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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125159/development-of-luminescent-sensors-based-on-transition-metal-complexes-for-the-detection-of-nitroexplosives
#1
Veerasamy Sathish, Arumugam Ramdass, Murugesan Velayudham, Kuang-Lieh Lu, Pounraj Thanasekaran, Seenivasan Rajagopal
The detection of chemical explosives is a major area of research interest and is essential for the military as well as homeland security to counter the catastrophic effects of global terrorism. In recent years, tremendous effort has been devoted to the development of luminescent materials for the detection of explosives in the vapor, solution, and solid states with a high degree of selectivity and sensitivity and a rapid response time. Apart from the wide range of organic fluorescent chemosensors, transition metal complexes play a prominent role in the sensing of nitroaromatic explosives owing to their rich photophysical characteristics...
November 10, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046493/sp-current-global-standards-for-chemical-protective-clothing-how-to-choose-the-right-protection-for-the-right-job
#2
Eric VAN Wely
The first standards for chemical protective clothing (CPC) emerged mid to late 1980's and have evolved since as most standards are revisited every 5 years. Over the past years, we have also seen a strengthening of the chemical and worker protection legislation around the globe (various forms of REACH) but also protection of workers. The most prevalent standards originate under the auspices of the International Standards Organisation (ISO), European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) or under various US standards organisations (e...
October 17, 2017: Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842592/neglected-role-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-sulfur-mustard-poisoning-keap1-s-sulfhydration-and-subsequent-nrf2-pathway-activation
#3
Wenqi Meng, Zhipeng Pei, Yongwei Feng, Jie Zhao, Yongchun Chen, Wenwen Shi, Qingqiang Xu, Fengwu Lin, Mingxue Sun, Kai Xiao
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent and a terrorism choice that targets various organs and tissues, especially lung tissues. Its toxic effects are tightly associated with oxidative stress. The signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects the lungs against oxidative stress and activates the NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. Here, we sought to establish whether endogenous H2S plays a role in SM induced lesion in mouse lungs and lung cells and whether endogenous H2S plays the role through Nrf2 pathway to protect against SM-induced oxidative damage...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508000/knowledge-and-attitude-of-iranian-red-crescent-society-volunteers-in-dealing-with-chemical-attacks
#4
Maryam Nadjafi, Siavash Hamzeh Pour
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and preparedness of Mahabad Red Crescent Society volunteers in dealing with chemical attacks. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 Red Crescent Society volunteers in Mahabad City, Iran, during 2014-2015.The knowledge of the volunteers was evaluated and rated using a questionnaire as poor, moderate, and good. Also, the attitude of the volunteers towards the chemical attacks and their preparedness were rated as appropriate and inappropriate using a questionnaire...
April 2017: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418689/an-official-american-thoracic-society-workshop-report-chemical-inhalational-disasters-biology-of-lung-injury-development-of-novel-therapeutics-and-medical-preparedness
#5
Eleanor M Summerhill, Gary W Hoyle, Sven-Eric Jordt, Bronwen J Jugg, James G Martin, Sadis Matalon, Steven E Patterson, David J Prezant, Alfred M Sciuto, Erik R Svendsen, Carl W White, Livia A Veress
This report is based on the proceedings from the Inhalational Lung Injury Workshop jointly sponsored by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT) program on May 21, 2013, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The CounterACT program facilitates research leading to the development of new and improved medical countermeasures for chemical threat agents. The workshop was initiated by the Terrorism and Inhalational Disasters Section of the Environmental, Occupational, and Population Health Assembly of the ATS...
June 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343251/neurological-aspects-of-chemical-and-biological-terrorism-guidelines-for-neurologists
#6
REVIEW
Harald De Cauwer, Francis J M P Somville, Marieke Joillet
This statement paper deals with the key role an neurologist plays in the management of victims of chemical warfare/terrorist attacks. Because terrorist factions have expanded the war zone creating a worldwide risk of terrorist attacks, not only limited to some conflict zones in the Middle East, neurologists in all countries/regions have to be prepared for disaster response. The scope of this paper is to provide guidelines for the neurological management of victims of chemical and biological terrorist attacks...
