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Behaviour analysis

Catherine E Byrne, Joseph A Wonderlich, Timothy Curby, Sarah Fischer, James Lock, Daniel Le Grange
OBJECTIVE: This study explored the relation between eating-related obsessionality and weight restoration utilizing bivariate latent basis growth curve modelling. Eating-related obsessionality is a moderator of treatment outcome for adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN). This study examined the degree to which the rate of change in eating-related obsessionality was associated with the rate of change in weight over time in family-based treatment (FBT) and individual therapy for AN. METHOD: Data were drawn from a 2-site randomized controlled trial that compared FBT and adolescent focused therapy for AN...
April 25, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
Rachel Mason Dentinger, Abigail Woods
Comparison between different animal species is omnipresent in the history of science and medicine but rarely subject to focussed historical analysis. The articles in the "Working Across Species" topical collection address this deficit by looking directly at the practical and epistemic work of cross-species comparison. Drawn from papers presented at a Wellcome-Trust-funded workshop in 2016, these papers investigate various ways that comparison has been made persuasive and successful, in multiple locations, by diverse disciplines, over the course of two centuries...
April 24, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Tom Wilson, Nicholas P Hylton, Yukihiro Harada, Phoebe Pearce, Diego Alonso-Álvarez, Alex Mellor, Robert D Richards, John P R David, Nicholas J Ekins-Daukes
A comprehensive assessment of the nature of the distribution of sub band-gap energy states in bulk GaAsBi is presented using power and temperature dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy. The observation of a characteristic red-blue-red shift in the peak luminescence energy indicates the presence of short-range alloy disorder in the material. A decrease in the carrier localisation energy demonstrates the strong excitation power dependence of localised state behaviour and is attributed to the filling of energy states furthest from the valence band edge...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Toshiki Yoshimizu, Hisashi Shidara, Keita Ashida, Kohji Hotta, Kotaro Oka
In many species, individual social animals interact with others in their group and change their collective behaviours. Meanwhile, for the solitary nematode Caenorhabditis elegans strain, N2, previous research suggests that individuals can change the behaviour of other worms via pheromones and mechanosensory interactions. Pheromones, especially, affect foraging behaviour, so that the chemotactic behaviours of individuals in a group (population) can be modulated by interactions with other individuals in the population...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Flavia Maria Wehrle, Ulrike Held, Ruth Tuura O'Gorman, Vera Disselhoff, Barbara Schnider, Jean-Claude Fauchère, Petra Hüppi, Beatrice Latal, Cornelia Franziska Hagmann
INTRODUCTION: Premature infants are particularly vulnerable to brain injuries with associated cognitive and behavioural deficits. The worldwide first randomised interventional multicentre trial investigating the neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin (entitled 'Does erythropoietin improve outcome in very preterm infants?' (NCT00413946)) included 450 very preterm infants in Switzerland. MRI at term equivalent age showed less white matter (WM) injury in the erythropoietin group compared with the placebo group...
April 24, 2018: BMJ Open
Simone McCarthy, Samantha L Thomas, Melanie Randle, Amy Bestman, Hannah Pitt, Sean Cowlishaw, Mike Daube
BACKGROUND: Women's participation in, and harm from gambling, is steadily increasing. There has been very limited research to investigate how gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of gambling harm may vary across subgroups of women. METHODS: This study surveyed a convenience sample of 509 women from Victoria and New South Wales, Australia. Women were asked a range of questions about their socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behaviour...
April 24, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Alison Hodges, Alison R Harmer, Sarah Dennis, Lillias Nairn, Lyn March, Ross Crawford, David Parker, Marlene Fransen
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of inadequate physical activity and excessive sedentary behaviour before and after total knee replacement. DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Secondary analysis was performed on data from a cohort of 422 adults (45-74 years), drawn from 12 public or private hospitals, undergoing primary unilateral or bilateral total knee replacement surgery. MAIN MEASURES: Questionnaires were used to determine the presence of inadequate physical activity and excessive sedentary behaviour before and 6  and 12 months after total knee replacement surgery...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
Prince Bawuah, Anssi-Pekka Karttunen, Daniel Markl, Cathy Ridgway, Ossi Korhonen, Patrick Gane, J Axel Zeitler, Jarkko Ketolainen, Kai-Erik Peiponen
Heckel analysis is a widely used method for the characterisation of the compression behaviour of pharmaceutical samples during the preparation of solid dosage formulations. The present study introduces an optical version of the Heckel equation that is based on combination of the conventional Heckel equation together with the linear relationship defined between the effective terahertz (THz) refractive index and the porosity of pharmaceutical tablets. The proposed optical Heckel equation allows us to, firstly, calculate the zero-porosity refractive index, and, secondly, predict the in-die development of the effective refractive index as a function of the compressive pressure during tablet compression...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Alison Andrew, Orazio Attanasio, Emla Fitzsimons, Sally Grantham-McGregor, Costas Meghir, Marta Rubio-Codina
BACKGROUND: Poor early childhood development (ECD) in low- and middle-income countries is a major concern. There are calls to universalise access to ECD interventions through integrating them into existing government services but little evidence on the medium- or long-term effects of such scalable models. We previously showed that a psychosocial stimulation (PS) intervention integrated into a cash transfer programme improved Colombian children's cognition, receptive language, and home stimulation...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
Katja Bertsch, Karin Roelofs, Paul Jonathan Roch, Bo Ma, Saskia Hensel, Sabine C Herpertz, Inge Volman
BACKGROUND: Difficulty in controlling emotional impulses is a crucial component of borderline personality disorder (BPD) that often leads to destructive, impulsive behaviours against others. In line with recent findings in aggressive individuals, deficits in prefrontal amygdala coupling during emotional action control may account for these symptoms. METHODS: To study the neurobiological correlates of altered emotional action control in individuals with BPD, we asked medication-free, anger-prone, female patients with BPD and age- and intelligence-matched healthy women to take part in an approach-avoidance task while lying in an MRI scanner...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Alexander C Engel, Carolyn R Broderick, Nancy van Doorn, Louise L Hardy, Belinda J Parmenter
BACKGROUND: Physical activity provides many health benefits, yet few children meet the physical activity recommendations. In school-age children, low proficiency in fundamental movement skills (FMS) is associated with low physical activity (PA). It is unknown if the same relationship exists in pre-schoolers (aged 3-5 years). OBJECTIVES: The aims of this review were to firstly evaluate interventions for improving FMS and PA levels in children aged 3-5 years and 5-12 years, and secondly to determine, where possible, if there is a similar relationship between change in FMS and change in PA across both age groups...
