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Nuclear Terrorism

Steven D Deas, Nikhil Huprikar, Andrew Skabelund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ionizing radiation poses important health risks. The per capita annual dose rate has increased in the United States and there is increasing concern for the risks posed by low-dose occupational exposure among workers in nuclear industries and healthcare. Recent nuclear accidents and concern for terrorism have heightened concern for catastrophic, high-dose ionizing radiation exposure. This review will highlight recent research into the risks to lung health posed by ionizing radiation exposure and into potential treatments...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
J Raber, M J Davis, T Pfankuch, R Rosenthal, S R Doctrow, J E Moulder
The brain could be exposed to irradiation as part of a nuclear accident, radiological terrorism (dirty bomb scenario) or a medical radiological procedure. In the context of accidents or terrorism, there is considerable interest in compounds that can mitigate radiation-induced injury when treatment is initiated a day or more after the radiation exposure. As it will be challenging to determine the radiation exposure an individual has received within a relatively short time frame, it is also critical that the mitigating agent does not negatively affect individuals, including emergency workers, who might be treated, but who were not exposed...
October 24, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Steven L Simon, André Bouville
This paper revisits and reiterates the needs, purposes and requirements of biodosimetric assays for long-term dose and health risk assessments. While the most crucial need for biodosimetric assays is to guide medical response for radiation accidents, the value of such techniques for improving our understanding of radiation health risk by supporting epidemiological (long-term health risk) studies is significant. As new cohorts of exposed persons are identified and new health risk studies are undertaken with the hopes that studying the exposed will result in a deeper understanding of radiation risk, the value of reliable dose reconstruction is underscored...
July 13, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Martina Nilsson, Joakim Grånemo, Magdalena M Buś, Mikael Havsjö, Marie Allen
Inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification often present a challenge in forensic investigations of e.g., terrorism, missing persons, sexual assaults and other criminal cases. Such inhibitors may be counteracted by dilution of the DNA extract, using different additives, and selecting an inhibitory resistant DNA polymerase. Additionally, DNA in forensic samples is often present in limited amounts and degraded, requiring special analyses of short nuclear targets or mitochondrial DNA. The present study evaluated the enzymes AmpliTaq Gold, HotStarTaq Plus, KAPA3G Plant, and KAPA2G Robust, with regard to their ability to overcome inhibitory effects...
September 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Maryam Goudarzi, Siddheshwar Chauthe, Steven J Strawn, Waylon M Weber, David J Brenner, Albert J Fornace
With the safety of existing nuclear power plants being brought into question after the Fukushima disaster and the increased level of concern over terrorism-sponsored use of improvised nuclear devices, it is more crucial to develop well-defined radiation injury markers in easily accessible biofluids to help emergency-responders with injury assessment during patient triage. Here, we focused on utilizing ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to identify and quantitate the unique changes in the urinary excretion of two metabolite markers, calcitroic acid and citrulline, in mice induced by different forms of irradiation; external γ irradiation at a low dose rate (LDR) of 3...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jennifer Dunnick, Robert P Olympia, Robert Wilkinson, Jodi Brady
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the compliance of urgent care centers in the United States with published recommendations for office-based disaster preparedness. METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was distributed to urgent care center administrators as identified by the American Academy of Urgent Care Medicine directory. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-two questionnaires of the 872 distributed were available for analysis (14% usable response rate)...
May 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
James E Huckle, Matthew P Sadgrove, Marina G D Leed, Yu-Tsai Yang, Russell J Mumper, Richard C Semelka, Michael Jay
The increasing threats of nuclear terrorism have made the development of medical countermeasures a priority for international security. Injectable formulations of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) have been approved by the FDA; however, an oral formulation is more amenable in a mass casualty situation. Here, the diethyl ester of DTPA, named C2E2, is investigated for potential as an oral treatment for internal radionuclide contamination. C2E2 was synthesized and characterized using NMR, MS, and elemental analysis...