September 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964768/evaluation-of-hospitals-disaster-preparedness-plans-in-the-holy-city-of-makkah-mecca-a-cross-sectional-observation-study
#7
Ali S Al-Shareef, Loui K Alsulimani, Hattan M Bojan, Taha M Masri, Jennifer O Grimes, Michael S Molloy, Gregory R Ciottone
BACKGROUND: Makkah (Mecca) is a holy city located in the western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Each year, millions of pilgrims visit Makkah. These numbers impact both routine health care delivery and disaster response. This study aimed to evaluate hospitals' disaster plans in the city of Makkah. METHODS: Study investigators administered a questionnaire survey to 17 hospitals in the city of Makkah. Data on hospital characteristics and three key domains of disaster plans (general evaluation of disaster planning, structural feasibility of the hospitals, and health care worker knowledge and training) were collated and analyzed...
February 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388215/chemical-sniffing-instrumentation-for-security-applications
#8
REVIEW
Stamatios Giannoukos, Boris Brkić, Stephen Taylor, Alan Marshall, Guido F Verbeck
Border control for homeland security faces major challenges worldwide due to chemical threats from national and/or international terrorism as well as organized crime. A wide range of technologies and systems with threat detection and monitoring capabilities has emerged to identify the chemical footprint associated with these illegal activities. This review paper investigates artificial sniffing technologies used as chemical sensors for point-of-use chemical analysis, especially during border security applications...
July 27, 2016: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27139291/low-compliance-of-urgent-care-centers-in-the-united-states-with-recommendations-for-office-based-disaster-preparedness
#9
Jennifer Dunnick, Robert P Olympia, Robert Wilkinson, Jodi Brady
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the compliance of urgent care centers in the United States with published recommendations for office-based disaster preparedness. METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was distributed to urgent care center administrators as identified by the American Academy of Urgent Care Medicine directory. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-two questionnaires of the 872 distributed were available for analysis (14% usable response rate)...
May 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27136512/military-importance-of-natural-toxins-and-their-analogs
#10
REVIEW
Vladimír Pitschmann, Zdeněk Hon
Toxin weapon research, development, production and the ban on its uses is an integral part of international law, with particular attention paid to the protection against these weapons. In spite of this, hazards associated with toxins cannot be completely excluded. Some of these hazards are also pointed out in the present review. The article deals with the characteristics and properties of natural toxins and synthetic analogs potentially constituting the basis of toxin weapons. It briefly describes the history of military research and the use of toxins from distant history up to the present age...
April 28, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26938669/a-small-molecule-screen-exposes-mtor-signaling-pathway-involvement-in-radiation-induced-apoptosis
#11
Elizabeth R Sharlow, Stephanie Leimgruber, Ana Lira, Michael J McConnell, Andrés Norambuena, George S Bloom, Michael W Epperly, Joel S Greenberger, John S Lazo
Individuals are at risk of exposure to acute ionizing radiation (IR) from a nuclear accident or terrorism, but we lack effective therapies to mitigate the lethal IR effects. In the current study, we exploited an optimized, cell-based, high throughput screening assay to interrogate a small molecule library comprising 3437 known pharmacologically active compounds for mitigation against IR-induced apoptosis. Thirty-three library compounds significantly reduced apoptosis when administered 1 h after 4 Gy IR. Two- or three-dimensional computational structural analyses of the compounds indicated only one or two chemical clusters with most of the compounds being unique structures...
May 20, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26731877/terrorist-event-training-in-us-medical-schools-a-survey-of-chemical-biologic-radiologic-nuclear-and-high-yield-explosives-training-in-us-medical-schools
#12
James M Feeney, Kristina Ziegler, Jessica M Armstrong, David Shapiro
UNLABELLED: September 11, 2001 saw the dawn of the US-led global war on terror, a combined diplomatic, military, social, and cultural war on terrorist activities. Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives (CBRNE), as a group of tactics, are often the preferred weapons of terrorists across the globe. We undertook a survey of US medical schools to determine what their self-reported level of training for terrorist events encompasses during the four years of undergraduate medical education...
November 2015: Connecticut Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26729737/medical-countermeasures-for-children-in-public-health-emergencies-disasters-or-terrorism
#13
(no author information available yet)
Significant strides have been made over the past 10 to 15 years to develop medical countermeasures (MCMs) to address potential disaster hazards, including chemical, biological, radiologic, and nuclear threats. Significant and effective collaboration between the pediatric health community, including the American Academy of Pediatrics, and federal partners, such as the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Institutes of Health, Food and Drug Administration, and other federal agencies, over the past 5 years has resulted in substantial gains in addressing the needs of children related to disaster preparedness in general and MCMs in particular...
