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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923015/project-shikamana-baseline-findings-from-a-community-empowerment-based-combination-hiv-prevention-trial-among-female-sex-workers-in-iringa-tanzania
#1
Deanna Kerrigan, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Sarah Beckham, Ard Mwampashi, Catherine Shembilu, Andrea Mantsios, Anna Leddy, Wendy Davis, Noya Galai
BACKGROUND: Community empowerment approaches have been found to be effective in responding to HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in South Asia and Latin America. To date, limited rigorous evaluations of these approaches have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A phase II community randomized controlled trial is being conducted in Iringa, Tanzania, to evaluate the effectiveness of a community empowerment-based combination HIV prevention model (Project Shikamana) among a stratified sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected FSWs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922101/social-determinants-of-eyeblinks-in-adult-male-macaques
#2
Sébastien Ballesta, Clayton P Mosher, Jeno Szep, Kate D Fischl, Katalin M Gothard
Videos with rich social and emotional content elicit natural social behaviors in primates. Indeed, while watching videos of conspecifics, monkeys engage in eye contact, gaze follow, and reciprocate facial expressions. We hypothesized that the frequency and timing of eyeblinks also depends on the social signals contained in videos. We monitored the eyeblinks of four male adult macaques while they watched videos of conspecifics displaying facial expressions with direct or averted gaze. The instantaneous blink rate of all four animals decreased during videos...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921317/effects-of-economics-and-demographics-on-global-fisheries-sustainability
#3
Qi Ding, Yali Wang, Xinjun Chen, Yong Chen
A good understanding of social factors that lead to marine ecological change is important to develop sustainable global fisheries. In this study we analyzed how economic prosperity and population growth in 122 nations might ultimately affect the sustainability of their marine ecosystems during the period of 1970-2010 using a balanced panel model. We used marine Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ) catch, mean trophic level of fishery landings (MTL), the primary production required to sustain marine catch expressed as percentage of local primary production (%PPR), and the loss in secondary production index (L index) to indicate ecological changes in marine ecosystems...
December 6, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921293/coloniality-and-migration-are-related-to-selection-on-mhc-genes-in-birds
#4
Piotr Minias, Linda A Whittingham, Peter O Dunn
The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) plays a key role in pathogen recognition as a part of vertebrate adaptive immune system. The great diversity of MHC genes in natural populations is maintained by different forms of balancing selection and its strength should correlate with the diversity of pathogens to which a population is exposed and the rate of exposure. Despite this prediction, little is known about how the life-history characteristics affect selection at the MHC. Here, we examined whether the strength of balancing selection on MHC class II genes in birds (as measured with nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions, dN) was related to their social or migratory behaviour, two life-history characteristics correlated with pathogen exposure...
December 6, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921191/a-review-of-the-public-health-impacts-of-unconventional-natural-gas-development
#5
REVIEW
P J Saunders, D McCoy, R Goldstein, A T Saunders, A Munroe
The public health impact of hydraulic fracturing remains a high profile and controversial issue. While there has been a recent surge of published papers, it remains an under-researched area despite being possibly the most substantive change in energy production since the advent of the fossil fuel economy. We review the evidence of effects in five public health domains with a particular focus on the UK: exposure, health, socio-economic, climate change and seismicity. While the latter would seem not to be of significance for the UK, we conclude that serious gaps in our understanding of the other potential impacts persist together with some concerning signals in the literature and legitimate uncertainties derived from first principles...
December 5, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919863/applying-multiple-data-collection-tools-to-quantify-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-communication-on-twitter
#6
Philip M Massey, Amy Leader, Elad Yom-Tov, Alexandra Budenz, Kara Fisher, Ann C Klassen
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. There are several vaccines that protect against strains of HPV most associated with cervical and other cancers. Thus, HPV vaccination has become an important component of adolescent preventive health care. As media evolves, more information about HPV vaccination is shifting to social media platforms such as Twitter. Health information consumed on social media may be especially influential for segments of society such as younger populations, as well as ethnic and racial minorities...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918840/resilience-and-risk-for-alcohol-use-disorders-a-swedish-twin-study
#7
Elizabeth C Long, Sara L Lönn, Jianguang Ji, Paul Lichtenstein, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Resilience has been shown to be protective against alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but the magnitude and nature of the relationship between these 2 phenotypes are not clear. The aim of this study was to examine the strength of this relationship and the degree to which it results from common genetic or common environmental influences. METHODS: Resilience was assessed on a 9-point scale during a personal interview in 1,653,721 Swedish men aged 17 to 25 years...
