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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344724/functional-fixedness-in-creative-thinking-tasks-depends-on-stimulus-modality
#1
Evangelia G Chrysikou, Katharine Motyka, Cristina Nigro, Song-I Yang, Sharon L Thompson-Schill
Pictorial examples during creative thinking tasks can lead participants to fixate on these examples and reproduce their elements even when yielding suboptimal creative products. Semantic memory research may illuminate the cognitive processes underlying this effect. Here, we examined whether pictures and words differentially influence access to semantic knowledge for object concepts depending on whether the task is close- or open-ended. Participants viewed either names or pictures of everyday objects, or a combination of the two, and generated common, secondary, or ad hoc uses for them...
November 2016: Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344711/systems-thinking-and-structural-competence-in-and-for-medical-education
#2
EDITORIAL
Marcel D'Eon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Canadian Medical Education Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344696/systems-1-and-2-thinking-processes-and-cognitive-reflection-testing-in-medical-students
#3
Shu Wen Tay, Paul Ryan, C Anthony Ryan
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic decision-making is made through a combination of Systems 1 (intuition or pattern-recognition) and Systems 2 (analytic) thinking. The purpose of this study was to use the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) to evaluate and compare the level of Systems 1 and 2 thinking among medical students in pre-clinical and clinical programs. METHODS: The CRT is a three-question test designed to measure the ability of respondents to activate metacognitive processes and switch to System 2 (analytic) thinking where System 1 (intuitive) thinking would lead them astray...
October 2016: Canadian Medical Education Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344021/pharmaceutical-cocrystals-salts-and-multicomponent-systems-intermolecular-interactions-and-property-based-design
#4
REVIEW
David J Berry, Jonathan W Steed
As small molecule drugs become harder to develop and less cost effective for patient use, efficient strategies for their property improvement become increasingly important to global health initiatives. Improvements in the physical properties of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs), without changes in the covalent chemistry, have long been possible through the application of binary component solids. This was first achieved through the use of pharmaceutical salts, within the last 10-15years with cocrystals and more recently coamorphous systems have also been consciously applied to this problem...
March 23, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341126/rasmussen-and-the-boundaries-of-empirical-evaluation
#5
Penelope Sanderson, Catherine Burns
In this special issue, many of the papers focus on Rasmussen's analytic contributions to the understanding of work in complex sociotechnical systems. Work is analysed for the purpose of developing new designs that can improve the nature of that work. The evaluation of such designs was a key part of Rasmussen's program, yet he was often sceptical of the claims made for the generalizability of empirical studies. To tackle this problem, he extended his work analysis framework to provide a way of thinking about empirical evaluation...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339096/pathogenesis-and-management-of-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Deepa R J Arachchillage, Mike Laffan
Antiphospholipid antibodies are a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies that have clear associations with thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity, and which together constitute the 'antiphospholipid syndrome' (APS). However, the pathophysiology of these complications is not well understood and their heterogeneity suggests that more than one pathogenic process may be involved. Diagnosis remains a combination of laboratory analysis and clinical observation but there have been significant advances in identifying specific pathogenic features, such as domain I-specific anti-β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies...
March 24, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332567/dairy-cows-value-access-to-pasture-as-highly-as-fresh-feed
#7
Marina A G von Keyserlingk, Andressa Amorim Cestari, Becca Franks, Jose A Fregonesi, Daniel M Weary
Many dairy cows in the developed world are now housed exclusively indoors with fewer than 5% of the 10 million lactating cows in the United States having access to pasture during the grazing season. Indoor housing systems are designed to meet biological needs for food, water, hygiene, and shelter, but surveys of public and farmer opinion suggest that people think that pasture access is also important for the well-being of dairy cows. To determine if pasture access is important to the cows themselves, we investigated to what extent cows will work to access pasture (by pushing on a weighted gate), and compared it to the motivation to access fresh feed...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332007/rethinking-critical-reflection-on-care-late-modern-uncertainty-and-the-implications-for-care-ethics
#8
Frans Vosman, Alistair Niemeijer
Care ethics as initiated by Gilligan, Held, Tronto and others (in the nineteen eighties and nineties) has from its onset been critical towards ethical concepts established in modernity, like 'autonomy', alternatively proposing to think from within relationships and to pay attention to power. In this article the question is raised whether renewal in this same critical vein is necessary and possible as late modern circumstances require rethinking the care ethical inquiry. Two late modern realities that invite to rethink care ethics are complexity and precariousness...