July 2016: AAPS Journal
Koji Fukuda, Yoshihiko Uehara, Eiko Nakata, Masahiro Inoue, Kazuhiro Shimazu, Taichi Yoshida, Hiroaki Kanda, Hiroshi Nanjo, Yoshio Hosoi, Hiroyuki Yamakoshi, Yoshiharu Iwabuchi, Hiroyuki Shibata
PURPOSE: To best enhance the effects of radiotherapy, it is important to minimize adverse events, including free radical-induced intestinal cell damage. Given the threat of nuclear power plant accidents or nuclear terrorism, there is an urgent need for radioprotectants to counteract the radiation-induced toxicity and/or injuries. Curcumin exhibits protective effects against gamma irradiation; however, its in vivo efficacy is decreased due to the low bioavailability. We examined the radioprotective effect of a newly synthesized curcumin analog, GO-Y031, on 11-Gy X-ray-induced intestinal mucosal damage in mice...
July 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Evagelia C Laiakis, Evan L Pannkuk, Maria Elena Diaz-Rubio, Yi-Wen Wang, Tytus D Mak, Cynthia M Simbulan-Rosenthal, David J Brenner, Albert J Fornace
The increased threat of radiological terrorism and accidental nuclear exposures, together with increased usage of radiation-based medical procedures, has made necessary the development of minimally invasive methods for rapid identification of exposed individuals. Genetically predisposed radiosensitive individuals comprise a significant number of the population and require specialized attention and treatments after such events. Metabolomics, the assessment of the collective small molecule content in a given biofluid or tissue, has proven effective in the rapid identification of radiation biomarkers and metabolic perturbations...
June 2016: Mutation Research
Meetha Medhora, Steven Haworth, Yu Liu, Jayashree Narayanan, Feng Gao, Ming Zhao, Said Audi, Elizabeth R Jacobs, Brian L Fish, Anne V Clough
UNLABELLED: Our goal is to develop minimally invasive biomarkers for predicting radiation-induced lung injury before symptoms develop. Currently, there are no biomarkers that can predict radiation pneumonitis. Radiation damage to the whole lung is a serious risk in nuclear accidents or in radiologic terrorism. Our previous studies have shown that a single dose of 15 Gy of x-rays to the thorax causes severe pneumonitis in rats by 6-8 wk. We have also developed a mitigator for radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis that can be started as late as 5 wk after radiation...
August 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Elizabeth R Sharlow, Stephanie Leimgruber, Ana Lira, Michael J McConnell, Andrés Norambuena, George S Bloom, Michael W Epperly, Joel S Greenberger, John S Lazo
Individuals are at risk of exposure to acute ionizing radiation (IR) from a nuclear accident or terrorism, but we lack effective therapies to mitigate the lethal IR effects. In the current study, we exploited an optimized, cell-based, high throughput screening assay to interrogate a small molecule library comprising 3437 known pharmacologically active compounds for mitigation against IR-induced apoptosis. Thirty-three library compounds significantly reduced apoptosis when administered 1 h after 4 Gy IR. Two- or three-dimensional computational structural analyses of the compounds indicated only one or two chemical clusters with most of the compounds being unique structures...
May 20, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Tingyu Dai, Zelin Chen, Li Tan, Chunmeng Shi
Combined radiation and wound injury (CRWI) occurs following nuclear explosions and accidents, radiological or nuclear terrorism, and radiation therapy combined with surgery. CRWI is complicated and more difficult to heal than single injuries. Stem cell‑based therapy is a promising treatment strategy for CRWI, however, sourcing stem cells remains a challenge. In the present study, the granulation tissue-derived cells (GTCs) from the skin wounds (SWs) of CRWI mice (C‑GTCs) demonstrated a higher radioresistance to the damage caused by combined injury, and were easier to isolate and harvest when compared with bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs)...
April 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
James M Feeney, Kristina Ziegler, Jessica M Armstrong, David Shapiro
UNLABELLED: September 11, 2001 saw the dawn of the US-led global war on terror, a combined diplomatic, military, social, and cultural war on terrorist activities. Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives (CBRNE), as a group of tactics, are often the preferred weapons of terrorists across the globe. We undertook a survey of US medical schools to determine what their self-reported level of training for terrorist events encompasses during the four years of undergraduate medical education...
