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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036936/barriers-and-facilitators-for-health-behavior-change-among-adults-from-multi-problem-households-a-qualitative-study
#1
Gera E Nagelhout, Lette Hogeling, Renate Spruijt, Nathalie Postma, Hein de Vries
Multi-problem households are households with problems on more than one of the following core problem areas: socio-economic problems, psycho-social problems, and problems related to child care. The aim of this study was to examine barriers and facilitators for health behavior change among adults from multi-problem households, as well as to identify ideas for a health promotion program. A qualitative study involving 25 semi-structured interviews was conducted among Dutch adults who received intensive family home care for multi-problem households...
October 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035040/orally-administrated-baker-s-yeast-beta-glucan-promotes-glucose-and-lipid-homeostasis-in-the-livers-of-ob-ob-mice
#2
Yan Cao, Ying Sun, Siwei Zou, Mengxia Li, Xiaojuan Xu
Baker's yeast glucan (BYG) has been reported to be anti-diabetic. Herein, further study on the effect of orally administrated BYG on glucose and lipid homeostasis in the livers of ob/ob mice was performed. It was found that BYG decreased the blood glucose and the hepatic glucose and lipid disorders. Western blotting analysis revealed that BYG up-regulated p-AKT and p-AMPK, and down-regulated p-Acc in the liver. Furthermore, RNA-Seq analysis indicated that BYG down-regulated genes responsible for gluconeogenesis (G6pase and Got1), fatty acid biosynthesis (Acly, Acc, Fas, etc...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032525/determinants-of-serum-organochlorine-pesticide-and-polychlorinated-biphenyl-levels-in-middle-aged-korean-adults
#3
Jun-Tae Kim, Jung-Ho Kang, Yoon-Seok Chang, Duk-Hee Lee, Sung-Deuk Choi
The serum levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in a middle-aged Korean population and investigated associations with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome (MS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and dietary habits. The median concentrations of 22 OCPs and 34 PCBs in the serum samples were 483 and 216 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. The most abundant compound was p,p'-DDE, followed by PCB 153, β-HCH, PCB 118, and PCB 180. The results of multiple linear regression and other statistical analyses revealed that serum OCP and PCB levels were higher in women and were positively correlated with age...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031711/lorcaserin-improves-glycemic-control-via-a-melanocortin-neurocircuit
#4
Luke K Burke, Emmanuel Ogunnowo-Bada, Teodora Georgescu, Claudia Cristiano, Pablo B Martinez de Morentin, Lourdes Valencia Torres, Giuseppe D'Agostino, Christine Riches, Nicholas Heeley, Yue Ruan, Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low, Martin G Myers, Justin J Rochford, Mark L Evans, Lora K Heisler
OBJECTIVE: The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and associated morbidity and mortality emphasizes the need for a more complete understanding of the mechanisms mediating glucose homeostasis to accelerate the identification of new medications. Recent reports indicate that the obesity medication lorcaserin, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) agonist, improves glycemic control in association with weight loss in obese patients with T2D. Here we evaluate whether lorcaserin has an effect on glycemia without body weight loss and how this effect is achieved...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031395/habitual-dietary-intake-of-fatty-acids-are-associated-with-leptin-gene-expression-in-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-of-patients-without-diabetes
#5
Hosein Rostami, Mohammad Samadi, Emad Yuzbashian, Maryam Zarkesh, Golaleh Asghari, Mehdi Hedayati, Afsoon Daneshafrooz, Parvin Mirmiran, Alireza Khalaj
The purpose of the study was to investigate the association of leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues with habitual fatty acid intake and its subtypes in adults. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were gathered from 97 participants aged ≥ 20, who had undergone elective abdominal surgery. Dietary fatty acid intakes including total fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ)...
November 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028440/intracerebroventricular-infusion-of-an-angiotensin-at2-receptor-agonist-novokinin-aggravates-some-diabetes-mellitus-induced-alterations-in-wistar-rats
#6
Daniela Pechlivanova, Kiril Petrov, Petar Grozdanov, Zlatina Nenchovska, Jana Tchekalarova, Alexander Stoynev
Cumulative data suggest the significant role of the Renin - Angiotensin System in the development of the pathological consequences of diabetes mellitus (DM). Newly synthesized AT2 receptor agonists gained importance as a target for creating new antihypertensives. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of a peptide AT2 agonist Novokinin, infused intracerebroventricularly, on the consequences of the streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM (T1 DM) in Wistar rats. Food and water consumption, body weight, urine excretion (metabolic cages), motor activity (open field test), anxiety (elevated plus maze), nociception (paw pressure analgesimeter test), spatial memory (T-maze alternation test) and plasma levels of glucose and corticosterone (ELISA) were assessed two weeks after the T1 DM induction...
