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Nuclear Terrorism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101834/mass-casualty-education-for-undergraduate-nursing-students-in-australia
#1
Jane Currie, Sarah Kourouche, Christopher Gordon, Christine Jorm, Sandra West
With the increasing risk of mass casualty incidents from extreme climate events, global terrorism, pandemics and nuclear incidents, it's important to prepare nurses with skills and knowledge necessary to manage such incidents. There are very few documented accounts of the inclusion of mass casualty education within undergraduate nursing programs. This paper is the first to describe undergraduate mass casualty nursing education in Australia. A final year Bachelor of Nursing undergraduate subject was developed...
October 28, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985193/medical-and-policy-considerations-for-nuclear-and-radiation-accidents-incidents-and-terrorism
#2
Robert Peter Gale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to address the increasing medical and public concern regarding the health consequences of radiation exposure, a concern shaped not only by fear of another Chernobyl or Fukushima nuclear power facility accident but also by the intentional use of a nuclear weapon, a radiological dispersion device, a radiological exposure device, or an improved nuclear device by rogue states such as North Korea and terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and ISIS...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842592/neglected-role-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-sulfur-mustard-poisoning-keap1-s-sulfhydration-and-subsequent-nrf2-pathway-activation
#3
Wenqi Meng, Zhipeng Pei, Yongwei Feng, Jie Zhao, Yongchun Chen, Wenwen Shi, Qingqiang Xu, Fengwu Lin, Mingxue Sun, Kai Xiao
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent and a terrorism choice that targets various organs and tissues, especially lung tissues. Its toxic effects are tightly associated with oxidative stress. The signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects the lungs against oxidative stress and activates the NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. Here, we sought to establish whether endogenous H2S plays a role in SM induced lesion in mouse lungs and lung cells and whether endogenous H2S plays the role through Nrf2 pathway to protect against SM-induced oxidative damage...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822869/a-review-of-terrorism-and-its-reduction-of-the-gender-ratio-at-birth-after-seasonal-adjustment
#4
Victor Grech, Dorota Zammit
BACKGROUND: Males are born in excess of females, a ratio expressed as M/T (males:total births). The ratio exhibits seasonal variation. Furthermore, acute stressful events may result in a transient dip in male births due to excess foetal losses, reducing M/T. AIMS: This study was carried out in order to identify significant M/T dips after adjusting for seasonality. STUDY DESIGN: Live births by gender and month were sought for acute stressful events...
August 17, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475424/metabolic-dysregulation-after-neutron-exposures-expected-from-an-improvised-nuclear-device
#5
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Evagelia C Laiakis, Yi-Wen Wang, Erik F Young, Andrew D Harken, Yanping Xu, Lubomir Smilenov, Guy Y Garty, David J Brenner, Albert J Fornace
The increased threat of terrorism across the globe has raised fears that certain groups will acquire and use radioactive materials to inflict maximum damage. In the event that an improvised nuclear device (IND) is detonated, a potentially large population of victims will require assessment for radiation exposure. While photons will contribute to a major portion of the dose, neutrons may be responsible for the severity of the biologic effects and cellular responses. We investigated differences in response between these two radiation types by using metabolomics and lipidomics to identify biomarkers in urine and blood of wild-type C57BL/6 male mice...
July 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462013/stromal-progenitor-cells-in-mitigation-of-non-hematopoietic-radiation-injuries
#6
Shilpa Kulkarni, Timothy C Wang, Chandan Guha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Therapeutic exposure to high doses of radiation can severely impair organ function due to ablation of stem cells. Normal tissue injury is a dose-limiting toxicity for radiation therapy (RT). Although advances in the delivery of high precision conformal RT has increased normal tissue sparing, mitigating and therapeutic strategies that could alleviate early and chronic radiation effects are urgently needed in order to deliver curative doses of RT, especially in abdominal, pelvic and thoracic malignancies...
December 2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067089/metabolomic-applications-in-radiation-biodosimetry-exploring-radiation-effects-through-small-molecules
#7
REVIEW
Evan L Pannkuk, Albert J Fornace, Evagelia C Laiakis
PURPOSE: Exposure of the general population to ionizing radiation has increased in the past decades, primarily due to long distance travel and medical procedures. On the other hand, accidental exposures, nuclear accidents, and elevated threats of terrorism with the potential detonation of a radiological dispersal device or improvised nuclear device in a major city, all have led to increased needs for rapid biodosimetry and assessment of exposure to different radiation qualities and scenarios...
