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Behaviour analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641047/the-interaction-of-distress-tolerance-and-intolerance-of-uncertainty-in-the-prediction-of-symptom-reduction-across-cbt-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#1
Danielle Katz, Neil A Rector, Judith M Laposa
Distress tolerance (DT) and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) have been identified as transdiagnostic processes that predict symptom severity across a range of distinct anxiety disorders. However, the joint effect of these two variables on therapeutic outcome has not yet been examined. It is possible that DT and IU may both impact on treatment response to cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in clients with anxiety, as clients with weak DT and strong IU may be less likely to engage in exposure and cognitive restructuring tasks across treatment due to their associated distress...
June 22, 2017: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641026/sociodemographic-factors-associated-with-female-genital-cutting-among-women-of-reproductive-age-in-nigeria
#2
T O Ojo, M Y Ijadunola
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of female genital cutting (FGC) among women of reproductive age in Nigeria and identify the sociodemographic factors associated with the practice. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey was carried out in 38,948 women of reproductive age (15-49 years). RESULTS: The prevalence of FGC among respondents was almost 25%, most of whom (82%) had undergone the procedure when they were under 5 years of age...
June 22, 2017: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637091/nurse-managers-determinants-and-behaviours-in-relation-to-patient-and-visitor-aggression-in-general-hospitals-a-qualitative-study
#3
Birgit Heckemann, Karin A Peter, Ruud Jg Halfens, Jos Mga Schols, Gerjo Kok, Sabine Hahn
AIM: 'To explore nurse managers' behaviours, attitudes, perceived social norms and behavioural control in the prevention and management of patient and visitor aggression in general hospitals. BACKGROUND: Patient and visitor aggression in general hospitals is a global problem that incurs substantial human suffering and organizational cost. Managers are key persons for creating low-aggression environments, yet their role and behaviour in reducing patient and visitor aggression remains unexplored...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636664/looking-at-paintings-in-the-vincent-van-gogh-museum-eye-movement-patterns-of-children-and-adults
#4
Francesco Walker, Berno Bucker, Nicola C Anderson, Daniel Schreij, Jan Theeuwes
In the present study, we examined the eye movement behaviour of children and adults looking at five Van Gogh paintings in the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam. The goal of the study was to determine the role of top-down and bottom-up attentional processes in the first stages of participants' aesthetic experience. Bottom-up processes were quantified by determining a salience map for each painting. Top-down processing was manipulated by first allowing participants to view the paintings freely, then providing background information about each painting, and then allowing them to view the paintings a second time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636519/how-we-eat-may-be-as-important-as-what-we-eat-eating-behaviour-and-heart-rate-variability
#5
Mehmet Emre Ozpelit, Ebru Ozpelit
Objective Diet exerts a crucial role on cardiovascular health. Evidence is mainly based on the content and the amount of dietary intakes. Some recent reports demonstrated that eating behaviour may also be of significant importance in cardiovascular health. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of eating behaviour on heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy subjects. Methods and results In total, 521 healthy subjects with 24-hour Holter ECG recordings filled out a special questionnaire about their eating behaviour and lifestyles...
March 30, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636201/an-exploration-of-the-relationship-between-use-of-safety-seeking-behaviours-and-psychosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Sarah Tully, Adrian Wells, Anthony P Morrison
Safety-seeking behaviours are responses employed to protect against perceived threat. In relation to anxiety disorders, safety-seeking behaviours have been implicated in both the formation and maintenance of distress. Several studies have highlighted similar findings in relation to psychosis; however, this literature has not yet been synthesized. This review is, therefore, being conducted in order to synthesize the literature on safety seeking in people with psychosis to increase the understanding of this relationship...
June 21, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636068/parent-child-association-in-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behaviour
#7
Didier Garriguet, Rachel Colley, Tracey Bushnik
BACKGROUND: Parents influence the physical activity and sedentary behaviour of their children. This analysis examines associations between parental role modeling and support and children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour. DATA AND METHODS: The sample consists of 1,328 biological parent-child pairs from the first three cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013). Data on physical activity and sedentary behaviour were collected using a questionnaire and by accelerometer...