December 5, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918323/group-psychotherapeutic-factors-and-perceived-social-support-among-veterans-with-ptsd-symptoms
#8
Daniel W Cox, Jess J Owen, John S Ogrodniczuk
One of the most potent protective factors against psychiatric symptoms after military trauma is perceived social support. Although group psychotherapy has been linked with increasing social support, no research has evaluated which therapeutic mechanisms are associated with this increase beyond symptom reduction. We investigated which interpersonal therapeutic factors were related to changes in social support, beyond posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom reduction. Participants were 117 veterans in a multimodal outpatient group psychotherapy treatment designed to reduce PTSD symptoms and interpersonal difficulties...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917972/pastoralism-in-the-drylands-of-latin-america-argentina-chile-mexico-and-peru
#9
J M Grünwaldt, G Castellaro, E R Flores, C R Morales-Nieto, R D Valdez-Cepeda, J C Guevera, E G Grünwaldt
This article discusses various aspects of pastoralism in the Latin American countries with the largest dryland areas. The topics covered include: social, economic and institutional issues; grasslands and their carrying capacity; production systems and productivity rates; competition for forage resources between domestic livestock and wildlife; and the health status of livestock and wildlife. Most grasslands exhibit some degree of degradation. The percentage of offspring reaching weaning age is low: 47-66% of calves and 40-80% of lambs...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917969/targeted-social-protection-in-a-pastoralist-economy-case-study-from-kenya
#10
S A Janzen, N D Jensen, A G Mude
Social protection programmes are designed to help vulnerable populations - including pastoralists - maintain a basic level of well-being, manage risk, and cope with negative shocks. Theory suggests that differential targeting according to poverty status can increase the reach and effectiveness of budgeted social protection programmes. Chronically poor households benefit most from social protection designed to help them meet their basic needs and make vital investments necessary to graduate from poverty. Vulnerable non-destitute households benefit from protection against costly temporary shocks, but do not necessarily need regular assistance...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917766/psychosocial-risk-and-protective-factors-associated-with-perpetration-of-gender-based-violence-in-a-community-sample-of-men-in-rural-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#11
N Mngoma, S Fergus, A Jeeves, R Jolly
BACKGROUND: Rates of gender-based violence (GBV) in South Africa (SA) are among the highest in the world. In societies where social ideals of masculinity encourage male dominance and control over women, gender power imbalances contribute to male perpetration and women's vulnerability. The drivers that cause men to perpetrate GBV and those that lead to HIV overlap and interact in multiple and complex ways. Multiple risk and protective factors for GBV perpetration by males operate interdependently at a number of levels; at the individual level, these include chronic anxiety and depression, which have been shown to lead to risky sexual behaviours...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917535/structure-and-process-facilitate-integration-and-mainstreaming-in-conservation
#12
Kenneth E Wallen
Bennett and colleagues (2016) discerningly point out calls to integrate the social and natural sciences in conservation are "now routine." Yet, these calls have a limited effect as they continue to go unheeded, although "everyone working in conservation, it seems, recognizes that natural science alone cannot solve conservation problems". Highlighting the need for more comprehensive integration, the authors present a "framework for a collaborative and integrated conservation science and practice", which ostensibly contains a set of structures for interdisciplinary team science...
December 5, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917486/school-based-positive-youth-development-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#13
Tess Curran, Lisa Wexler
BACKGROUND: The values, perspectives, and behavior patterns that begin in adolescence can continue throughout one's life. Because of these lifetime effects, much research has focused on adolescent risk and prevention, but a new body of knowledge investigates protective factors and strengths. Positive youth development (PYD) increases internal and external assets during adolescence and is often based within communities. This review, however, focuses on school-based PYD interventions because these institutions are the largest youth-serving institutions in the country...
January 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917287/measuring-the-complexity-of-treatment-for-challenging-behavior-using-the-treatment-intensity-rating-form
#14
Jennifer Zarcone, Louis Hagopian, Jennifer Ninci, Chloe McKay, Andrew Bonner, Christopher Dillon, Nicole Hausman
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate a tool to measure the complexity and intensity of psychotropic medication interventions, behavioral interventions, and issues related to crisis management for challenging behavior using a standardized rating form. METHOD: The Treatment Intensity Rating Form (TIRF) is a 10-item scale with three categories: pharmacological interventions, behavior supports, and protective equipment. In a retrospective review we examined the final treatment recommendations for 74 individuals with self-injurious behavior (SIB) based on psychiatric and behavioral notes and reports...