October 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027968/rapid-identification-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-dpp-iv-inhibitory-peptides-from-ruditapes-philippinarum-hydrolysate
#7
Rui Liu, Lei Zhou, Yan Zhang, Nai-Juan Sheng, Zhi-Kang Wang, Ti-Zhi Wu, Xin-Zhi Wang, Hao Wu
Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides were rapidly identified from Ruditapes philippinarum hydrolysate. The hydrolysate was fractionated by ethanol precipitation and preparative reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The fraction which showed the highest DPP-IV inhibitory activity was then analyzed by a high-throughput nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC ESI-MS/MS) method, and the sequences of peptides were identified based on the MS/MS spectra against the Mollusca protein data from the UniProt database...
October 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027375/vibrio-vulnificus-new-insights-into-a-deadly-opportunistic-pathogen
#8
Craig Baker-Austin, James D Oliver
Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram-negative aquatic bacterium first isolated by the United States (US) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1964. This bacterium is part of the normal microbiota of estuarine waters and occurs in high numbers in molluscan shellfish around the world, particularly in warmer months. Infections in humans are derived from consumption of seafood produce and from water exposure. V. vulnificus is a striking and enigmatic human pathogen, yet many aspects related to its biology, genomics, virulence capabilities and epidemiology remain elusive and poorly understood...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026636/neck-abscess-due-to-salmonella-choleraesuis-case-study-and-literature-review
#9
Ryoji Sugimoto, Hirotaka Suzuki, Takahito Nei, Ayaka Tashiro, Yohei Washio, Kazunari Sonobe, Yuzo Nakamura, Nozomu Wakayama, Shunta Inai, Hidemasa Izumiya
Introduction. We herein describe a case with a neck abscess due to non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS). NTS habitually reside in our environment and colonize all animals including mammals. Colonizations of pigs, chickens, cows and sheep are important because food poisoning episodes in human are often associated with meat. Extra-intestinal infection due to NTS has numerous presentations and complications, with aortic aneurysms being common. Case presentation. A 26-year-old Japanese male complaining of left-sided neck swelling was referred to our hospital for a suspected deep neck abscess...
August 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025979/the-melatonin-receptor-agonist-piromelatine-ameliorates-impaired-glucose-metabolism-in-chronically-stressed-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#10
Jun Zhou, Deng Wang, Xiaohong Luo, Xu Jia, Maoxing Li, Laudon Moshe, Ruxue Zhang, Zhengping Jia
Modern lifestyle factors (high-caloric food rich in fat) and daily chronic stress are important risk factors for metabolic disturbances. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and the subsequent excess production of glucocorticoids (GCs) in response to chronic stress (CS) leads to increases in metabolic complications, such as type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance (IR). Melatonin (MLT), which protects several regulatory components of the HPA axis from GC-induced deterioration, might improve glucose homeostasis...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023424/dietary-anthocyanins-and-insulin-resistance-when-food-becomes-a-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Tarun Belwal, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Solomon Habtemariam
Insulin resistance is an abnormal physiological state that occurs when insulin from pancreatic β-cells is unable to trigger a signal transduction pathway in target organs such as the liver, muscles and adipose tissues. The loss of insulin sensitivity is generally associated with persistent hyperglycemia (diabetes), hyperinsulinemia, fatty acids and/or lipid dysregulation which are often prevalent under obesity conditions. Hence, insulin sensitizers are one class of drugs currently employed to treat diabetes and associated metabolic disorders...
October 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022978/freeze-dried-strawberry-and-blueberry-attenuates-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-rats-by-inhibiting-adipogenesis-and-lipogenesis
#12
Paula Aranaz, Ana Romo-Hualde, María Zabala, David Navarro-Herrera, Marina Ruiz de Galarreta, Ana Gloria Gil, J Alfredo Martinez, Fermín I Milagro, Carlos J González-Navarro
Obesity and type 2-diabetes are becoming a worldwide health problem, reiterating the importance of alternative therapies to tackle their progression. Here, we hypothesized that supplementation of diet with 6% w/w of a freeze-dried strawberry-blueberry (5 : 1) powder (FDSB) could exert beneficial metabolic effects on Wistar rats. FDSB-supplemented animals experienced significantly reduced body weight gain, food efficiency and visceral adiposity accumulation in two independent experiments. FDSB supplementation also contributed to lower area under the curve after an intraperitoneal GTT and reduced serum insulin levels and an insulin resistance index (IR-HOMA) in HFS diet-fed animals, together with reduced plasma MCP-1 inflammation marker concentrations...
October 12, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022562/ketogenic-diet-in-endocrine-disorders-current-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
L Gupta, D Khandelwal, S Kalra, P Gupta, D Dutta, S Aggarwal
Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome...
