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Social protection

Evelyne Bougie, Dafna E Kohen
BACKGROUND: Although rates of daily smoking among Inuit have been decreasing since 1991, Inuit are still much more likely to smoke relative to the Canadian population as a whole. However, little population-based empirical research has identified characteristics associated with cigarette use among this population. DATA AND METHODS: Based on data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, sex-specific logistic regression analyses, informed by an Inuit social determinants of health framework, described associations between current smoking and selected socio-demographic characteristics among Inuit men and women aged 18 or older who resided in Inuit Nunangat...
March 21, 2018: Health Reports
Philip Thierno Mbaye
With the evolution of new technologies, ensuring the protection of the patient's rights becomes more and more difficult. The new methods of diagnosis and treatment of the disease although powerful, have finally get throught the patient deep inside his intimacy, requiring a real legal framework in order to preserve medical confidentiality. The apprehension that is made of it depends on the social and cultural realities of the geographical framework in which one can situate oneself. While it is true that in Western societies the legal consecration and the application of medical secrecy has been the subject of numerous jurisprudence, this is not the case in African societies where the notion of secrecy is perceived otherwise...
May 22, 2017: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Claire Joachim, Laurène Mazeau
Modern law is composed dominantly of new fields of complex legislations such as biotechnologies laws, environmental laws or intellectual property. But a particular legal area stigmatizes more than the others this increasing complexity: the water protection laws.Due to its origins deeply established in the European culture, but also due to ethical, political, economical and social issues, water protection laws appear to be the typical representation of links between risk and complexity. The European water protection law is deeply complex on two scales...
October 13, 2017: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Nicole Krämer, Sabrina Sobieraj, Dan Feng, Elisabeth Trubina, Stacy Marsella
Bullying is a pressing societal problem. As such, it is important to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in bullying and of resilience factors which might protect victims. Moreover, it is necessary to provide tools that can train potential victims to strengthen their resilience. To facilitate both of these goals, the current study tests a recently developed virtual environment that puts participants in the role of a victim who is being oppressed by a superior. In a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment ( N = 81), we measured the effects of gender of the oppressor and gender of the participant on psychophysiological reactions, subjective experiences and willingness to report the event...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Pia Noel, Cliodhna Cork, Ross G White
Social capital (SC) is highlighted as an important factor for post-crisis mental health outcomes. However, the heterogeneous nature of the construct makes it difficult to get a clear picture of the evidence concerning the association between SC indices and mental health. This review examines how SC is conceptualized and measured, and the relationships with other variables in quantitative empirical studies investigating the associations between SC and mental health in post-disaster and post-conflict contexts...
March 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Sumit Kane, Matilda Rial, Maryse Kok, Anthony Matere, Marjolein Dieleman, Jacqueline E W Broerse
BACKGROUND: South Sudan has one of the worst health and maternal health situations in the world. Across South Sudan, while maternal health services at the primary care level are not well developed, even where they exist, many women do not use them. Developing location specific understanding of what hinders women from using services is key to developing and implementing locally appropriate public health interventions. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted to gain insight into what hinders women from using maternal health services...
March 20, 2018: Reproductive Health
Shaheen A Abdulkareem, Ellen-Wien Augustijn, Yaseen T Mustafa, Tatiana Filatova
BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide are exposed to deadly infectious diseases on a regular basis. Breaking news of the Zika outbreak for instance, made it to the main media titles internationally. Perceiving disease risks motivate people to adapt their behavior toward a safer and more protective lifestyle. Computational science is instrumental in exploring patterns of disease spread emerging from many individual decisions and interactions among agents and their environment by means of agent-based models...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Tayebeh Hasan Tehrani, Sadat Seyed Bagher Maddah, Masoud Fallahi-Khoshknab, Abbas Ebadi, Farahnaz Mohammadi Shahboulaghi, Mark Gillespie
BACKGROUND: Privacy is a complicated and obscure concept, which has special meanings in the healthcare environment; therefore, it is essential for healthcare providers to fully understand this concept. However, there is no universally accepted definition for this concept in the texts, and it has been interpreted differently, based on its application. AIM: To analyze and provide a clear and scientific definition for respect of privacy of hospitalized patients and identify the common aspects of this concept...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
Barbara H Chaiyachati, Julie R Gaither, Marcia Hughes, Karen Foley-Schain, John M Leventhal
Although home visiting has been used in many populations in prevention efforts, the impact of scaled-up home-visiting programs on abuse and neglect remains unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of voluntary participation in an established statewide home-visiting program for socially high-risk families on child maltreatment as identified by Child Protective Services (CPS). Propensity score matching was used to compare socially high-risk families with a child born between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2011 who participated in Connecticut's home-visiting program for first-time mothers and a comparison cohort of families who were eligible for the home-visiting program but did not participate...
March 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Lorra Garey, Lorraine R Reitzel, Julie Neisler, Darla E Kendzor, Michael J Zvolensky, Clayton Neighbors, Daphne C Hernandez, Michael S Businelle
PURPOSE: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a multidimensional assessment of well-being and health status. Most previous work in this area assumes that HRQoL is a homogenous construct; however, it is possible HRQoL subgroups may exist. The purpose of the study was to characterize common classes of HRQoL among adult, homeless smokers, a particularly vulnerable group of the larger population, and to evaluate risk and protective factors of HRQoL class membership. METHODS: Homeless smokers (N = 456; 65...
