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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729839/identification-of-suitable-natural-inhibitor-against-influenza-a-h1n1-neuraminidase-protein-by-molecular-docking
#1
Maheswata Sahoo, Lingaraja Jena, Surya Narayan Rath, Satish Kumar
The influenza A (H1N1) virus, also known as swine flu is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality since 2009. There is a need to explore novel anti-viral drugs for overcoming the epidemics. Traditionally, different plant extracts of garlic, ginger, kalmegh, ajwain, green tea, turmeric, menthe, tulsi, etc. have been used as hopeful source of prevention and treatment of human influenza. The H1N1 virus contains an important glycoprotein, known as neuraminidase (NA) that is mainly responsible for initiation of viral infection and is essential for the life cycle of H1N1...
September 2016: Genomics & Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516987/the-effect-of-allium-sativum-garlic-extract-on-infectious-bronchitis-virus-in-specific-pathogen-free-embryonic-egg
#2
Tabassom Mohajer Shojai, Arash Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Vahid Karimi, Abbas Barin, Naser Sadri
OBJECTIVE: Garlic is a plant has been used as a flavor, and anti-microbial and anti-diarrheal agent. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus. The available vaccines against IBV cannot cover new variants. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of garlic extract on IBV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The constituents of garlic extract were detected by gas chromatography. This study was done in four groups of embryonic SPF eggs; first group was used for virus titration; second group received the mixture of different virus titration and constant amount of garlic extract; third group received 10(-3) titration of virus and after 8 hr received garlic extract and the last group received different dilutions of garlic extract...
July 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296605/in-vitro-antiviral-activity-of-clove-and-ginger-aqueous-extracts-against-feline-calicivirus-a-surrogate-for-human-norovirus
#3
Hamada A Aboubakr, Andrew Nauertz, Nhungoc T Luong, Shivani Agrawal, Sobhy A A El-Sohaimy, Mohammed M Youssef, Sagar M Goyal
Foodborne viruses, particularly human norovirus, are a concern for public health, especially in fresh vegetables and other minimally processed foods that may not undergo sufficient decontamination. It is necessary to explore novel nonthermal techniques for preventing foodborne viral contamination. In this study, aqueous extracts of six raw food materials (flower buds of clove, fenugreek seeds, garlic and onion bulbs, ginger rhizomes, and jalapeño peppers) were tested for antiviral activity against feline calicivirus (FCV) as a surrogate for human norovirus...
June 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27011387/the-unfolded-protein-response-and-programmed-cell-death-are-induced-by-expression-of-garlic-virus-x-p11-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#4
Yuwen Lu, Mingyuan Yin, Xiaodan Wang, Binghua Chen, Xue Yang, Jiejun Peng, Hongying Zheng, Jinping Zhao, Lin Lin, Chulang Yu, Stuart MacFarlane, Jianqing He, Yong Liu, Jianping Chen, Liangying Dai, Fei Yan
Garlic virus X (GarVX) ORF3 encodes a p11 protein, which contributes to virus cell-to-cell movement and forms granules on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in Nicotiana benthamiana. Expression of p11 either from a binary vector, PVX or TMV induced ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR), as demonstrated by an increase in transcription of the ER luminal binding protein (BiP) and bZIP60 genes. UPR-related programmed cell death (PCD) was elicited by PVX : p11 or TMV : p11 in systemic infected leaves...
June 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26647777/diallyl-trisulfide-induces-apoptosis-by-suppressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-through-destabilization-of-traf6-in-primary-effusion-lymphoma
#5
Zenpei Shigemi, Yoshiki Furukawa, Kohei Hosokawa, Setsuya Minami, Jumpei Matsuhiro, Shiori Nakata, Tadashi Watanabe, Hiroki Kagawa, Koji Nakagawa, Hiroshi Takeda, Masahiro Fujimuro
The allyl sulfides, including diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DAD), and diallyl trisulfide (DAT), contained in garlic and members of the Allium family, have a variety of pharmacological activities. Therefore, allyl sulfides have been evaluated as potential novel chemotherapeutic agents. Here, we found that DAT inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling and induced apoptosis in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), a subtype of non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)...
