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Big data

Jun-Hua Zhang, You-Ping Li, Bo-Li Zhang
The introduction and popularization of evidence-based medicine has opened up a new research field of clinical efficacy evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), produced new research ideas and methods, and promoted the progress of clinical research of TCM. After about 20 years assiduous study and earnest practice, the evidence based evaluation method and technique, which conforms to the characteristics of TCM theory and practice, has been developing continuously. Evidence-based Chinese medicine (EBCM) has gradually formed and become an important branch of evidence-based medicine...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
John F Brothers, Matthew Ung, Renan Escalante-Chong, Jermaine Ross, Jenny Zhang, Yoonjeong Cha, Andrew Lysaght, Jason Funt, Rebecca Kusko
The tremendous expansion of data analytics and public and private big datasets presents an important opportunity for pre-clinical drug discovery and development. In the field of life sciences, the growth of genetic, genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data is partly driven by a rapid decline in experimental costs as biotechnology improves throughput, scalability, and speed. Yet far too many researchers tend to underestimate the challenges and consequences involving data integrity and quality standards. Given the effect of data integrity on scientific interpretation, these issues have significant implications during preclinical drug development...
March 15, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Stuart Maudsley, Viswanath Devanarayan, Bronwen Martin, Hugo Geerts
Biomedical data sets are becoming increasingly larger and a plethora of high-dimensionality data sets ("Big Data") are now freely accessible for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. It is thus important that new informatic analysis platforms are developed that allow the organization and interrogation of Big Data resources into a rational and actionable mechanism for advanced therapeutic development. This will entail the generation of systems and tools that allow the cross-platform correlation between data sets of distinct types, for example, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic...
March 15, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Ketan K Mane, Kevin B Rubenstein, Najlla Nassery, Adam L Sharp, Ejaz A Shamim, Navdeep S Sangha, Ahmed Hassoon, Mehdi Fanai, Zheyu Wang, David E Newman-Toker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Wen Jin, Yinglu Deng, Hai Jiang, Qianyan Xie, Wei Shen, Weijian Han
Car insurance is quickly becoming a big data industry, with usage-based insurance (UBI) poised to potentially change the business of insurance. Telematics data, which are transmitted from wireless devices in car, are widely used in UBI to obtain individual-level travel and driving characteristics. While most existing studies have introduced telematics data into car insurance pricing, the telematics-related characteristics are directly obtained from the raw data. In this study, we propose to quantify drivers' familiarity with their driving routes and develop models to quantify drivers' accident risks using the telematics data...
March 14, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Yudong Cai, Tao Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Anne Lindberg, Per S Bakke, Johann Christian Virchow, Bo Lundbäck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Piotr Klukowski, Michal Augoff, Maciej Zieba, Maciej Drwal, Adam Gonczarek, Michal J Walczak
Motivation: Automated selection of signals in protein NMR spectra, known as peak picking, has been studied for over 20 years, nevertheless existing peak picking methods are still largely deficient. Accurate and precise automated peak picking would accelerate the structure calculation, and analysis of dynamics and interactions of macromolecules. Recent advancement in handling big data, together with an outburst of machine learning techniques, offer an opportunity to tackle the peak picking problem substantially faster than manual picking and on par with human accuracy...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Bimala Sharma, Eun Woo Nam
This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of condom use at last sexual intercourse among people aged 15-49 years in Nepal. Secondary data analysis was performed using the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011. The study was restricted to the respondents who reported ever having had sexual intercourse; 9843 females and 3017 males were included. Condom use was assessed by asking if respondents used condoms in their most recent sexual intercourse. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed using Complex Sample Analysis Procedure to adjust for sample weight and multistage sampling design...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Chanjuan Wang, Aiwei Li, Shuo Yang, Rui Qiao, Xi Zhu, Jie Zhang
The emergence of chemoresistance greatly increases the recurrence risk for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients, which is still a big concern of clinicians. Understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance is of great significance for preventing and reversing it. We showed here that CXC motif chemokine ligand 5 (CXCL5) was overexpressed in mitomycin C-resistant bladder cancer cell line M-RT4. Meanwhile, parental RT4 cell treated with recombinant human CXCL5 (rhCXCL5) reduced its sensitivity to mitomycin C...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Long Chen, Wen Tang, Nigel W John, Tao Ruan Wan, Jian Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) offers considerable benefits to patients, it also imposes big challenges on a surgeon's performance due to well-known issues and restrictions associated with the field of view (FOV), hand-eye misalignment and disorientation, as well as the lack of stereoscopic depth perception in monocular endoscopy. Augmented Reality (AR) technology can help to overcome these limitations by augmenting the real scene with annotations, labels, tumour measurements or even a 3D reconstruction of anatomy structures at the target surgical locations...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
S C Ibeneme, C Ekanem, A Ezuma, N Iloanusi, N N Lasebikan, O A Lasebikan, O E Oboh
BACKGROUND: Depletion of ovarian hormone in postmenopausal women has been associated with changes in the locomotor apparatus that may compromise walking function including muscle atrophy/weakness, weight gain, and bone demineralization. Therefore, handgrip strength (HGS), bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition [percentage body fat mass (%BFM), fat mass (FM), Fat-free mass (FFM) and body mass index (BMI)], may significantly vary and predict WB in postmenopausal women. Consequently, the study sought to 1...