March 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Magdalena Harris, Tim Rhodes
A life history approach enables study of how risk or health protection is shaped by critical transitions and turning points in a life trajectory and in the context of social environment and time. We employed visual and narrative life history methods with people who inject drugs to explore how hepatitis C protection was enabled and maintained over the life course. We overview our methodological approach, with a focus on the ethics in practice of using life history timelines and life-grids with 37 participants...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Cathryn Clarke Murray, Janson Wong, Gerald G Singh, Megan Mach, Jackie Lerner, Bernardo Ranieri, Guillaume Peterson St-Laurent, Alice Guimaraes, Kai M A Chan
Environmental assessment is the process that decision-makers rely on to predict, evaluate, and prevent biophysical, social, and economic impacts of potential project developments. The determination of significance in environmental assessment is central to environmental management in many nations. We reviewed ten recent environmental impact assessments from British Columbia, Canada and systematically reviewed and scored significance determination and the approaches used by assessors, the use of thresholds in significance determination, threshold exceedances, and the outcomes...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Management
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Vincenza Gianfredi, Milena Villarini, Roberto Rosselli, Ahmed Nasr, Amr Hussein, Mariano Martini, Masoud Behzadifar
Vaccines are public health interventions aimed at preventing infections-related mortality, morbidity, and disability. While vaccines have been successfully designed for those infectious diseases preventable by preexisting neutralizing specific antibodies, for other communicable diseases, additional immunological mechanisms should be elicited to achieve a full protection. "New vaccines" are particularly urgent in the nowadays society, in which economic growth, globalization, and immigration are leading to the emergence/reemergence of old and new infectious agents at the animal-human interface...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Andrew J Barnes, Jace Gilbertson, Debanjana Chatterjee
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Youth who are homeless with adult family members comprise 37% of the US homeless population, yet mental health among this group has not yet been well described. We aimed to compare the risk of suicidality, and factors that may protect against it, between family-homeless and nonhomeless youth. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data, representing 62 034 eighth- to 12th-graders, to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of emotional distress, self-injury, suicidal ideation, and attempted suicide in the past 12 months for youth who experienced family homelessness in the past 12 months compared with housed youth, controlling for covariates...
March 19, 2018: Pediatrics
Tanja Jene, Nils C Gassen, Verena Opitz, Kristina Endres, Marianne B Müller, Michael A van der Kooij
Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the response to an acute stressor may provide novel insights into successful stress-coping strategies. Acute behavioral stress-effects may be restricted to a specific time window early after stress-induction. However, existing behavioral test batteries typically span multiple days or even weeks, limiting the feasibility for a broad behavioral analysis following acute stress. Here, we designed a novel comprehensive behavioral test battery in male mice that assesses multiple behavioral dimensions within a sufficiently brief time window to capture acute stress-effects and its temporal profile...
March 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Shanta R Dube
Currently, in the U.S. and worldwide, childhood trauma is a public health crisis. Childhood adversities, such as abuse, neglect, and related household stressors, are common, interrelated and contribute to multiple adverse social, behavioral and health outcomes throughout the lifespan. The present article provides further discussion regarding adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) screening in healthcare utilizing the etic and emic perspectives. Screening in the healthcare system leans toward the etic view: objective observations of symptoms, which may then lead to intervention delivery...
March 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Kathy Padkapayeva, Mahée Gilbert-Ouimet, Amber Bielecky, Selahadin Ibrahim, Cameron Mustard, Chantal Brisson, Peter Smith
Objectives: Stress is an important factor affecting the health of working population. While work exposures are determinants of levels of work and life stress, we do not know whether similar or different exposures are related to stress levels for men and women. This study aimed to formally examine male/female differences in the relationships between psychosocial work exposures and work and life stress in a representative sample of Canadian labour market participants. Methods: We used data from 2012 cycle of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), a representative population-based survey conducted by Statistics Canada...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Vasiliki Rahimzadeh, Christoph Schickhardt, Bartha M Knoppers, Karine Sénécal, Danya F Vears, Conrad V Fernandez, Stefan Pfister, Sharon Plon, Sharon Terry, Janet Williams, Marc S Williams, Martina Cornel, Jan M Friedman
Accurate clinical interpretation of children's whole-genome and whole-exome sequences relies on comparing the patient's linked genomic and phenotypic data with variant reference databases of both healthy and affected patients. The robustness of such comparisons, in turn, is made possible by sharing pediatric genomic and associated clinical data. Despite this, sparse ethical-legal policy attention has been paid to making such sharing routine in practice. The interdisciplinary Paediatric Task Team of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health considered in detail the current ethical, legal, and social implications of sharing genomic and associated clinical data involving children...
March 19, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Allison R Fleming, Mary Edwin, Jeffrey A Hayes, Benjamin D Locke, Allison J Lockard
Students with disabilities are a growing population on college campuses and have unique challenges that put them at risk for early departure, creating complexity in efforts to address their personal and academic needs. PURPOSE: The purpose was to explore academic and other sources of distress among college students with disabilities to identify possible areas where enhanced supports might benefit this population. Research Method and Design: Researchers analyzed cross-sectional data from the Center for Collegiate Mental Health to compare subsamples of students with (n = 1,774) and without disabilities (n = 1,774) on presenting concerns, and to determine significant predictors of academic distress among students with disabilities...
February 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Safwat Y Diab, Sanna Isosävi, Samir R Qouta, Saija Kuittinen, Raija-Leena Punamäki
BACKGROUND: Women at pre partum and post partum are especially susceptible to war trauma because they struggle to protect their infants from danger. Trauma research suggests increased problems in maternal mental health and infant development. Yet many cognitive-emotional processes affect the trauma survivors' mental health, such as post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition. The aim of this study was to examine whether a mother's high post-traumatic growth and optimal post-traumatic cognition could protect their own mental health and their infant's stress regulation from the effects of traumatic war experiences...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
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