January 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26555611/the-mechanism-in-gastric-cancer-chemoprevention-by-allicin
#6
Runlan Luo, Dengyang Fang, Hongdong Hang, Zeyao Tang
Gastric cancer remains high prevalence and fatality rates in China even though its morbidity has been decreased drastically. Allicin, which is from an assistance food-garlic (Allium Sativum L), was found to be effective in gastric cancer treatment. It is a defensive substance with a board biological properties: inhibition of bacteria, fungus, virus, controlled hypertension, diabetes, and chemoprevention of several cancers, etc. Experiments have shown that allicin can be chemopreventive to gastric cancer by inhibiting the growth of cancer cells, arresting cell cycle at G2/M phase, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, which includes the caspase-dependent/-independent pathways and death receptor pathway...
2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26466594/assessment-of-genetic-and-epigenetic-changes-in-virus-free-garlic-allium-sativum-l-plants-obtained-by-meristem-culture-followed-by-in-vitro-propagation
#7
Magalí Diana Gimenez, Anahí Mara Yañez-Santos, Rosalía Cristina Paz, Mariana Paola Quiroga, Carlos Federico Marfil, Vilma Cecilia Conci, Sandra Claudia García-Lampasona
This is the first report assessing epigenetic variation in garlic. High genetic and epigenetic polymorphism during in vitro culture was detected.Sequencing of MSAP fragments revealed homology with ESTs. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a worldwide crop of economic importance susceptible to viral infections that can cause significant yield losses. Meristem tissue culture is the most employed method to sanitize elite cultivars.Often the virus-free garlic plants obtained are multiplied in vitro (micro propagation). However, it was reported that micro-propagation frequently produces somaclonal variation at the phenotypic level, which is an undesirable trait when breeders are seeking to maintain varietal stability...
January 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26060559/fresh-garlic-extract-enhances-the-antimicrobial-activities-of-antibiotics-on-resistant-strains-in-vitro
#8
Guoliang Li, Xudong Ma, Lisha Deng, Xixi Zhao, Yuejiao Wei, Zhongyang Gao, Jing Jia, Jiru Xu, Chaofeng Sun
BACKGROUND: Infections caused by strains with multi-drug resistance are difficult to treat with standard antibiotics. Garlic is a powerful remedy to protect against infections of many bacteria, fungi and viruses. However, little is known about the potentials of fresh garlic extract (FGE) to improve the sensitivity of multi-drug resistant strains to antibiotics. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we used the disk diffusion method to investigate the antimicrobial activities of FGE and the combination of antibiotics with FGE, on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, to evaluate the interactions between antibiotics and FGE...
May 2015: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25774116/development-of-multiplex-rt-pcr-for-simultaneous-detection-of-garlic-viruses-and-the-incidence-of-garlic-viral-disease-in-garlic-genetic-resources
#9
Moon Nam, Yeong-Hoon Lee, Chung Youl Park, Min-A Lee, Yang-Soo Bae, Seungmo Lim, Joong Hwan Lee, Jae Sun Moon, Su-Heon Lee
Garlic generally becomes coinfected with several types of viruses belonging to the Potyvirus, Carlavirus, and Allexivirus genera. These viruses produce characteristically similar symptoms, they cannot be easily identified by electron microscopy (EM) or immunological detection methods, and they are currently widespread around the world, thereby affecting crop yields and crop quality adversely. For the early and reliable detection of garlic viruses, virus-specific sets of primers, including species-specific and genus-specific primers were designed...
