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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165616/work-system-assessment-to-facilitate-the-dissemination-of-a-quality-improvement-program-for-optimizing-blood-culture-use-a-case-study-using-a-human-factors-engineering-approach
#1
Anping Xie, Charlotte Z Woods-Hill, Anne F King, Heather Enos-Graves, Judy Ascenzi, Ayse P Gurses, Sybil A Klaus, James C Fackler, Aaron M Milstone
Background: Work system assessments can facilitate successful implementation of quality improvement programs. Using a human factors engineering approach, we conducted a work system assessment to facilitate the dissemination of a quality improvement program for optimizing blood culture use in pediatric intensive care units at 2 hospitals. Methods: Semistructured face-to-face interviews were conducted with clinicians from Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital and University of Virginia Medical Center...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164177/a-systems-medicine-approach-translating-emerging-science-into-individualized-wellness
#2
REVIEW
J S Bland, D M Minich, B M Eck
In today's aging society, more people are living with lifestyle-related noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Numerous opinion-leader organizations recommend lifestyle medicine as the first-line approach in NCD prevention and treatment. However, there is a strong need for a personalized approach as "one-size-fits-all" public health recommendations have been insufficient in addressing the interindividual differences in the diverse populations. Advancement in systems biology and the "omics" technologies has allowed comprehensive analysis of how complex biological systems are impacted upon external perturbations (e...
2017: Advances in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164093/application-of-the-intervention-mapping-framework-to-develop-an-integrated-twenty-first-century-core-curriculum-part-three-curriculum-implementation-and-evaluation
#3
Jaime A Corvin, Rita DeBate, Kate Wolfe-Quintero, Donna J Petersen
Public health professionals have been challenged to radically reform public health training to meet evolving demands of twenty-first century public health. Such a transformation requires a systems thinking approach with an interdisciplinary focus on problem solving, leadership, management and teamwork, technology and information, budgeting and finance, and communication. This article presents processes for implementing and evaluating a revised public health curriculum and outlines lessons learned from this initiative...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163522/the-vagus-nerve-in-the-neuro-immune-axis-implications-in-the-pathology-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#4
REVIEW
Bruno Bonaz, Valérie Sinniger, Sonia Pellissier
The vagus nerve (VN) is the longest nerve of the organism and a major component of the parasympathetic nervous system which constitutes the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with the sympathetic nervous system. There is classically an equilibrium between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems which is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis. An imbalance of the ANS is observed in various pathologic conditions. The VN, a mixed nerve with 4/5 afferent and 1/5 efferent fibers, is a key component of the neuro-immune and brain-gut axes through a bidirectional communication between the brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162966/a-qsar-model-of-olanzapine-derivatives-as-potential-inhibitors-for-5-ht2a-receptor
#5
Pooja Mitra, Aishwarya Rastogi, Mayank Rajpoot, Ajay Kumar, Vivek Srivastava
Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic mental disorder, affecting about 21 million people worldwide. It is characterized by symptoms, including distortions in thinking, perception, emotions, disorganized speech, sense of self and behavior. Recently, a numbers of marketed drugs for Schizophrenia are available against dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. Here, we docked Olanzapine derivatives (collected from literature) with 5-HT2A Receptor using the program AutoDock 4.2. The docked protein inhibitor complex structure was optimized using molecular dynamics simulation for 5ps with the CHARMM-22 force field using NAMD (NAnoscale Molecular Dynamics program) incorporated in visual molecular dynamics (VMD 1...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161825/the-interplay-between-models-and-public-health-policies-regional-control-for-a-class-of-spatially-structured-epidemics-think-globally-act-locally
#6
Vincenzo Capasso, Sebastian Aniţa
A review is presented here of the research carried out, by a group including the authors, on the mathematical analysis of epidemic systems. Particular attention is paid to recent analysis of optimal control problems related to spatially structured epidemics driven by environmental pollution. A relevant problem, related to the possible eradication of the epidemic, is the so called zero stabilization. In a series of papers, necessary conditions, and sufficient conditions of stabilizability have been obtained...
February 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161758/young-athletes-health-knowledge-system-qualitative-analysis-of-health-learning-processes-in-adolescent-sportspersons
#7
Laura I Rodríguez-Serrano, Toomas Timpka, Joakim Ekberg, Örjan Dahlström, Jenny Jacobsson
Recognized side effects on health associated with sports participation in youth include overtraining, doping, and exposure to harassment and violence. Many of these effects originate in contexts where young athletes are beginning to make decisions about their sports practices on their own. This study set out to explore knowledge and reasoning about health among adolescent athletes and to describe how health knowledge management structures are associated with different social systems. Qualitative data were collected from focus groups involving 65 young Swedish athletes aged 16 to 17 years...