June 21, 2017: Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635963/single-molecule-analysis-of-steroid-receptor-and-cofactor-action-in-living-cells
#8
Ville Paakinaho, Diego M Presman, David A Ball, Thomas A Johnson, R Louis Schiltz, Peter Levitt, Davide Mazza, Tatsuya Morisaki, Tatiana S Karpova, Gordon L Hager
Population-based assays have been employed extensively to investigate the interactions of transcription factors (TFs) with chromatin and are often interpreted in terms of static and sequential binding. However, fluorescence microscopy techniques reveal a more dynamic binding behaviour of TFs in live cells. Here we analyse the strengths and limitations of in vivo single-molecule tracking and performed a comprehensive analysis on the intranuclear dwell times of four steroid receptors and a number of known cofactors...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635441/the-extension-of-a-set-of-needs-led-mental-health-clusters-to-accommodate-people-accessing-uk-intellectual-disability-health-services
#9
Jon Painter, Liam Trevithick, Richard Hastings, Barry Ingham, Ashok Roy
BACKGROUND: A development of a needs-led mental health classification system based on the Health of the National Outcome Scales (HoNOS) has previously been developed. AIMS: To extend the needs-based mental health (MH) clusters to accommodate the additional needs of people accessing UK intellectual disabilities health services. METHOD: Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on assessment data from 18 National Health Service (NHS) provider organisations...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635432/psychological-resilience-in-people-experiencing-schizophrenia-and-suicidal-thoughts-and-behaviours
#10
Patricia Ann Gooding, Donna Littlewood, Rebecca Owen, Judith Johnson, Nick Tarrier
BACKGROUND: Negative stressors can aggravate the impact of schizophrenia. However, some people find ways of combating such stressors. There is a dearth of research examining factors which enable individuals with schizophrenia to show psychological resilience. AIMS: The goal of this study was to investigate resilience to negative stressors in people with disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum using a qualitative methodology. METHODS: Data were collected from 23 participants who had experienced schizophrenia and suicidal thoughts and behaviours...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635402/analysing-the-vocal-behaviour-of-teachers-during-classroom-teaching-using-a-portable-voice-accumulator
#11
Manfred Nusseck, Bernhard Richter, Claudia Spahn, Matthias Echternach
PURPOSE: Teachers are at a considerable risk of developing vocal health problems due to intensive voice use during teaching. This study investigated factors related to the teacher's voice during a teaching situation. METHODS: Overall, 113 teachers were recorded during a typical class lesson, lasting on average 48 min. A portable voice dosimeter (VoxLog System) was used to measure the sound pressure level (SPL) of the noise in the classroom, the teacher's voice SPL, the fundamental frequency (fo) and the phonation time...
March 3, 2017: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635351/assessing-the-quality-of-bereavement-care-after-perinatal-death-development-and-piloting-of-a-questionnaire-to-assess-parents-experiences
#12
Esther Aiyelaagbe, Rebecca E Scott, Victoria Holmes, Emma Lane, Alexander E P Heazell
Understanding parents' experience of care is essential to develop high-quality perinatal bereavement services. This study aimed at developing a questionnaire to identify parents' needs and record their experience of care. The patient experience questionnaire was developed by professionals and parents, and piloted in a tertiary maternity unit. Responses were received from 58 parents. Sensitivity and kindness of staff and time spent with their baby were ranked as 'very important' by 95% of parents. Care in these areas largely met their needs (90%), although 5% of respondents stated that partners could have been more involved...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635163/early-pregnancy-body-mass-index-modifies-the-association-of-pre-pregnancy-dietary-patterns-with-serum-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-concentrations-throughout-pregnancy-in-brazilian-women
#13
Camila Benaim, Ana Amélia Freitas-Vilela, Thatiana de Jesus Pereira Pinto, Jaqueline Lepsch, Dayana Rodrigues Farias, Juliana Dos Santos Vaz, Tatiana El-Bacha, Gilberto Kac
Dietary patterns (DPs) have been described as an important factor that may influence polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations and body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy. We aim to evaluate the association between pre-pregnancy DPs and serum PUFA percentages throughout pregnancy considering early pregnancy BMI as a possible effect modifier. A prospective cohort of 154 pregnant women was followed (5th-13th, 20th-26th, and 30th-36th gestational weeks). Serum PUFA concentrations (total n-3 and total n-6, eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acids) were measured in each trimester and expressed as percentages...
June 21, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634630/development-and-validation-of-a-tool-for-non-technical-skills-evaluation-in-robotic-surgery-the-icars-system
#14
Nicholas Raison, Thomas Wood, Oliver Brunckhorst, Takashige Abe, Talisa Ross, Ben Challacombe, Mohammed Shamim Khan, Giacomo Novara, Nicolo Buffi, Henk Van Der Poel, Craig McIlhenny, Prokar Dasgupta, Kamran Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Non-technical skills (NTS) are being increasingly recognised as vital for safe surgical practice. Numerous NTS rating systems have been developed to support effective training and assessment. Yet despite the additional challenges posed by robotic surgery, no NTS rating systems have been developed for this unique surgical environment. This study reports the development and validation of the first NTS behavioural rating system for robotic surgery. METHODS: A comprehensive index of all relevant NTS behaviours in robotic surgery was developed through observation of robotic theatre and interviews with robotic surgeons...
