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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103108/secondary-school-students-knowledge-and-opinions-on-astrobiology-topics-and-related-social-issues
#1
Raquel Oreiro, Jordi Solbes
Astrobiology is the study of the origin of life on Earth and the distribution of life in the Universe. Its multidisciplinary approach, social and philosophical implications, and appeal within the discipline and beyond make astrobiology a uniquely qualified subject for general science education. In this study, student knowledge and opinions on astrobiology topics were investigated. Eighty-nine students in their last year of compulsory education (age 15) completed a written questionnaire that consisted of 10 open questions on the topic of astrobiology...
January 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100641/new-sources-of-value-for-health-and-care-in-a-carbon-constrained-world
#2
Kate Emma Charlesworth, Maggie Jamieson
BACKGROUND: Due to the climate crisis, it is increasingly evident that countries will have to decarbonize. Healthcare, which has a large carbon footprint and uses vast quantities of resources, will have to undergo significant transformation. In this research, we sought the ideas of leading thinkers in the field, to address the question of how health systems can provide high-quality care in a carbon-constrained world. METHODS: Semi-structured, qualitative in-depth interviews with 15 healthcare thought leaders from Australia, the UK, the USA and New Zealand...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100311/the-evaluation-of-three-different-bottles-in-bactec-9240-automated-blood-culture-system-and-direct-identification-of-candida-species-to-shorten-the-turnaround-time-of-blood-culture
#3
Egemen Gokbolat, Yasemin Oz, Selma Metintas
Candida spp. are the most common causes of fungemia. Rapid and accurate diagnostic methods are very important for appropriate management of candidemia. At present, blood culture is the essential diagnostic test despite it has a long detection time and low sensitivity rate. We aimed to investigate the ways to shorten the turnaround time from blood culture collection to final identification in candidemia. Sixty clinical bloodstream isolates of Candida were included and the Plus Aerobic/F, Peds Plus/F and Mycosis IC/F (MICF) bottles were used with BACTEC 9240 blood culture instrument...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094850/discriminating-solitary-cysts-from-soft-tissue-lesions-in-mammography-using-a-pretrained-deep-convolutional-neural-network
#4
Thijs Kooi, Bram van Ginneken, Nico Karssemeijer, Ard den Heeten
PURPOSE: It is estimated that 7% of women in the western world will develop palpable breast cysts in their lifetime. Even though cysts have been correlated with risk of developing breast cancer, many of them are benign and do not require follow-up. We develop a method to discriminate benign solitary cysts from malignant masses in digital mammography. We think a system like this can have merit in the clinic as a decision aid or complementary to specialised modalities. METHODS: We employ a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to classify cyst and mass patches...
January 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089673/the-value-of-participatory-development-to-support-antimicrobial-stewardship-with-a-clinical-decision-support-system
#5
Nienke Beerlage-de Jong, Jobke Wentzel, Ron Hendrix, Lisette van Gemert-Pijnen
BACKGROUND: Current clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) for antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are guideline- or expert-driven. They are focused on (clinical) content, not on supporting real-time workflow. Thus, CDSSs fail to optimally support prudent antimicrobial prescribing in daily practice. Our aim was to demonstrate why and how participatory development (involving end-users and other stakeholders) can contribute to the success of CDSSs in ASPs. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach was applied, combining scenario-based prototype evaluations (to support verbalization of work processes and out-of-the-box thinking) among 6 medical resident physicians with an online questionnaire (to cross-reference findings of the prototype evaluations) among 54 Dutch physicians...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089603/melatonin-inhibits-snake-venom-and-antivenom-induced-oxidative-stress-and-augments-treatment-efficacy
#6
Rachana D Sharma, Gajanan D Katkar, Mahalingam S Sundaram, Basavarajaiah Swethakumar, Kesturu S Girish, Kempaiah Kemparaju
Snakebite is a neglected health hazard, its patho-physiology had been focused on systemic and local toxicities; but, venom and antivenom induced oxidative stress has been ignored for a long time. Antivenom therapy although neutralizes venom lethality and saves many lives it remains ineffective against oxidative stress. This prompted us to complement antivenom with an antioxidant molecule melatonin that would protect against oxidative stress and increase the efficacy of the existing snakebite therapy. Here we show that D...
