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Chemical Terrorism

Stamatios Giannoukos, Boris Brkić, Stephen Taylor, Alan Marshall, Guido F Verbeck
Border control for homeland security faces major challenges worldwide due to chemical threats from national and/or international terrorism as well as organized crime. A wide range of technologies and systems with threat detection and monitoring capabilities has emerged to identify the chemical footprint associated with these illegal activities. This review paper investigates artificial sniffing technologies used as chemical sensors for point-of-use chemical analysis, especially during border security applications...
July 27, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Jennifer Dunnick, Robert P Olympia, Robert Wilkinson, Jodi Brady
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the compliance of urgent care centers in the United States with published recommendations for office-based disaster preparedness. METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was distributed to urgent care center administrators as identified by the American Academy of Urgent Care Medicine directory. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-two questionnaires of the 872 distributed were available for analysis (14% usable response rate)...
May 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Vladimír Pitschmann, Zdeněk Hon
Toxin weapon research, development, production and the ban on its uses is an integral part of international law, with particular attention paid to the protection against these weapons. In spite of this, hazards associated with toxins cannot be completely excluded. Some of these hazards are also pointed out in the present review. The article deals with the characteristics and properties of natural toxins and synthetic analogs potentially constituting the basis of toxin weapons. It briefly describes the history of military research and the use of toxins from distant history up to the present age...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Elizabeth R Sharlow, Stephanie Leimgruber, Ana Lira, Michael J McConnell, Andrés Norambuena, George S Bloom, Michael W Epperly, Joel S Greenberger, John S Lazo
Individuals are at risk of exposure to acute ionizing radiation (IR) from a nuclear accident or terrorism, but we lack effective therapies to mitigate the lethal IR effects. In the current study, we exploited an optimized, cell-based, high throughput screening assay to interrogate a small molecule library comprising 3437 known pharmacologically active compounds for mitigation against IR-induced apoptosis. Thirty-three library compounds significantly reduced apoptosis when administered 1 h after 4 Gy IR. Two- or three-dimensional computational structural analyses of the compounds indicated only one or two chemical clusters with most of the compounds being unique structures...
May 20, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
James M Feeney, Kristina Ziegler, Jessica M Armstrong, David Shapiro
UNLABELLED: September 11, 2001 saw the dawn of the US-led global war on terror, a combined diplomatic, military, social, and cultural war on terrorist activities. Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives (CBRNE), as a group of tactics, are often the preferred weapons of terrorists across the globe. We undertook a survey of US medical schools to determine what their self-reported level of training for terrorist events encompasses during the four years of undergraduate medical education...
November 2015: Connecticut Medicine
(no author information available yet)
Significant strides have been made over the past 10 to 15 years to develop medical countermeasures (MCMs) to address potential disaster hazards, including chemical, biological, radiologic, and nuclear threats. Significant and effective collaboration between the pediatric health community, including the American Academy of Pediatrics, and federal partners, such as the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Institutes of Health, Food and Drug Administration, and other federal agencies, over the past 5 years has resulted in substantial gains in addressing the needs of children related to disaster preparedness in general and MCMs in particular...
February 2016: Pediatrics
Hanan Datz, Sofia Druzhyna, Leonid Oster, Itzhak Orion, Yigal Horowitz
The first results of an in-depth evaluation of the practical potential of common household Israeli salt as a retrospective dosemeter in the event of a nuclear accident or terror attack are presented. Ten brands of salt were investigated with emphasis on four of the bestselling brands that constitute 76 % of the total consumer market. Eight of the ten brands show similar glow curves with two main glow peaks at maximum temperatures of ∼176°C and ∼225°C measured at a heating rate of 1°C s(-1) Chemical analysis of three major brands indicates substantial impurity levels of 200-500 ppm of Ca, K, Mg and S and significant differences of additional ppm trace impurities, which lead to an ∼50 % difference in the TL response of the three major brands...
September 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
George Edafese Alakpa, John W Collins
BACKGROUND: The department of defense's FM 3-11 is among the military's field manuals for preparing for, reacting to and recovering from chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear attacks. Since post 9-11, U.S. military service members have been deployed in the global war on terrorism. This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of the FM 3-11 in detecting, deterring or preventing a human-borne with bioagent (HBBA) terrorist breach at an entry control point (ECP). METHOD: This time-specific, cross-sectional study disseminated a validated survey tool with Cronbach's α > 0...
2015: Military Medical Research
Ofia Hodoh, Cham E Dallas, Paul Williams, Andrew M Jaine, Curt Harris
OBJECTIVE: A predictive system was developed and tested in a series of exercises with the objective of evaluating the preparedness and effectiveness of the multiagency response to food terrorism attacks. DESIGN: A computerized simulation model, Risk Reduction Effectiveness and Capabilities Assessment Program (RRECAP), was developed to identify the key factors that influence the outcomes of an attack and quantify the relative reduction of such outcomes caused by each factor...