November 2015: Connecticut Medicine
(no author information available yet)
Significant strides have been made over the past 10 to 15 years to develop medical countermeasures (MCMs) to address potential disaster hazards, including chemical, biological, radiologic, and nuclear threats. Significant and effective collaboration between the pediatric health community, including the American Academy of Pediatrics, and federal partners, such as the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Institutes of Health, Food and Drug Administration, and other federal agencies, over the past 5 years has resulted in substantial gains in addressing the needs of children related to disaster preparedness in general and MCMs in particular...
February 2016: Pediatrics
Hanan Datz, Sofia Druzhyna, Leonid Oster, Itzhak Orion, Yigal Horowitz
The first results of an in-depth evaluation of the practical potential of common household Israeli salt as a retrospective dosemeter in the event of a nuclear accident or terror attack are presented. Ten brands of salt were investigated with emphasis on four of the bestselling brands that constitute 76 % of the total consumer market. Eight of the ten brands show similar glow curves with two main glow peaks at maximum temperatures of ∼176°C and ∼225°C measured at a heating rate of 1°C s(-1) Chemical analysis of three major brands indicates substantial impurity levels of 200-500 ppm of Ca, K, Mg and S and significant differences of additional ppm trace impurities, which lead to an ∼50 % difference in the TL response of the three major brands...
September 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
George Edafese Alakpa, John W Collins
BACKGROUND: The department of defense's FM 3-11 is among the military's field manuals for preparing for, reacting to and recovering from chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear attacks. Since post 9-11, U.S. military service members have been deployed in the global war on terrorism. This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of the FM 3-11 in detecting, deterring or preventing a human-borne with bioagent (HBBA) terrorist breach at an entry control point (ECP). METHOD: This time-specific, cross-sectional study disseminated a validated survey tool with Cronbach's α > 0...
2015: Military Medical Research
Michael D Kaminski, Sang Don Lee, Matthew Magnuson
Nuclear or radiological terrorism in the form of uncontrolled radioactive contamination presents a unique challenge in the field of nuclear decontamination. Potential targets require an immediate decontamination response, or mitigation plan to limit the social and economic impact. To date, experience with urban decontamination of building materials - specifically hard, porous, external surfaces - is limited to nuclear weapon fallout and nuclear reactor accidents. Methods are lacking for performing wide-area decontamination in an urban environment so that in all release scenarios the area may be re-occupied without evaluation and/or restriction...
March 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Ahmed Majeed Al-Shammari
Several wars and a 13-year embargo as well as several years of civil war with the recent war on terrorism have cumulatively damaged Iraq's land, air, water, and health infrastructure. The sand particles in Iraq contain toxic substances, which dates back to the pollution caused by military actions that disassemble the desert sands and turn it into light dust. This dust reaches cities as dust storms that effect most Iraqi cities. The presence of depleted uranium (DU) in the Iraqi food chain is documented by measuring the uranium in animals organs in different Iraqi cities with the highest concentration in the south of Iraq...
June 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Vijay K Singh, Patricia L P Romaine, Thomas M Seed
World events over the past decade have highlighted the threat of nuclear terrorism as well as an urgent need to develop radiation countermeasures for acute radiation exposures and subsequent bodily injuries. An increased probability of radiological or nuclear incidents due to detonation of nuclear weapons by terrorists, sabotage of nuclear facilities, dispersal and exposure to radioactive materials, and accidents provides the basis for such enhanced radiation exposure risks for civilian populations. Although the search for suitable radiation countermeasures for radiation-associated injuries was initiated more than half a century ago, no safe and effective radiation countermeasure for the most severe of these injuries, namely acute radiation syndrome (ARS), has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...
June 2015: Health Physics
Jingyi Gan, Fanwei Meng, Xin Zhou, Chan Li, Yixin He, Xiaoping Zeng, Xingen Jiang, Jia Liu, Guifang Zeng, Yunxia Tang, Muyun Liu, Randall J Mrsny, Xiang Hu, Jifan Hu, Tao Li
BACKGROUND AIMS: Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) leads to pancytopenia and multi-organ failure. Transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells provides a curative option for radiation-induced aplasia, but this therapy is limited by donor availability. METHODS: We examined an alternative therapeutic approach to ARS with the use of human extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD)-modified umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (UCMSCs). This treatment combines the unique regenerative role of UCMSCs with the anti-oxidative activity of ECSOD...
April 2015: Cytotherapy
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