April 21, 2018: Sports Medicine
Hisae Tateishi-Karimata, Naoki Sugimoto
Nucleic acids have emerged as powerful biological and nanotechnological tools. In biological and nanotechnological experiments, methods of extracting and purifying nucleic acids from various types of cells and their storage are critical for obtaining reproducible experimental results. In nanotechnological experiments, methods for regulating the conformational polymorphism of nucleic acids and increasing sequence selectivity for base pairing of nucleic acids are important for developing nucleic acid-based nanomaterials...
April 23, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Ryosuke Ishiwata, Ryota Kinukawa, Yuki Sugiyama
The two-dimensional optimal velocity (2d-OV) model represents a dissipative system with asymmetric interactions, thus being suitable to reproduce behaviours such as pedestrian dynamics and the collective motion of living organisms. In this study, we found that particles in the 2d-OV model form optimal patterns in a maze-like corridor. Then, we estimated the stability of such patterns using the Wasserstein metric. Furthermore, we mapped these patterns into the Wasserstein metric space and represented them as points in a plane...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Karen Krüger, Niklas Leppkes, Sabine Gehrke-Beck, Wolfram Herrmann, Engi A Algharably, Reinhold Kreutz, Christoph Heintze, Iris Filler
BACKGROUND: Statins substantially reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease when taken regularly. Though statins are generally well tolerated, current studies show that one-third of patients discontinue use of statins within 2 years. A qualitative approach may improve the understanding of attitudes and behaviours towards statins, the mechanisms related to discontinuation, and how they are managed in primary care. AIM: To identify factors related to statin discontinuation and approaches for long-term statin adherence...
April 23, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Geoffrey Stewart Morrison, Norman Poh
When strength of forensic evidence is quantified using sample data and statistical models, a concern may be raised as to whether the output of a model overestimates the strength of evidence. This is particularly the case when the amount of sample data is small, and hence sampling variability is high. This concern is related to concern about precision. This paper describes, explores, and tests three procedures which shrink the value of the likelihood ratio or Bayes factor toward the neutral value of one. The procedures are: (1) a Bayesian procedure with uninformative priors, (2) use of empirical lower and upper bounds (ELUB), and (3) a novel form of regularized logistic regression...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Mirjam Stuij
BACKGROUND: Based on a growing body of epidemiological and biomedical studies, physical activity (PA) is considered a cornerstone in type 2 diabetes treatment. However, it is also a practice embedded in daily life and, as such, may produce certain frictions as a topic in health care. The aim of this article is to give in-depth insight into experiences of health care professionals with the delivery of PA counselling to people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This study is based on in-depth interviews with 24 Dutch professionals providing care to people with type 2 diabetes...
April 23, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Paul Innerd, Rory Harrison, Morc Coulson
BACKGROUND: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are difficult to assess in overweight and obese adults. However, the use of open-source, raw accelerometer data analysis could overcome this. This study compared raw accelerometer and questionnaire-assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), walking and sedentary behaviour in normal, overweight and obese adults, and determined the effect of using different methods to categorise overweight and obesity, namely body mass index (BMI), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)...
April 23, 2018: BMC Public Health
Abdul Razzak Khochfe, Mariam Rajab, Fouad Ziade, Zeina Z Naja, Ahmad Salah Naja, Zoher M Naja
PURPOSE: The primary objective was to assess the effect of general anaesthesia versus regional anaesthesia in a single exposure before the age of 2 years on the development of long-term behavioural changes in children. METHODS: The study was conducted between January 2014 and March 2015. Medical records of eligible children were reviewed. Then, parents of children who were included in the study were contacted and asked to visit the Outpatient Department to fill the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory questionnaire to measure behavioural changes in children...
April 19, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Fabian Bäumler, Stanislav N Gorb, Sebastian Büsse
Due to their unique flight mechanism including a direct flight musculature, Odonata show impressive flight skills. Several publications addressed the details of this flight apparatus like: sclerites, wings, musculature, and flight aerodynamics. However, 3D-analysis of the thorax musculature of adult dragonflies was not studied before and this paper allows for a detailed insight. We therefore, focused on the thorax musculature of adult Anisoptera using micro-computed tomography. Herewith, we present a comparative morphological approach to identify differences within Anisoptera: Aeshnidae, Corduliidae, Gomphidae, and Libellulidae...
April 20, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Magdalena Zawadzka, Andrzej Buczyński, Włodzimierz Stelmach, Alina Kowalska, Gabriela Henrykowska
OBJECTIVES: Smoking is a commonly recognized risk factor of civilization diseases. Despite many educational programmes concerning harmful effects of tobacco smoking, this habit is still very popular. Particularly alarming is a high percentage of pregnant women who smoke. METHODS: The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence of smoking among pregnant women depending on their place of residence. The research was conducted in randomly selected 30 outpatient clinics for women in Łodź and 16 outpatient clinics in rural communes of the Łodź province...
March 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
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