October 2017: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022388/our-gut-microbiota-a-long-walk-to-homeostasis
#14
L M T Dicks, J Geldenhuys, L S Mikkelsen, E Brandsborg, H Marcotte
The microbiome of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) consists of billions of bacteria, fungi and viruses, of which bacteria play the most important role in nutrition, immune development, production of vitamins and maintaining a well-balanced (homeostatic) microbial population. Many papers have been published on the microbiota in the human GIT, but little is known about the first group of bacteria that colonises an infant. The intestinal tract of an unborn is, despite general belief, not sterile, but contains bacteria that have been transferred from the mother...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022212/effect-of-food-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-saroglitazar-magnesium-a-novel-dual-ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-agonist-in-healthy-adult-subjects
#15
Maulik R Patel, Kevinkumar A Kansagra, Devang P Parikh, Deven V Parmar, Hardik B Patel, Mayur M Soni, Uday S Patil, Harilal V Patel, Jaimik A Patel, Swagat S Gujarathi, Krupi V Parmar, Nuggehally R Srinivas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have recently become a focus of interest for their important roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. In humans, PPARα activation causes a decrease in plasma triglyceride (TG) levels, enhancement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and simultaneous enhancement of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) lipolysis, whereas PPARγ agonists act as insulin sensitizers and improve insulin resistance, which is very useful in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
October 11, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022103/antidiabetic-plant-derived-nutraceuticals-a-critical-review
#16
REVIEW
Jayapal Naveen, Vallikannan Baskaran
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major health problems in the world, especially amongst the urban population. Chemically synthesized drugs used to decrease the ill effects of DM and its secondary complications cause adverse side effects, viz., weight gain, gastrointestinal disturbances, and heart failure. Currently, various other approaches, viz., diet control, physical exercise and use of antidiabetic plant-derived molecules/foods are advocated to manage DM, as they are economical with fewer or no side effects...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021948/the-association-between-distance-to-public-amenities-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-among-lower-income-singaporeans
#17
K K Lim, Y H Kwan, C S Tan, L L Low, A P Chua, W Y Lee, L Pang, H Y Tay, S Y Chan, T Ostbye
Existing evidence on the association between built environment and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors focused on the general population, which may not generalize to higher risk subgroups such as those with lower socio-economic status (SES). We examined the associations between distance to 5 public amenities from residential housing (public polyclinic, subsidized private clinic, healthier eatery, public park and train station) and 12 CVD risk factors (physical inactivity, medical histories and unhealthy dietary habits) among a study sample of low income Singaporeans aged ≥ 40 years (N = 1972)...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021286/pomegranate-juice-but-not-an-extract-confers-a-lower-glycemic-response-on-a-high-glycemic-index-food-randomized-crossover-controlled-trials-in-healthy-subjects
#18
Asimina Kerimi, Hilda Nyambe-Silavwe, Julia S Gauer, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Gary Williamson
Background: Low-glycemic index diets have demonstrated health benefits associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes.Objectives: We tested whether pomegranate polyphenols could lower the glycemic response of a high-glycemic index food when consumed together and the mechanism by which this might occur.Design: We compared the acute effect of a pomegranate juice and a polyphenol-rich extract from pomegranate (supplement) on the bread-derived postprandial blood glucose concentration in 2 randomized, crossover, controlled studies (double-blinded for the supplements), each on 16 healthy volunteers...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020969/updates-on-cardiovascular-outcome-trials-in-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Oliver Schnell, Lars Rydén, Eberhard Standl, Antonio Ceriello
In 2008 the Food and Drug Administration introduced a guidance for industry that requires the investigation of cardiovascular outcomes of glucose-lowering medications. Since then, an increasing number of cardiovascular outcome trials have been completed in diabetes patients with high cardiovascular risk for members of the SGLT-2 and DPP4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonist classes. The trials confirmed cardiovascular safety for all tested anti-hyperglycaemic drugs and, in addition empagliflozin, semaglutide and liraglutide could even reduce cardiovascular risk...
October 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020137/residential-socioeconomic-food-and-built-environments-and-glycemic-control-in-individuals-with-diabetes-in-new-york-city-2007-2013
#20
Bahman P Tabaei, Andrew G Rundle, Winfred Y Wu, Carol R Horowitz, Victoria Mayer, Daniel M Sheehan, Shadi Chamany
This study examined the longitudinal associations between residential environment factors and glycemic control in 182,756 adults with diabetes in New York City (2007-2013). Glycemic control was defined as hemoglobin A1c (A1C) <7%. We constructed residential-level measures and performed principle component analysis to formulate a residential composite score. Based on this score, we divided residential areas into quintiles, with the lowest and highest quintiles reflecting the least advantaged and most advantaged residential environments...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
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