January 12, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081131/-i-wasted-3-years-thinking-it-s-not-a-problem-patient-and-health-system-delays-in-diagnosis-of-leprosy-in-india-a-mixed-methods-study
#7
Thirumugam Muthuvel, Srinivas Govindarajulu, Petros Isaakidis, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Vasudev Rokade, Rajbir Singh, Sanjeev Kamble
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, leprosy is one of the major causes of preventable disability. India contributes to 60% of global leprosy burden. With increasing numbers of leprosy with grade 2 disability (visible disability) at diagnosis, we aimed to determine risk factors associated with grade 2 disability among new cases and explore patients and providers' perspectives into reasons for late presentation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was an explanatory mixed-methods study where the quantitative component, a matched case-control design, was followed by a qualitative component...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077097/what-patients-really-think-about-asthma-guidelines-barriers-to-guideline-implementation-from-the-patients-perspective
#8
H Lingner, B Burger, P Kardos, C P Criée, H Worth, E Hummers-Pradier
BACKGROUND: Treatment of asthma does not always comply with asthma guidelines (AG). This may be rooted in direct or indirect resistance on the doctors' and/or patients' side or be caused by the healthcare system. To assess whether patients' concepts and attitudes are really an implementation barrier for AG, we analysed the patients' perspective of a "good asthma therapy" and contrasted their wishes with current recommendations. METHODS: Using a qualitative exploratory design, topic centred focus group (FG) discussions were performed until theoretical saturation was reached...
January 11, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076680/regulating-the-master-regulator-controlling-ubiquitination-by-thinking-outside-the-active-site
#9
Stacey-Lynn Paiva, Sara R da Silva, Elvin D de Araujo, Patrick Thomas Gunning
The labeling of proteins with ubiquitin/ubiquitin-like (Ubl) proteins is crucial for several physiological processes and in the onset of various diseases. Recently, targeting ubiquitin protein labeling has shifted towards the use of allosteric mechanisms over classical activity-based approaches. Allosteric enzyme regulation offers the potential for greater selectivity and has demonstrated less susceptibility to acquired resistance often associated with active site inhibitors. Furthermore, the isoform diversity among E1 activating, E2 conjugating, E3 ligase and deubiquitinating (DUB) enzymes offers an ideal platform for modulating activity via allostery...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074356/how-anxious-do-you-think-i-am-relationship-between-state-and-trait-anxiety-in-children-with-and-without-asd-during-social-tasks
#10
J Mertens, E R Zane, K Neumeyer, R B Grossman
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit increased anxiety, even in non-stressful situations. We investigate general anxiousness (anxiety trait) and responses to stressful situations (anxiety state) in 22 adolescents with ASD and 32 typically developing controls. We measured trait anxiety with standardized self- and parent-reported questionnaires. We used a Biopac system to capture state anxiety via skin conductance responses, mean heart rate and heart rate variability during high- and low-anxiety tasks...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073180/porto-systemic-collaterals-in-living-donor-liver-transplantation-what-s-all-the-fuss-about
#11
REVIEW
Mettu Srinivas Reddy, Mohamed Rela
Porto-systemic collaterals are a common finding in patients with cirrhosis undergoing liver transplantation. Recently, there has been renewed interest regarding their significance in the setting of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) due to concerns of graft hypo or hyper-perfusion and its impact on early post-transplant outcomes. Presence of these collaterals has greater significance in the LDLT setting when compared to deceased donor liver transplant setting as dictated by the difference in the physiology of partial liver grafts...
January 10, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070707/value-based-assessment-of-radiology-reporting-using-radiologist-referring-physician-two-way-feedback-system-a-design-thinking-based-approach
#12
Faiq Shaikh, Kenneth Hendrata, Brian Kolowitz, Omer Awan, Rasu Shrestha, Christopher Deible
In the era of value-based healthcare, many aspects of medical care are being measured and assessed to improve quality and reduce costs. Radiology adds enormously to health care costs and is under pressure to adopt a more efficient system that incorporates essential metrics to assess its value and impact on outcomes. Most current systems tie radiologists' incentives and evaluations to RVU-based productivity metrics and peer-review-based quality metrics. In a new potential model, a radiologist's performance will have to increasingly depend on a number of parameters that define "value," beginning with peer review metrics that include referrer satisfaction and feedback from radiologists to the referring physician that evaluates the potency and validity of clinical information provided for a given study...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068943/a-case-of-gabar-antibodies-in-schizophrenia
#13
Ida S Haussleiter, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Georg Juckel
BACKGROUND: In the last couple of years, schizophrenia was often discussed as autoimmune disease. Several antibodies were suspected, but so far there has been no proof of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor antibodies in patients with schizophrenia. CASE PRESENTATION: In this case report we present a 21-year old woman with schizophrenic symptoms, who showed anti-GABAB1 antibodies when screened by a vast recombinant neurology mosaic on Human Embryonic Kidney Cells 293 (HEK293) cells...