June 20, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633971/manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-depicts-brain-activity-in-models-of-acute-and-chronic-pain-a-new-window-to-study-experimental-spontaneous-pain
#15
I M Devonshire, J J Burston, L Xu, A Lillywhite, M J Prior, D J G Watson, C M Greenspon, S J Iwabuchi, D P Auer, V Chapman
Application of functional imaging techniques to animal models is vital to understand pain mechanisms, but is often confounded by the need to limit movement artefacts with anaesthesia, and a focus on evoked responses rather than clinically relevant spontaneous pain and related hyperalgesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to measure neural responses during on-going pain that underpins hyperalgesia in pre-clinical models of nociception...
June 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633647/meeting-the-oral-health-needs-of-12-year-olds-in-china-human-resources-for-oral-health
#16
Xiangyu Sun, Eduardo Bernabé, Xuenan Liu, Shuguo Zheng, Jennifer E Gallagher
BACKGROUND: An appropriate level of human resources for oral health [HROH] is required to meet the oral health needs of population, and enable maximum improvement in health outcomes. The aim of this study was to estimate the required HROH to meet the oral health needs of the World Health Organization [WHO] reference group of 12-year-olds in China and consider the implications for education, practice, policy and HROH nationally. METHODS: We estimated the need of HROH to meet the needs of 12-year-olds based on secondary analysis of the epidemiological and questionnaire data from the 3rd Chinese National Oral Health Survey, including caries experience and periodontal factors (calculus), dentally-related behaviour (frequency of toothbrushing and sugar intake), and social factors (parental education)...
June 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632910/withdrawn-hypnosis-for-children-undergoing-dental-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Sharifa Al-Harasi, Paul F Ashley, David R Moles, Susan Parekh, Val Walters
BACKGROUND: Managing children is a challenge that many dentists face. Many non-pharmacological techniques have been developed to manage anxiety and behavioural problems in children, such us: 'tell, show & do', positive reinforcement, modelling and hypnosis. The use of hypnosis is generally an overlooked area, hence the need for this review. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review attempted to answer the question: What is the effectiveness of hypnosis (with or without sedation) for behaviour management of children who are receiving dental care in order to allow successful completion of treatment?Null hypothesis: Hypnosis has no effect on the outcome of dental treatment of children...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631956/coping-strategies-and-psychological-distress-in-caregivers-of-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als
#18
Mattia Siciliano, Gabriella Santangelo, Francesca Trojsi, Carmela Di Somma, Manila Patrone, Cinzia Femiano, Maria Rosaria Monsurrò, Luigi Trojano, Gioacchino Tedeschi
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes distress in caregivers. The present study aims to examine the association between coping strategies and psychological distress in caregivers of ALS patients. METHODS: Coping strategies were assessed in 96 ALS informal caregivers by means of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Data about caregivers' demographic characteristics, levels of burden, depression and anxiety (psychological distress) were also gathered by standardised questionnaires...
February 10, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631286/knockdown-of-mediator-subunit-med19-suppresses-bladder-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-migration-by-downregulating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signalling-pathway
#19
Hejia Yuan, Shengqiang Yu, Yuanshan Cui, Changping Men, Diandong Yang, Zhenli Gao, Zhe Zhu, Jitao Wu
Mediator complex subunit 19 (Med19), a RNA polymerase II-embedded coactivator, is reported to be involved in bladder cancer (BCa) progression, but its functional contribution to this process is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the effects of Med19 on malignant behaviours of BCa, as well as to elucidate the possible mechanisms. Med19 expression in 15 BCa tissues was significantly higher than adjacent paired normal tissues using real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of 167 paraffin-embedded BCa tissues was performed, and the results showed that high Med19 protein level was positively correlated with clinical stages and histopathological grade...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630482/circadian-and-circatidal-clocks-control-the-mechanism-of-semilunar-foraging-behaviour
#20
James F Cheeseman, Rachel M Fewster, Michael M Walker
How animals precisely time behaviour over the lunar cycle is a decades-old mystery. Experiments on diverse species show this behaviour to be endogenous and under clock control but the mechanism has remained elusive. We present new experimental and analytical techniques to test the hypotheses for the semilunar clock and show that the rhythm of foraging behaviour in the intertidal isopod, Scyphax ornatus, can be precisely shifted by manipulating the lengths of the light/dark and tidal cycles. Using light T-cycles (Tcd) the resultant semilunar beat period undergoes shifts from 14...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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