November 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160158/-i-think-he-will-have-it-throughout-his-whole-life-parent-and-youth-perspectives-about-childhood-mental-health-problems
#8
Kyleigh E Schraeder, Graham J Reid, Judith Belle Brown
Children's mental health (CMH) problems can be long-lasting. Even among children and youth who receive specialized CMH treatment, recurrence of problems is common. It is unknown whether youth and their parents view the possibility of future mental health problems. This has important implications for how CMH services should be delivered. This grounded theory study gained perspectives from youth (aged 12-15 years) who received CMH treatment ( n = 10) and their parents ( n = 10) about the expected course of CMH problems...
November 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154601/on-studying-narcissism-in-personality-inventories-rather-than-the-narcissistic-personality-inventory-reply-to-miller-and-lynam-2017
#9
Andrea Fossati, Antonella Somma, Serena Borroni, Kristian E Markon
Miller and Lynam's (2017) commentary proved to be very helpful in clarifying that ralerting-CV and rcontrast-CV coefficient values reported in our study indicated that the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) yielded a trait profile much more closely aligned with expert ratings of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition; DSM-IV) narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) than did other measures. The commentary gives us the opportunity to make it clear that our study was designed to demonstrate the clinical usefulness of Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) domain and trait scales in profiling pathological narcissism...
November 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154052/unmasking-decoupling-redefining-the-resource-intensity-of-the-economy
#10
Kostas Bithas, Panos Kalimeris
Interest in investigating the complex link between resources and developments has revived recently following studies which support striking "dematerialized" growth over the last hundred years or so. This so-called decoupling effect is defined as the declining quantity of resources required for producing one unit of GDP. Decoupling studies adopt aggregate GDP as the measure of the outcome of the economy. However, this outcome is contributed by the total population which differs over time and between countries...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154007/public-responses-to-water-reuse-understanding-the-evidence
#11
REVIEW
H M Smith, S Brouwer, P Jeffrey, J Frijns
Over the years, much research has attempted to unpack what drives public responses to water reuse, using a variety of approaches. A large amount of this work was captured by an initial review that covered research undertaken up to the early 2000s (Hartley, 2006). This paper showcases post-millennium evidence and thinking around public responses to water reuse, and highlights the novel insights and shifts in emphasis that have occurred in the field. Our analysis is structured around four broad, and highly interrelated, strands of thinking: 1) work focused on identifying the range of factors that influence public reactions to the concept of water reuse, and broadly looking for associations between different factors; 2) more specific approaches rooted in the socio-psychological modelling techniques; 3) work with a particular focus on understanding the influences of trust, risk perceptions and affective (emotional) reactions; and 4) work utilising social constructivist perspectives and socio-technical systems theory to frame responses to water reuse...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152819/the-application-of-systems-thinking-concepts-methods-and-tools-to-global-health-practices-an-analysis-of-case-studies
#12
Jessica Wilkinson, Morgan Goff, Evan Rusoja, Carl Hanson, Robert Chad Swanson
OBJECTIVES: This review of systems thinking (ST) case studies seeks to compile and analyse cases from ST literature and provide practitioners with a reference for ST in health practice. Particular attention was given to (1) reviewing the frequency and use of key ST terms, methods, and tools in the context of health, and (2) extracting and analysing longitudinal themes across cases. METHODS: A systematic search of databases was conducted, and a total of 36 case studies were identified...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152080/vincristine-liposomes-with-smaller-particle-size-have-stronger-diffusion-ability-in-tumor-and-improve-tumor-accumulation-of-vincristine-significantly
#13
Siyu Ma, Mingyuan Li, Nan Liu, Ying Li, Zhiping Li, Yang Yang, Fanglin Yu, Xiaoqin Hu, Cheng Liu, Xingguo Mei
The passive targeting is the premise of active targeting that could make nanocarrier detained in tumor tissue. The particle size is the most important factor that influences the diffusion and distribution of nanoparticle both in vivo and in vitro. In order to investigate the relationship between particle size and diffusion ability, two kinds of liposome loaded with Vincristine (VCR-Lip) were prepared. The diffusion behavior of VCR-Lip with different particle size and free VCR was compared through diffusion stability study...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150201/nations-within-a-nation-variations-in-epidemiological-transition-across-the-states-of-india-1990-2016-in-the-global-burden-of-disease-study
#14
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: 18% of the world's population lives in India, and many states of India have populations similar to those of large countries. Action to effectively improve population health in India requires availability of reliable and comprehensive state-level estimates of disease burden and risk factors over time. Such comprehensive estimates have not been available so far for all major diseases and risk factors. Thus, we aimed to estimate the disease burden and risk factors in every state of India as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016...