January 10, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062516/systems-thinking-in-public-health-a-bibliographic-contribution-to-a-meta-narrative-review
#14
Saad Chughtai, Karl Blanchet
BACKGROUND: Research across the formal, natural and social sciences has greatly expanded our knowledge about complex systems in recent decades, informing a broadly inclusive, cross-disciplinary conceptual framework referred to as Systems Thinking (ST). Its use in public health is rapidly increasing, although there remains a poor understanding of how these ideas have been imported, adapted and elaborated by public health research networks worldwide. METHOD: This review employed a mixed methods approach to narrate the development of ST in public health...
January 6, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060463/upregulating-the-positive-affect-system-in-anxiety-and-depression-outcomes-of-a-positive-activity-intervention
#15
Charles T Taylor, Sonja Lyubomirsky, Murray B Stein
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that the positive affect system may be an important yet underexplored treatment target in anxiety and depression. Existing interventions primarily target the negative affect system, yielding modest effects on measures of positive emotions and associated outcomes (e.g., psychological well-being). The objective of the present pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new transdiagnostic positive activity intervention (PAI) for anxiety and depression. METHOD: Twenty-nine treatment-seeking individuals presenting with clinically impairing symptoms of anxiety and/or depression were randomly allocated to a 10-session protocol comprised of PAIs previously shown in nonclinical samples to improve positive thinking, emotions, and behaviors (e...
January 6, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059875/stakeholder-dialogue-as-deliberation-for-decision-making-in-health-policy-and-systems-the-approach-from-argumentation-theory
#16
Sara Rubinelli, Per Maximilian von Groote
OBJECTIVE: The literature on knowledge translation and dissemination in health care highlights the value of the stakeholder dialogue, namely, a structured process where stakeholders interact to identify the best solution to a given problem. By analyzing the stakeholder dialogue as a form of deliberative argumentation, this article identifies those factors that may hinder or facilitate reaching agreement among stakeholders on options to target problems. DESIGN: Conceptual analysis based on the descriptive and evaluation methods of argumentation theory...
February 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056066/what-do-patients-think-about-the-cause-of-their-mental-disorder-a-qualitative-and-quantitative-analysis-of-causal-beliefs-of-mental-disorder-in-inpatients-in-psychosomatic-rehabilitation
#17
Julia Luise Magaard, Holger Schulz, Anna Levke Brütt
BACKGROUND: Patients' causal beliefs about their mental disorders are important for treatment because they affect illness-related behaviours. However, there are few studies exploring patients' causal beliefs about their mental disorder. OBJECTIVES: (a) To qualitatively explore patients' causal beliefs of their mental disorder, (b) to explore frequencies of patients stating causal beliefs, and (c) to investigate differences of causal beliefs according to patients' primary diagnoses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050779/a-current-perspective-on-cancer-immune-therapy-step-by-step-approach-to-constructing-the-magic-bullet
#18
REVIEW
Gabriele D'Errico, Heather L Machado, Bruno Sainz
Immunotherapy is the new trend in cancer treatment due to the selectivity, long lasting effects, and demonstrated improved overall survival and tolerance, when compared to patients treated with conventional chemotherapy. Despite these positive results, immunotherapy is still far from becoming the perfect magic bullet to fight cancer, largely due to the facts that immunotherapy is not effective in all patients nor in all cancer types. How and when will immunotherapy overcome these hurdles? In this review we take a step back to walk side by side with the pioneers of immunotherapy in order to understand what steps need to be taken today to make immunotherapy effective across all cancers...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048580/we-b-brc-00-concepts-in-risk-based-assessment
#19
Benedick Fraass
: Prospective quality management techniques, long used by engineering and industry, have become a growing aspect of efforts to improve quality management and safety in healthcare. These techniques are of particular interest to medical physics as scope and complexity of clinical practice continue to grow, thus making the prescriptive methods we have used harder to apply and potentially less effective for our interconnected and highly complex healthcare enterprise, especially in imaging and radiation oncology...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048441/su-f-t-506-development-and-commissioning-of-the-effective-and-efficient-grid-therapy-using-high-dose-rate-flattening-filter-free-beam-and-multileaf-collimator
#20
M Liu, N Wen, C Beyer, F Siddiqui, I Chetty, B Zhao
PURPOSE: Treating bulky tumors with grid therapy (GT) has demonstrated high response rates. Long delivery time (∼15min), with consequent increased risk of intrafraction motion, is a major disadvantage of conventional MLC-based GT (MLC-GT). The goal of this study was to develop and commission a MLC-GT technique with similar dosimetric characteristics, but more efficient delivery. METHODS: Grid plan was designed with 10X-FFF (2400MU/min) beam and MLC in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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