2016: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916111/justification-of-ct-for-individual-health-assessment-of-asymptomatic-persons-a%C3%A2-world-health-organization-consultation
#15
Jim Malone, Maria Del Rosario Perez, Eva Godske Friberg, Mathias Prokop, Seung Eun Jung, Jurgen Griebel, Steve Ebdon-Jackson
An international expert consultation was convened by the World Health Organization (WHO). The purpose of the meeting was to review the use of CT in examining asymptomatic people. This is often referred to as individual health assessment (IHA). IHA was identified as a global phenomenon unenthusiastically tolerated, and not actively promoted, structured, or regulated in most countries. This paper identifies the state of the art for IHA and some considerations in relation to its justification, in different regions of the world...
December 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915459/the-role-of-accompagnement-in-the-end-of-life-debate-in-france-from-solidarity-to-autonomy
#16
Marie Gaille, Ruth Horn
This article traces the way autonomy has become a recognised value in health care in France. In a country that based its social fundamentals on the very idea of solidarity for many years, autonomy has long been considered a foreign 'Anglo-American principle'. Taking the example of the end-of-life debate, the article shows, however, how the use of the French term 'accompagnement' allowed autonomy to be redefined and to be associated with the concept of solidarity. Exploring the arguments used over the past 25 years in professional guidelines, parliamentary reports, ethics committee reports, and legal texts, the authors describe the shift that took place in public and legal discourses on end-of-life care...
December 3, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913453/movement-patterns-of-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus-in-farmlands-in-botswana
#17
L K Van der Weyde, T Y Hubel, J Horgan, J Shotton, R McKenna, A M Wilson
Botswana has the second highest population of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with most living outside protected areas. As a result, many cheetahs are found in farming areas, bringing them into conflict with people. This study aimed to look at movement patterns of cheetahs in farming environments to determine whether cheetahs have adapted their movements in these human-dominated landscapes. We fitted high-time resolution GPS collars to cheetahs in the Ghanzi farmlands of Botswana. GPS locations were used to calculate home range sizes as well as number and duration of visits to landscape features using a time-based local convex hull method...
December 2, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911019/the-impact-and-measurement-of-social-dysfunction-in-late-life-depression-an-evaluation-of-current-methods-with-a-focus-on-wearable-technology
#18
REVIEW
Sophie Hodgetts, Peter Gallagher, Daniel Stow, I Nicol Ferrier, John T O'Brien
OBJECTIVE: Depression is known to negatively impact social functioning, with patients commonly reporting difficulties maintaining social relationships. Moreover, a large body of evidence suggests poor social functioning is not only present in depression but that social functioning is an important factor in illness course and outcome. In addition, good social relationships can play a protective role against the onset of depressive symptoms, particularly in late-life depression. However, the majority of research in this area has employed self-report measures of social function...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909857/privacy-autonomy-and-public-policy-french-and-north-american-perspectives
#19
Jennifer Merchant
This article raises the question of whether in both the United States and in France, an individual's autonomy and private decision-making right(s) in matters of health care and access to reproductive technologies can be conciliated with the general interest, and more specifically, the role of the State. Can a full-fledged right to privacy, the ability to exercise one's autonomy, exist alongside the general interest, and depend neither on financial resources like in the United States nor on centralised government decisions or the medical hierarchy like in France? The contrast between these two modern democracies justify the importance of comparing them...
December 2, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908287/is-mid-life-social-participation-associated-with-cognitive-function-at-age-50-results-from-the-british-national-child-development-study-ncds
#20
Ann Bowling, Jitka Pikhartova, Brian Dodgeon
BACKGROUND: Some studies have indicated that social engagement is associated with better cognitive outcomes. This study aimed to investigate associations between life-course social engagement (civic participation) and cognitive status at age 50, adjusting for social networks and support, behavioural, health, social and socio-economic characteristics. METHODS: The vehicle for the study was the National Child Development Study (1958 Birth Cohort Study), which is a general population sample in England, Scotland and Wales (9119: 4497 men and 4622 women) participating in nationally representative, prospective birth cohort surveys...
December 2, 2016: BMC Psychology
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