November 13, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149319/from-bouncing-back-to-nurturing-emergence-reframing-the-concept-of-resilience-in-health-systems-strengthening
#15
Edwine W Barasa, Keith Cloete, Lucy Gilson
Recent health system shocks such as the Ebola disease outbreak have focused global health attention on the notion of resilient health systems. In this commentary, we reflect on the current framing of the concept of resilience in health systems discourse and propose a reframing. Specifically, we propose that: (1) in addition to sudden shocks, health systems face the ongoing strain of multiple factors. Health systems need the capacity to continue to deliver services of good quality and respond effectively to wider health challenges...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141646/physical-activity-and-the-environment-conceptual-review-and-framework-for-intervention-research
#16
REVIEW
Jenna Panter, Cornelia Guell, Rick Prins, David Ogilvie
BACKGROUND: Changing the physical environment is one way to promote physical activity and improve health, but evidence on intervention effectiveness is mixed. The theoretical perspectives and conceptual issues discussed or used in evaluative studies and related literature may contribute to these inconsistencies. We aimed to advance the intervention research agenda by systematically searching for and synthesising the literature pertaining to these wider conceptual issues. METHODS: We searched for editorials, commentaries, reviews, or primary qualitative or quantitative studies in multiple disciplines by electronic searches of key databases (MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process, Web of Science, Cochrane Reviews, ProQuest for dissertations, Health Evidence, EPPI-Centre, TRID and NICE) and snowballing...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141632/declining-amenable-mortality-a-reflection-of-health-care-systems
#17
Maria Michela Gianino, Jacopo Lenzi, Maria Pia Fantini, Walter Ricciardi, Gianfranco Damiani
BACKGROUND: Some studies have analyzed the association of health care systems variables, such as health service resources or expenditures, with amenable mortality, but the association of types of health care systems with the decline of amenable mortality has yet to be studied. The present study examines whether specific health care system types are associated with different time trend declines in amenable mortality from 2000 to 2014 in 22 European OECD countries. METHODS: A time trend analysis was performed...
November 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141618/what-do-australian-consumers-pharmacists-and-prescribers-think-about-documenting-indications-on-prescriptions-and-dispensed-medicines-labels-a-qualitative-study
#18
Mona Garada, Andrew J McLachlan, Gordon D Schiff, Elin C Lehnbom
BACKGROUND: Documenting the indication on prescriptions and dispensed medicines labels is not standard practice in Australia. However, previous studies that have focused on the content and design of dispensed medicines labels, have suggested including the indication as a safety measure. The aim of this study was to investigate the perspectives of Australian consumers, pharmacists and prescribers on documenting the indication on prescriptions and dispensed medicines labels. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted and mock-up of dispensed medicines labels were designed for participants...
November 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139496/exploring-the-science-of-thinking-independently-together-faraday-discussion-volume-204-complex-molecular-surfaces-and-interfaces-sheffield-uk-july-2017
#19
M Samperi, B E Hirsch, Y A Diaz Fernandez
The 2017 Faraday Discussion on Complex Molecular Surfaces and Interfaces brought together theoreticians and experimentalists from both physical and chemical backgrounds to discuss the relevant applied and fundamental research topics within the broader field of chemical surface analysis and characterization. Main discussion topics from the meeting included the importance of "disordered" two-dimensional (2D) molecular structures and the utility of kinetically trapped states. An emerging need for new experimental tools to address dynamics and kinetic pathways involved in self-assembled systems, as well as the future prospects and current limitations of in silico studies were also discussed...
November 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136493/systems-thinking-and-simulation-modeling-to-inform-childhood-obesity-policy-and-practice
#20
Kenneth E Powell, Debra L Kibbe, Rachel Ferencik, Chris Soderquist, Mary Ann Phillips, Emily Anne Vall, Karen J Minyard
OBJECTIVES: In 2007, 31.7% of Georgia adolescents in grades 9-12 were overweight or obese. Understanding the impact of policies and interventions on obesity prevalence among young people can help determine statewide public health and policy strategies. This article describes a systems model, originally launched in 2008 and updated in 2014, that simulates the impact of policy interventions on the prevalence of childhood obesity in Georgia through 2034. METHODS: In 2008, using information from peer-reviewed reports and quantitative estimates by experts in childhood obesity, physical activity, nutrition, and health economics and policy, a group of legislators, legislative staff members, and experts trained in systems thinking and system dynamics modeling constructed a model simulating the impact of policy interventions on the prevalence of childhood obesity in Georgia through 2034...
November 2017: Public Health Reports
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