October 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046816/su-f-p-24-radiological-disperse-device
#8
R Alam
PURPOSE: We are now living in a society of constant fear of terrorism. This topic is pertaining to give a general knowledge of what is a radiological dispersion device or RDD and in case of its detonation, what are the options open to public for a safe action in terms of reducing the exposure and knowing the proper steps. These RDD are also called dirty bombs. METHODS: Compared to nuclear weapons, dirty bombs are easy to make. In order for a terrorist organization to construct and detonate a dirty bomb, it must acquire radioactive material by stealing it or buying it through legal or illegal channels...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027541/initial-healthcare-to-pediatric-population-under-the-radiation-events
#9
D E Afanasyev, O V Kaminskyi, O V Kopylova, I G Chikalova, I M Muraveva, K O Vakoluk, O V Pronin, O O Samoylov, T O Belingio, O V Tepla, L V Rozhkivska, I V Ylyanchenko, K V Gryschenko, L O Tsvet, N S Dombrovska
The objective of this paper is to analyze the data from scientific literature and available recommendations for health professionals on healthcare providing to pediatric population in the events associated with risk of radiation exposure. Over the past sixty years there were several large scale radiological events with a large number of chil dren affected, namely the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, accident at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant, contact to 137Cs radiation source unutilized at the hospital shutdown in Brazil etc...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027161/fortieth-lauriston-s-taylor-lecture-radiation-protection-and-regulatory-science
#10
John W Poston
It took about 30 y after Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen's discovery of x rays and Henri Becquerel's discovery of natural radioactivity for scientists in the civilized world to formulate recommendations on exposure to ionizing radiation. We know of these efforts today because the organizations that resulted from the concerns raised in 1928 at the Second International Congress of Radiology still play a role in radiation protection. The organizations are known today as the International Commission on Radiological Protection and, in the United States, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP)...
February 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964768/evaluation-of-hospitals-disaster-preparedness-plans-in-the-holy-city-of-makkah-mecca-a-cross-sectional-observation-study
#11
Ali S Al-Shareef, Loui K Alsulimani, Hattan M Bojan, Taha M Masri, Jennifer O Grimes, Michael S Molloy, Gregory R Ciottone
BACKGROUND: Makkah (Mecca) is a holy city located in the western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Each year, millions of pilgrims visit Makkah. These numbers impact both routine health care delivery and disaster response. This study aimed to evaluate hospitals' disaster plans in the city of Makkah. METHODS: Study investigators administered a questionnaire survey to 17 hospitals in the city of Makkah. Data on hospital characteristics and three key domains of disaster plans (general evaluation of disaster planning, structural feasibility of the hospitals, and health care worker knowledge and training) were collated and analyzed...
February 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906856/radiation-exposure-and-lung-disease-in-today-s-nuclear-world
#12
REVIEW
Steven D Deas, Nikhil Huprikar, Andrew Skabelund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ionizing radiation poses important health risks. The per capita annual dose rate has increased in the United States and there is increasing concern for the risks posed by low-dose occupational exposure among workers in nuclear industries and healthcare. Recent nuclear accidents and concern for terrorism have heightened concern for catastrophic, high-dose ionizing radiation exposure. This review will highlight recent research into the risks to lung health posed by ionizing radiation exposure and into potential treatments...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789343/mitigating-effect-of-euk-207-on-radiation-induced-cognitive-impairments
#13
J Raber, M J Davis, T Pfankuch, R Rosenthal, S R Doctrow, J E Moulder
The brain could be exposed to irradiation as part of a nuclear accident, radiological terrorism (dirty bomb scenario) or a medical radiological procedure. In the context of accidents or terrorism, there is considerable interest in compounds that can mitigate radiation-induced injury when treatment is initiated a day or more after the radiation exposure. As it will be challenging to determine the radiation exposure an individual has received within a relatively short time frame, it is also critical that the mitigating agent does not negatively affect individuals, including emergency workers, who might be treated, but who were not exposed...
March 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412511/long-term-biodosimetry-redux
#14
Steven L Simon, André Bouville
This paper revisits and reiterates the needs, purposes and requirements of biodosimetric assays for long-term dose and health risk assessments. While the most crucial need for biodosimetric assays is to guide medical response for radiation accidents, the value of such techniques for improving our understanding of radiation health risk by supporting epidemiological (long-term health risk) studies is significant. As new cohorts of exposed persons are identified and new health risk studies are undertaken with the hopes that studying the exposed will result in a deeper understanding of radiation risk, the value of reliable dose reconstruction is underscored...
