the broad availability of mobile phones as well as adolescents' interest in their appearance. A free photoageing mobile app (Smokerface) was implemented by medical students in secondary schools via a novel method called mirroring...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229413/constant-light-environment-suppresses-maturation-and-reduces-complexity-of-new-born-neuron-processes-in-the-hippocampus-and-caudal-nidopallium-of-a-diurnal-corvid-implication-for-impairment-of-the-learning-and-cognitive-performance
#14
S K Tahajjul Taufique, Abhilash Prabhat, Vinod Kumar
Periodic day-night environment shapes the temporal pattern in the behaviour and physiology (e.g. 24-h activity-rest and sleep-wake cycles) and the advanced brain function, such as learning, memory and decision making. In a previous study, we showed the abolition of 24-h rhythm in the activity-rest pattern, and an attenuated cognitive performance in diurnal Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) under constant light (no-night; LL) environment. Present study extended this, and investigated LL-induced effects on the neurogenesis (birth, maturation and neurite complexity of new born neurons) in the hippocampus and caudal nidopallium, the brain regions directly associated with learning and cognition in birds...
December 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229300/c-myc-g-quadruplex-binding-by-the-rna-polymerase-i-inhibitor-bmh-21-and-analogues-revealed-by-a-combined-nmr-and-biochemical-approach
#15
Loana Musso, Stefania Mazzini, Anna Rossini, Lorenzo Castagnoli, Leonardo Scaglioni, Roberto Artali, Massimo Di Nicola, Franco Zunino, Sabrina Dallavalle
BACKGROUND: Pyridoquinazolinecarboxamides have been reported as RNA polymerase I inhibitors and represent a novel class of potential antitumor agents. BMH-21, was reported to intercalate with GC-rich rDNA, resulting in nucleolar stress as a primary mechanism of cytotoxicity. METHODS: The interaction of BMH-21 and analogues with DNA G-quadruplex structures was studied by NMR and molecular modelling. The cellular response was investigated in a panel of human tumor cell lines and protein expression was examined by Western Blot analysis...
December 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228767/revealing-electron-electron-interactions-within-lewis-pairs-in-chemical-systems
#16
Adam Jonathan Proud, Brendan James Henry Sheppard, Jason Kenneth Pearson
The so-called "Lewis Pair" is a ubiquitous phenomenon in chemistry and is often used as an intuitive construct to predict and rationalize chemical structure and behaviour. Concepts from the very general Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) model to the most esoteric reaction mechanism routinely rely on the notion that electrons tend to exist in pairs and that these pairs can be thought of as being localized to a particular region of space. It is precisely this localization that allows one to intuit how these pairs might behave, generally speaking, so that reasonable predictions may be made regarding molecular structure, intermolecular interactions, property trends, and reaction mechanisms, etc...
December 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228211/asymmetry-of-post-mortem-neuropathology-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#17
David J Irwin, Corey T McMillan, Sharon X Xie, Katya Rascovsky, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, H Branch Coslett, Roy Hamilton, Geoffrey Aguirre, Edward B Lee, Virginia M Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski, Murray Grossman
Antemortem behavioural and anatomic abnormalities have largely been associated with right hemisphere disease in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, but post-mortem neuropathological examination of bilateral hemispheres remains to be defined. Here we measured the severity of post-mortem pathology in both grey and white matter using a validated digital image analysis method in four cortical regions sampled from each hemisphere in 26 patients with behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, including those with frontotemporal degeneration (i...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228168/glutamate-residues-at-positions-162nd-and-164th-influence-the-beta-lactamase-activity-of-shv-14-obtained-from-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#18
Gaurav Kumar, Sarmistha Biswal, Soshina Nathan, Anindya S Ghosh
Extensive production of SHV-14 beta-lactamase makes Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to beta-lactams. The presence of omega-loop has been reported to influence the beta-lactamase activity, which is also present in SHV-14. Its omega-loop has three glutamates in nearly alternating positions, 162, 164 and 167 but their concise role on the behaviour of SHV-14 is unknown. To uncover the influence of each glutamate on SHV-14, we replaced glutamates with alanine and estimated the effect of each mutation by assessing the change in beta-lactam sensitivities in the surrogate Escherichia coli cells and catalytic efficiencies for hydrolysis with the purified proteins...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227174/gambogic-amide-a-selective-trka-agonist-does-not-improve-outcomes-from-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#19
Maddison R Johnstone, Mujun Sun, Caroline J Taylor, Rhys D Brady, Brian L Grills, Jarrod E Church, Sandy R Shultz, Stuart J McDonald
OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that treatment with nerve growth factor (NGF) may reduce neuroinflammation and apoptosis after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). NGF is thought to exert its effects via binding to either TrkA or p75 neurotrophin receptors. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a selective TrkA agonist, gambogic amide (GA), on TBI pathology and outcomes in mice following lateral fluid percussion injury. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were given either a TBI or sham injury, and then received subcutaneous injections of either 2 mg/kg of GA or vehicle at 1, 24, and 48 h post-injury...
December 11, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227147/-the-investigation-of-attitudes-toward-health-behaviour-among-high-school-and-university-students
#20
Beáta Erika Nagy, Karolina Eszter Kovács
INTRODUCTION: Health awareness plays an important role in our life, which contains attitudes as well behavioural components. Social factors influencing health awareness were the basis of many previous investigations, measuring the effect of demographical and psychological factors. However, investigation of these factors usually happened with separated questions. AIM: The aim of the present study is to test a new questionnaire, which measures health behaviour and attitudes related to health awareness...
November 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
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