March 2015: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25609311/integrated-transcriptome-catalogue-and-organ-specific-profiling-of-gene-expression-in-fertile-garlic-allium-sativum-l
#10
Rina Kamenetsky, Adi Faigenboim, Einat Shemesh Mayer, Tomer Ben Michael, Chen Gershberg, Sagie Kimhi, Itzhak Esquira, Sarit Rohkin Shalom, Dani Eshel, Haim D Rabinowitch, Amir Sherman
BACKGROUND: Garlic is cultivated and consumed worldwide as a popular condiment and green vegetable with medicinal and neutraceutical properties. Garlic cultivars do not produce seeds, and therefore, this plant has not been the subject of either classical breeding or genetic studies. However, recent achievements in fertility restoration in a number of genotypes have led to flowering and seed production, thus enabling genetic studies and breeding in garlic. RESULTS: A transcriptome catalogue of fertile garlic was produced from multiplexed gene libraries, using RNA collected from various plant organs, including inflorescences and flowers...
2015: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25476540/iris-yellow-spot-virus-tospovirus-bunyaviridae-from-obscurity-to-research-priority
#11
REVIEW
Sudeep Bag, Howard F Schwartz, Christopher S Cramer, Michael J Havey, Hanu R Pappu
TAXONOMY: Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) is in the genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae, with a single-stranded, tri-segmented RNA genome with an ambisense genome organization. Members of the other genera in the family infect predominantly vertebrates and insects. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION: IYSV is present in most Allium-growing regions of the world. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: Virions are pleomorphic particles of 80-120 nm in size. The particle consists of RNA, protein, glycoprotein and lipids...
April 2015: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25133543/the-global-trade-in-fresh-produce-and-the-vagility-of-plant-viruses-a-case-study-in-garlic
#12
Stephen J Wylie, Hua Li, Muhammad Saqib, Michael G K Jones
As cuisine becomes globalized, large volumes of fresh produce are traded internationally. The potential exists for pathogens infecting fresh produce to hitchhike to new locations and perhaps to establish there. It is difficult to identify them using traditional methods if pathogens are novel, scarce, and/or unexpected. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, we used high-throughput sequencing technology as a means of detecting all RNA viruses infecting garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs imported into Australia from China, the USA, Mexico, Argentina and Spain, and those growing in Australia...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24836186/plant-rna-virus-sequences-identified-in-kimchi-by-microbial-metatranscriptome-analysis
#13
Dong Seon Kim, Ji Young Jung, Yao Wang, Hye Ji Oh, Dongjin Choi, Che Ok Jeon, Yoonsoo Hahn
Plant pathogenic RNA viruses are present in a variety of plant-based foods. When ingested by humans, these viruses can survive the passage through the digestive tract, and are frequently detected in human feces. Kimchi is a traditional fermented Korean food made from cabbage or vegetables, with a variety of other plant-based ingredients, including ground red pepper and garlic paste. We analyzed microbial metatranscriptome data from kimchi at five fermentation stages to identify plant RNA virus-derived sequences...
July 2014: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24598229/simultaneous-detection-of-four-garlic-viruses-by-multiplex-reverse-transcription-pcr-and-their-distribution-in-indian-garlic-accessions
#14
S Majumder, V K Baranwal
Indian garlic is infected with Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Shallot latent virus (SLV), Garlic common latent virus (GarCLV) and allexiviruses. Identity and distribution of garlic viruses in various garlic accessions from different geographical regions of India were investigated. OYDV and allexiviruses were observed in all the garlic accessions, while SLV and GarCLV were observed only in a few accessions. A multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of OYDV, SLV, GarCLV and Allexivirus infecting garlic accessions in India...
June 2014: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24426263/viruses-occurring-in-onion-crop-in-amasya-province-the-major-onion-producing-region-in-turkey
#15
Mehmet Ali Sevik, Cemile Akcura
Amasya is the greatest onion producing area in Turkey. Onion fields from Amasya region were surveyed for virus diseases in 2009-2011 and tested for the presence of the most important onion viruses such as Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV), Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), Shallot latent virus (SLV) and Garlic common latent virus (GCLV). The presence of virus diseases and their identification was ascertained through symptom observation in the fields, sap transmission to hosts, and DAS-ELISA...