March 15, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Chiara Anna Parente, Domenico Salvatore, Giampiero Maria Gallo, Fabrizio Cipollini
BACKGROUND: In almost all healthcare systems, no-shows (scheduled appointments missed without any notice from patients) have a negative impact on waiting lists, costs and resource utilization, impairing the quality and quantity of cares that could be provided, as well as the revenues from the corresponding activity. Overbooking is a tool healthcare providers can resort to reduce the impact of no-shows. METHODS: We develop an overbooking algorithm, and we assess its effectiveness using two methods: an analysis of the data coming from a practical implementation in an healthcare center; a simulation experiment to check the robustness and the potential of the strategy under different conditions...
March 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
C Wilson, R Bell, S Hinsley, H Marshall, J Brown, D Cameron, D Dodwell, R Coleman
The fracture impact of adjuvant bisphosphonates in breast cancer is not defined with most trials reporting changes in bone mineral density as a surrogate. The AZURE trial (ISRCTN79831382) evaluated the impact of adjuvant zoledronic acid (ZOL) on fractures. The AZURE trial is an academic, multi-centre, randomised phase III study evaluating the addition of ZOL 4 mg to standard therapy (neo/adjuvant chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy) for 5 years (administered by intravenous (iv) infusion every 3-4 weeks for 6 doses, then 3 monthly × 8 and 6 monthly × 5) in patients with stage II/III early breast cancer...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Jereme W Gaeta, Tyler D Ahrenstorff, James S Diana, William W Fetzer, Thomas S Jones, Zach J Lawson, Michael C McInerny, Victor J Santucci, M Jake Vander Zanden
Body size governs predator-prey interactions, which in turn structure populations, communities, and food webs. Understanding predator-prey size relationships is valuable from a theoretical perspective, in basic research, and for management applications. However, predator-prey size data are limited and costly to acquire. We quantified predator-prey total length and mass relationships for several freshwater piscivorous taxa: crappie (Pomoxis spp.), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), northern pike (Esox lucius), rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and walleye (Sander vitreus)...
2018: PloS One
Iwao Sugitani, Naoyoshi Onoda, Ken-Ichi Ito, Shinichi Suzuki
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) accounts for only 1 to 2% of all thyroid carcinomas, but it is one of the most lethal neoplasms in humans. To obtain further insights into this "orphan disease," we have established the ATC Research Consortium of Japan (ATCCJ) in 2009. It represents a multicenter registry for ATC that have been treated in Japan. To date, 67 institutions have taken part in the collaborative research system and over 1,200 cases have been accumulated in its database. Using this big data, several retrospective studies were carried out to evaluate 1) prognostic factors to determine initial treatment policy, 2) significance of extended radical surgery for Stage IVB cases, 3) characteristics of ATC incidentally found on pathological examination and 4) pathological features of ATC with long-term survival...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Richard H Savel, Ariel L Shiloh, Ronald J Simon, Yizhak Kupfer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Saad Chahine, Kulamakan Mahan Kulasegaram, Sarah Wright, Sandra Monteiro, Lawrence E M Grierson, Cassandra Barber, Stefanie S Sebok-Syer, Meghan McConnell, Wendy Yen, Andre De Champlain, Claire Touchie
There exists an assumption that improving medical education will improve patient care. While seemingly logical, this premise has rarely been investigated. In this Invited Commentary, the authors propose the use of big data to test this assumption. The authors present a few example research studies linking education and patient care outcomes and argue that using big data may more easily facilitate the process needed to investigate this assumption. The authors also propose that collaboration is needed to link educational and health care data...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Vineet M Arora
With the advent of electronic medical records (EMRs) fueling the rise of big data, the use of predictive analytics, machine learning, and artificial intelligence are touted as transformational tools to improve clinical care. While major investments are being made in using big data to transform health care delivery, little effort has been directed toward exploiting big data to improve graduate medical education (GME). Because our current system relies on faculty observations of competence, it is not unreasonable to ask whether big data in the form of clinical EMRs and other novel data sources can answer questions of importance in GME such as when is a resident ready for independent practice...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
J Ngai, M Adil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
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