2015: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Michael D Kaminski, Sang Don Lee, Matthew Magnuson
Nuclear or radiological terrorism in the form of uncontrolled radioactive contamination presents a unique challenge in the field of nuclear decontamination. Potential targets require an immediate decontamination response, or mitigation plan to limit the social and economic impact. To date, experience with urban decontamination of building materials - specifically hard, porous, external surfaces - is limited to nuclear weapon fallout and nuclear reactor accidents. Methods are lacking for performing wide-area decontamination in an urban environment so that in all release scenarios the area may be re-occupied without evaluation and/or restriction...
March 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Ahmed Zaky, Aftab Ahmad, Shama Ahmad, Louis Dell'Italia, Sadis Matalon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Critical Care Medicine
Nick Dawnay, Rebecca Hughes, Denise Syndercombe Court, Nicola Duxbury
Identifying individual species or determining species' composition in an unknown sample is important for a variety of forensic applications. Food authentication, monitoring illegal trade in endangered species, forensic entomology, sexual assault case work and counter terrorism are just some of the fields that can require the detection of the biological species present. Traditional laboratory based approaches employ a wide variety of tools and technologies and exploit a number of different species specific traits including morphology, molecular differences and immuno-chemical analyses...
January 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Cameron S McElroy, Brian J Day
The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures...
January 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Daniel J Bachmann, Nathan K Jamison, Andrew Martin, Jose Delgado, Nicholas E Kman
INTRODUCTION: Smartphone applications (or apps) are becoming increasingly popular with emergency responders and health care providers, as well as the public as a whole. There are thousands of medical apps available for Smartphones and tablet computers, with more added each day. These include apps to view textbooks, guidelines, medication databases, medical calculators, and radiology images. Hypothesis/Problem With an ever expanding catalog of apps that relate to disaster medicine, it is hard for both the lay public and responders to know where to turn for effective Smartphone apps...
October 2015: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Naotaka Shimatani, Yoshiyuki Sugishita, Tamie Sugawara, Yuuki Nakamura, Yasushi Ohkusa, Takuya Yamagishi, Tamano Matsui, Masashi Kawano, Hirotoshi Watase, Yukiko Morikawa, Kazunori Oishi
Enhanced surveillance was conducted during the Sports Festival in Tokyo 2013 (September 28-October 14, 2013) for early detection of outbreaks of infectious diseases and other health emergencies. Through this enhanced surveillance, 15 cases were found that required additional gathering of information outside the routine process of creating/evaluating the Daily Report. However, none of these was assessed as critical. Through the enhanced surveillance, we structured a framework that allows for earlier response when detecting aberrations...
2015: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Akihiko Okumura, Yasuaki Takada, Susumu Watanabe, Hiroaki Hashimoto, Naoya Ezawa, Yasuo Seto, Hiroshi Sekiguchi, Hisashi Maruko, Yasuo Takayama, Ryoji Sekioka, Shintaro Yamaguchi, Shintaro Kishi, Takafumi Satoh, Tomohide Kondo, Hisayuki Nagashima, Tomoki Nagoya
A new method enabling sensitive real-time air monitoring of highly reactive chemical warfare agents, namely, mustard gas (HD) and Lewisite 1 (L1), by detecting ions of their in-line reaction products instead of intact agents, is proposed. The method is based on corona discharge-initiated atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) via counterflow ion introduction. Therefore, it allows for highly sensitive and specific real-time detection of a broad range of airborne compounds...
January 20, 2015: Analytical Chemistry
Sébastien Delile, Adeline Aussage, Thierry Maillou, Pascal Palmas, Virginie Lair, Michel Cassir
During the past decade, the number of terrorism acts has increased and the need for efficient explosive detectors has become an urgent worldwide necessity. A prototype, Nebulex™, was recently developed in our laboratory. Basically, it couples the solubilization of an analyte from the atmosphere by a nebulization process and in-situ detection. This article presents the development and integration of an electrochemical sensor for the detection of nitromethane, a common chemical product that can be used to make an improvised explosive device...
January 2015: Talanta
Andrew M King, Cynthia K Aaron
Organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates have a wide variety of applications, most commonly as pesticides used to eradicate agricultural pests or control populations of disease-carrying vectors. Some OP and carbamates have therapeutic indications such as physostigmine. Certain organophosphorus compounds, known as nerve agents, have been employed in chemical warfare and terrorism incidents. Both classes inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes, leading to excess acetylcholine accumulation at nerve terminals...
February 2015: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Joseph Lucas, Holly K Dressman, Sunil Suchindran, Mai Nakamura, Nelson J Chao, Heather Himburg, Kerry Minor, Gary Phillips, Joel Ross, Majid Abedi, Robert Terbrueggen, John P Chute
Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB) and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI)...
2014: PloS One
Eric J Page, Joshua P Gray
The Agents of Bioterrorism course (BSBD 640, University of Maryland University College) is a graduate level course created in response to an elevated need for scientists working in the field of medical countermeasures to biological and chemical weapons in the years following 9/11. Students read and evaluate assigned current primary literature articles investigating medical countermeasures at each stage of development. In addition, students learn concepts of risk assessment, comparing and ranking several agents of terror...
January 10, 2014: Journal of Toxicological Education
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