February 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26715776/study-of-the-suitability-of-israeli-household-salt-for-retrospective-dosimetry
#14
Hanan Datz, Sofia Druzhyna, Leonid Oster, Itzhak Orion, Yigal Horowitz
The first results of an in-depth evaluation of the practical potential of common household Israeli salt as a retrospective dosemeter in the event of a nuclear accident or terror attack are presented. Ten brands of salt were investigated with emphasis on four of the bestselling brands that constitute 76 % of the total consumer market. Eight of the ten brands show similar glow curves with two main glow peaks at maximum temperatures of ∼176°C and ∼225°C measured at a heating rate of 1°C s(-1) Chemical analysis of three major brands indicates substantial impurity levels of 200-500 ppm of Ca, K, Mg and S and significant differences of additional ppm trace impurities, which lead to an ∼50 % difference in the TL response of the three major brands...
September 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26702361/the-effectiveness-of-the-department-of-defense-s-field-manual-3-11-in-detecting-deterring-and-degrading-the-breach-of-a-combat-base-by-a-human-borne-with-bioagent-hbba-perceptions-of-security-personnel
#15
George Edafese Alakpa, John W Collins
BACKGROUND: The department of defense's FM 3-11 is among the military's field manuals for preparing for, reacting to and recovering from chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear attacks. Since post 9-11, U.S. military service members have been deployed in the global war on terrorism. This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of the FM 3-11 in detecting, deterring or preventing a human-borne with bioagent (HBBA) terrorist breach at an entry control point (ECP). METHOD: This time-specific, cross-sectional study disseminated a validated survey tool with Cronbach's α > 0...
2015: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26663302/a-benchmark-system-to-optimize-our-defense-against-an-attack-on-the-us-food-supply-using-the-risk-reduction-effectiveness-and-capabilities-assessment-program
#16
Ofia Hodoh, Cham E Dallas, Paul Williams, Andrew M Jaine, Curt Harris
OBJECTIVE: A predictive system was developed and tested in a series of exercises with the objective of evaluating the preparedness and effectiveness of the multiagency response to food terrorism attacks. DESIGN: A computerized simulation model, Risk Reduction Effectiveness and Capabilities Assessment Program (RRECAP), was developed to identify the key factors that influence the outcomes of an attack and quantify the relative reduction of such outcomes caused by each factor...
2015: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26642448/wide-area-decontamination-in-an-urban-environment-after-radiological-dispersion-a-review-and-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Michael D Kaminski, Sang Don Lee, Matthew Magnuson
Nuclear or radiological terrorism in the form of uncontrolled radioactive contamination presents a unique challenge in the field of nuclear decontamination. Potential targets require an immediate decontamination response, or mitigation plan to limit the social and economic impact. To date, experience with urban decontamination of building materials - specifically hard, porous, external surfaces - is limited to nuclear weapon fallout and nuclear reactor accidents. Methods are lacking for performing wide-area decontamination in an urban environment so that in all release scenarios the area may be re-occupied without evaluation and/or restriction...
March 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26569744/83-chemical-terrorism-halogens-induced-cardiac-injury-depression-and-failure
#18
Ahmed Zaky, Aftab Ahmad, Shama Ahmad, Louis Dell'Italia, Sadis Matalon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26561743/species-detection-using-hybeacon-%C3%A2-probe-technology-working-towards-rapid-onsite-testing-in-non-human-forensic-and-food-authentication-applications
#19
Nick Dawnay, Rebecca Hughes, Denise Syndercombe Court, Nicola Duxbury
Identifying individual species or determining species' composition in an unknown sample is important for a variety of forensic applications. Food authentication, monitoring illegal trade in endangered species, forensic entomology, sexual assault case work and counter terrorism are just some of the fields that can require the detection of the biological species present. Traditional laboratory based approaches employ a wide variety of tools and technologies and exploit a number of different species specific traits including morphology, molecular differences and immuno-chemical analyses...
January 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26476351/antioxidants-as-potential-medical-countermeasures-for-chemical-warfare-agents-and-toxic-industrial-chemicals
#20
REVIEW
Cameron S McElroy, Brian J Day
The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures...
January 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
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