June 2013: Indian Journal of Virology: An Official Organ of Indian Virological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24420031/a-quantitative-assessment-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-garlic-allium-sativum
#16
L P Rees, S F Minney, N T Plummer, J H Slater, D A Skyrme
An aqueous extract of freeze-dried garlic (Allium sativum), when incorporated into growth media, inhibited many representative bacteria, yeasts, fungi and a virus. All microorganisms tested were susceptible to garlic. Quantitative assessment of the minimum inhibitory concentrations for bacteria and yeasts showed values ranging from 0.8 to 40.0 mg garlic ml(-1). Fungal radial colony growth was inhibited by at least 25% at concentrations as low as 2.0 mg garlic ml(-1). The 50% endpoint neutralization titre for rotavirus was 2...
May 1993: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24194230/high-rate-of-virus-free-plantlet-regeneration-via-garlic-scape-tip-culture
#17
Y Ma, H L Wang, C J Zhang, Y Q Kang
Shoot cultures of Allium sativum L. were established from stem-tip and scape-tip. Various combinations of media, growth regulators were compared. The best establishment and proliferation of stem-tip and scape-tip explants were obtained on MS medium containing 0.5 mg l(-1) NAA and 0.5 mg l(-1) KT. The roots were produced and the bulblets were formed after the micro-shoots were transferred to the hormone-free MS medium. The virus of each tube-plant was detected by ELISA. The virus elimination rates of plantlets from stem-tip with 3 leaf primordia, with 1-2 leaf primordia, and scape-up were 26...
November 1994: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24136255/n-terminal-in-coat-protein-of-garlic-virus-x-is-indispensible-for-its-serological-detection
#18
Priyanka Singh, K Prabha, Rakesh Kumar Jain, V K Baranwal
Conserved coat protein region of plant viruses is often used as source of antigen for production of polyclonal antibodies for broad-based detection of closely related viruses. Antigenic region in coat protein is located either on N-terminal, and/or C-terminal or in the middle of coat protein. A study was undertaken to determine if antigenic region resides in N-terminal in Garlic virus X (GarV-X) of Allexivirus. In allexiviruses, N-terminal of coat protein region (1-57 amino acids) was highly variable. A complete coat protein of 27 kDa and a truncated protein without N-terminal (20 kDa) of GarV-X were expressed in pET expression vector and confirmed in western blotting using anti-His antisera...
February 2014: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24126276/dietary-plant-extracts-improve-immune-responses-and-growth-efficiency-of-pigs-experimentally-infected-with-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Y Liu, T M Che, M Song, J J Lee, J A S Almeida, D Bravo, W G Van Alstine, J E Pettigrew
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of 3 different plant extracts on growth performance and immune responses of weaned pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). A total of 64 weaned pigs (7.8 ± 0.3 kg BW), free of PRRSV, were randomly allotted to 1 of 8 treatments in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with a randomized complete block design. Pigs were blocked by initial BW. Sex and ancestry were equalized across treatments. The first factor was with or without PRRSV challenge (intranasal dose; 10(5) 50% tissue culture infective dose)...
December 2013: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23945471/a-baculovirus-mediated-strategy-for-full-length-plant-virus-coat-protein-expression-and-purification
#20
Daniel Mendes Pereira Ardisson-Araújo, Juliana Ribeiro Rocha, Márcio Hedil Oliveira da Costa, Anamélia Lorenzetti Bocca, André Nepomuceno Dusi, Renato de Oliveira Resende, Bergmann Morais Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Garlic production is severely affected by virus infection, causing a decrease in productivity and quality. There are no virus-free cultivars and garlic-infecting viruses are difficult to purify, which make specific antibody production very laborious. Since high quality antisera against plant viruses are important tools for serological detection, we have developed a method to express and purify full-length plant virus coat proteins using baculovirus expression system and insects as bioreactors...
2013: Virology Journal
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