March 22, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330847/who-owns-the-injury-or-illness-who-owns-performance-applying-systems-thinking-to-integrate-health-and-performance-in-elite-sport
#9
EDITORIAL
Mitchell Mooney, Paula C Charlton, Sadjad Soltanzadeh, Michael K Drew
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327143/the-imperative-for-systems-thinking-to-promote-access-to-medicines-efficient-delivery-and-cost-effectiveness-when-implementing-health-financing-reforms-a-qualitative-study
#10
Tom Achoki, Abaleng Lesego
BACKGROUND: Health systems across Africa are faced with a multitude of competing priorities amidst pressing resource constraints. Expansion of health insurance coverage offers promise in the quest for sustainable healthcare financing for many of the health systems in the region. However, the broader policy implications of expanding health insurance coverage have not been fully investigated and contextualized to many African health systems. METHODS: We interviewed 37 key informants drawn from public, private and civil society organizations involved in health service delivery in Botswana...
March 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321688/an-ethical-descriptive-framework-for-judgment-of-actions-and-decisions-in-the-construction-industry-and-engineering-part-i
#11
Omar J Alkhatib, Alaa Abdou
The construction industry is usually characterized as a fragmented system of multiple-organizational entities in which members from different technical backgrounds and moral values join together to develop a particular business or project. The greatest challenge in the construction process for the achievement of a successful practice is the development of an outstanding reputation, which is built on identifying and applying an ethical framework. This framework should reflect a common ethical ground for myriad people involved in this process to survive and compete ethically in today's turbulent construction market...
March 20, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318903/understanding-human-intention-by-connecting-perception-and-action-learning-in-artificial-agents
#12
Sangwook Kim, Zhibin Yu, Minho Lee
To develop an advanced human-robot interaction system, it is important to first understand how human beings learn to perceive, think, and act in an ever-changing world. In this paper, we propose an intention understanding system that uses an Object Augmented-Supervised Multiple Timescale Recurrent Neural Network (OA-SMTRNN) and demonstrate the effects of perception-action connected learning in an artificial agent, which is inspired by psychological and neurological phenomena in humans. We believe that action and perception are not isolated processes in human mental development, and argue that these psychological and neurological interactions can be replicated in a human-machine scenario...
February 11, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318285/reading-through-the-life-span-individual-differences-in-psycholinguistic-effects
#13
Rob A I Davies, Ruth Arnell, Julia M H Birchenough, Debbie Grimmond, Sam Houlson
The effects of psycholinguistic variables are critical to the evaluation of theories about the cognitive reading system. However, reading research has tended to focus on the impact of key variables on average performance. We report the first investigation examining variation in psycholinguistic effects across the life span, from childhood into old age. We analyzed the performance of a sample of 535 readers, aged 8-83 years in lexical decision and pronunciation tasks. Our findings show that the effects on reading of two key variables, frequency and AoA, decrease in size with increasing age over the life span...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317449/safety-leadership-and-systems-thinking-application-and-evaluation-of-a-risk-management-framework-in-the-mining-industry
#14
Sarah-Louise Donovan, Paul M Salmon, Michael G Lenné, Tim Horberry
Safety leadership is an important factor in supporting safety in high-risk industries. This article contends that applying systems-thinking methods to examine safety leadership can support improved learning from incidents. A case study analysis was undertaken of a large-scale mining landslide incident in which no injuries or fatalities were incurred. A multi-method approach was adopted, in which the Critical Decision Method, Rasmussen's Risk Management Framework, and Accimap method were applied to examine the safety leadership decisions and actions which enabled the safe outcome...