December 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27299290/comparison-of-dna-polymerases-for-improved-forensic-analysis-of-challenging-samples
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Martina Nilsson, Joakim Grånemo, Magdalena M Buś, Mikael Havsjö, Marie Allen
Inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification often present a challenge in forensic investigations of e.g., terrorism, missing persons, sexual assaults and other criminal cases. Such inhibitors may be counteracted by dilution of the DNA extract, using different additives, and selecting an inhibitory resistant DNA polymerase. Additionally, DNA in forensic samples is often present in limited amounts and degraded, requiring special analyses of short nuclear targets or mitochondrial DNA. The present study evaluated the enzymes AmpliTaq Gold, HotStarTaq Plus, KAPA3G Plant, and KAPA2G Robust, with regard to their ability to overcome inhibitory effects...
September 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213362/quantitative-metabolomic-analysis-of-urinary-citrulline-and-calcitroic-acid-in-mice-after-exposure-to-various-types-of-ionizing-radiation
#16
Maryam Goudarzi, Siddheshwar Chauthe, Steven J Strawn, Waylon M Weber, David J Brenner, Albert J Fornace
With the safety of existing nuclear power plants being brought into question after the Fukushima disaster and the increased level of concern over terrorism-sponsored use of improvised nuclear devices, it is more crucial to develop well-defined radiation injury markers in easily accessible biofluids to help emergency-responders with injury assessment during patient triage. Here, we focused on utilizing ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to identify and quantitate the unique changes in the urinary excretion of two metabolite markers, calcitroic acid and citrulline, in mice induced by different forms of irradiation; external γ irradiation at a low dose rate (LDR) of 3...
May 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27139291/low-compliance-of-urgent-care-centers-in-the-united-states-with-recommendations-for-office-based-disaster-preparedness
#17
Jennifer Dunnick, Robert P Olympia, Robert Wilkinson, Jodi Brady
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the compliance of urgent care centers in the United States with published recommendations for office-based disaster preparedness. METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was distributed to urgent care center administrators as identified by the American Academy of Urgent Care Medicine directory. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-two questionnaires of the 872 distributed were available for analysis (14% usable response rate)...
May 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27106838/synthesis-and-physicochemical-characterization-of-a-diethyl-ester-prodrug-of-dtpa-and-its-investigation-as-an-oral-decorporation-agent-in-rats
#18
James E Huckle, Matthew P Sadgrove, Marina G D Leed, Yu-Tsai Yang, Russell J Mumper, Richard C Semelka, Michael Jay
The increasing threats of nuclear terrorism have made the development of medical countermeasures a priority for international security. Injectable formulations of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) have been approved by the FDA; however, an oral formulation is more amenable in a mass casualty situation. Here, the diethyl ester of DTPA, named C2E2, is investigated for potential as an oral treatment for internal radionuclide contamination. C2E2 was synthesized and characterized using NMR, MS, and elemental analysis...
July 2016: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043482/a-diarylpentanoid-curcumin-analog-exhibits-improved-radioprotective-potential-in-the-intestinal-mucosa
#19
Koji Fukuda, Yoshihiko Uehara, Eiko Nakata, Masahiro Inoue, Kazuhiro Shimazu, Taichi Yoshida, Hiroaki Kanda, Hiroshi Nanjo, Yoshio Hosoi, Hiroyuki Yamakoshi, Yoshiharu Iwabuchi, Hiroyuki Shibata
PURPOSE: To best enhance the effects of radiotherapy, it is important to minimize adverse events, including free radical-induced intestinal cell damage. Given the threat of nuclear power plant accidents or nuclear terrorism, there is an urgent need for radioprotectants to counteract the radiation-induced toxicity and/or injuries. Curcumin exhibits protective effects against gamma irradiation; however, its in vivo efficacy is decreased due to the low bioavailability. We examined the radioprotective effect of a newly synthesized curcumin analog, GO-Y031, on 11-Gy X-ray-induced intestinal mucosal damage in mice...
July 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27040378/implications-of-genotypic-differences-in-the-generation-of-a-urinary-metabolomics-radiation-signature
#20
Evagelia C Laiakis, Evan L Pannkuk, Maria Elena Diaz-Rubio, Yi-Wen Wang, Tytus D Mak, Cynthia M Simbulan-Rosenthal, David J Brenner, Albert J Fornace
The increased threat of radiological terrorism and accidental nuclear exposures, together with increased usage of radiation-based medical procedures, has made necessary the development of minimally invasive methods for rapid identification of exposed individuals. Genetically predisposed radiosensitive individuals comprise a significant number of the population and require specialized attention and treatments after such events. Metabolomics, the assessment of the collective small molecule content in a given biofluid or tissue, has proven effective in the rapid identification of radiation biomarkers and metabolic perturbations...
June 2016: Mutation Research
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