March 18, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314196/governance-and-management-dynamics-of-landscape-restoration-at-multiple-scales-learning-from-successful-environmental-managers-in-sweden
#15
Lucas Dawson, Marine Elbakidze, Per Angelstam, Johanna Gordon
Due to a long history of intensive land and water use, habitat networks for biodiversity conservation are generally degraded in Sweden. Landscape restoration (LR) is an important strategy for achieving representative and functional green infrastructures. However, outcomes of LR efforts are poorly studied, particularly the dynamics of LR governance and management. We apply systems thinking methods to a series of LR case studies to analyse the causal structures underlying LR governance and management in Sweden...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303755/development-of-the-systems-thinking-scale-for-adolescent-behavior-change
#16
Shirley M Moore, Vilailert Komton, Clara Adegbite-Adeniyi, Mary A Dolansky, Heather K Hardin, Elaine A Borawski
This report describes the development and psychometric testing of the Systems Thinking Scale for Adolescent Behavior Change (STS-AB). Following item development, initial assessments of understandability and stability of the STS-AB were conducted in a sample of nine adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Exploratory factor analysis of the 16-item STS-AB and internal consistency assessments were then done with 359 adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Test-retest reliability of the STS-AB was ...
March 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300343/medical-student-use-of-digital-learning-resources
#17
Karen Scott, Anne Morris, Ben Marais
BACKGROUND: University students expect to use technology as part of their studies, yet health professional teachers can struggle with the change in student learning habits fuelled by technology. Our research aimed to document the learning habits of contemporary medical students during a clinical rotation by exploring the use of locally and externally developed digital and print self-directed learning resources, and study groups. METHODS: We investigated the learning habits of final-stage medical students during their clinical paediatric rotation using mixed methods, involving learning analytics and a student questionnaire...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298877/applying-structural-systems-thinking-to-frame-perspectives-on-social-work-innovation
#18
Erin J Stringfellow
OBJECTIVE: Innovation will be key to the success of the Grand Challenges Initiative in social work. A structural systems framework based in system dynamics could be useful for considering how to advance innovation. METHOD: Diagrams using system dynamics conventions were developed to link common themes across concept papers written by social work faculty members and graduate students (N = 19). RESULTS: Transdisciplinary teams and ethical partnerships with communities and practitioners will be needed to responsibly develop high-quality innovative solutions...
March 2017: Research on Social Work Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296464/classifying-alarms-seeking-durability-credibility-consistency-and-simplicity
#19
Judy Reed Edworthy, Joseph J Schlesinger, Richard R McNeer, Michael Sonne Kristensen, Christopher L Bennett
Alongside the development and testing of new audible alarms intended to support International Electrotechnical Commission 60601-1-8, a global standard concerned with alarm safety, the categories of risk that the standard denotes require further thought and possible updating. In this article, we revisit the origins of the categories covered by the standard. These categories were based on the ways that tissue damage can be caused. We consider these categories from the varied professional perspectives of the authors: human factors, semiotics, clinical practice, and the patient or family (layperson)...
February 2017: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291277/diagnostiska-fel-och-misstag-%C3%A3-r-vanliga-och-sv%C3%A3-ra-att-m%C3%A3-ta
#20
Anders von Heijne
Diagnostic errors are prevalent and hard to measure Diagnostic errors are prevalent in all aspects of healthcare and a common cause of adverse events. They are often the result of multifactorial events, where there is a complex interplay between cognitive factors, system factors and lack of adequate knowledge. The generic, iterative diagnostic process, with abductive, deductive and inductive components supported by tests and the physical exam, leads to a correct diagnosis for the great majority of patients, but can be derailed by suboptimal thinking, lack of adequate information and external factors such as stress and work overload...
March 13, 2017: Läkartidningen
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