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Biological Terrorism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468393/extended-inclusive-fitness-theory-synergy-and-assortment-drives-the-evolutionary-dynamics-in-biology-and-economics
#1
REVIEW
Klaus Jaffe
W.D. Hamilton's Inclusive Fitness Theory explains the conditions that favor the emergence and maintenance of social cooperation. Today we know that these include direct and indirect benefits an agent obtains by its actions, and through interactions with kin and with genetically unrelated individuals. That is, in addition to kin-selection, assortation or homophily, and social synergies drive the evolution of cooperation. An Extended Inclusive Fitness Theory (EIFT) synthesizes the natural selection forces acting on biological evolution and on human economic interactions by assuming that natural selection driven by inclusive fitness produces agents with utility functions that exploit assortation and synergistic opportunities...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450720/polio-terror-and-the-immunological-worldview
#2
Robert Peckham
This paper adopts a socio-historical perspective to explore when, how and why the eradication of poliomyelitis has become politicised to the extent that health workers and security personnel are targeted in drive-by shootings. Discussions of the polio crisis in Afghanistan and Pakistan have tended to focus on Taliban suspicions of a US-led public health intervention and the denunciation of 'modernity' by Islamic 'extremists'. In contrast, this paper considers a broader history of indigenous hostility and resistance to colonial immunisation on the subcontinent, suggesting how interconnected public health and political crises today have reactivated the past and created a continuity between events...
July 22, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298536/bioterrorism-law-enforcement-public-health-role-of-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgeon-in-emergency-preparedness
#3
REVIEW
Divashree Sharma, Ambrish Mishra, Vilas Newaskar, Ankit Khasgiwala
INTRODUCTION: The contrived and deliberate use of pathogenic strains of micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses or their toxins to spread life-threatening diseases on a mass scale with the aim to devastate the population of an area is referred to as 'bioterrorism'. RISK ASSESSMENT: The threat of bioterrorism is higher than ever. It is now a well established fact that the capability to create immense panic and unimaginable fear has allured the terrorists for the despicable use of biological agents for causing terror attacks...
June 2016: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27139291/low-compliance-of-urgent-care-centers-in-the-united-states-with-recommendations-for-office-based-disaster-preparedness
#4
Jennifer Dunnick, Robert P Olympia, Robert Wilkinson, Jodi Brady
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the compliance of urgent care centers in the United States with published recommendations for office-based disaster preparedness. METHODS: An electronic questionnaire was distributed to urgent care center administrators as identified by the American Academy of Urgent Care Medicine directory. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-two questionnaires of the 872 distributed were available for analysis (14% usable response rate)...
May 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27080239/perceptions-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-nigeria-understanding-the-influence-of-imagination-on-health-orientation
#5
Rachael O Oduyemi, Matthew Ayegboyin, Kabiru K Salami
The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak was officially declared in the West Africa region by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 23 March 2014. This first episode of EVD in Nigeria on 20 July 2014 raised more intense panic globally than the seven occurrences of the disease in Zaire. Although Nigeria was declared Ebola free by the WHO within 3 months, it is imperative to understand people's perceptions of the disease in the country. A discussion of peoples' perception of EVD in Nigeria is the aim of this article...
June 2016: International Journal of Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27037500/the-self-medication-hypothesis-evidence-from-terrorism-and-cigarette-accessibility
#6
Michael F Pesko, Christopher F Baum
We use single equation and system instrumental variable models to explore if individuals smoke during times of stress (the motivation effect) and if they are successful in self-medicating short-term stress (the self-medication effect). Short-term stress is a powerful motivator of smoking, and the decision to smoke could trigger biological feedback that immediately reduces short-term stress. We use data on self-reported smoking and stress from 240,388 current and former smokers. We instrument short-term stress with temporal distance from September 11, 2001 (using date of interview)...
September 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26731877/terrorist-event-training-in-us-medical-schools-a-survey-of-chemical-biologic-radiologic-nuclear-and-high-yield-explosives-training-in-us-medical-schools
#7
James M Feeney, Kristina Ziegler, Jessica M Armstrong, David Shapiro
UNLABELLED: September 11, 2001 saw the dawn of the US-led global war on terror, a combined diplomatic, military, social, and cultural war on terrorist activities. Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives (CBRNE), as a group of tactics, are often the preferred weapons of terrorists across the globe. We undertook a survey of US medical schools to determine what their self-reported level of training for terrorist events encompasses during the four years of undergraduate medical education...
November 2015: Connecticut Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26729737/medical-countermeasures-for-children-in-public-health-emergencies-disasters-or-terrorism
#8
(no author information available yet)
Significant strides have been made over the past 10 to 15 years to develop medical countermeasures (MCMs) to address potential disaster hazards, including chemical, biological, radiologic, and nuclear threats. Significant and effective collaboration between the pediatric health community, including the American Academy of Pediatrics, and federal partners, such as the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Institutes of Health, Food and Drug Administration, and other federal agencies, over the past 5 years has resulted in substantial gains in addressing the needs of children related to disaster preparedness in general and MCMs in particular...
February 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26702361/the-effectiveness-of-the-department-of-defense-s-field-manual-3-11-in-detecting-deterring-and-degrading-the-breach-of-a-combat-base-by-a-human-borne-with-bioagent-hbba-perceptions-of-security-personnel
#9
George Edafese Alakpa, John W Collins
BACKGROUND: The department of defense's FM 3-11 is among the military's field manuals for preparing for, reacting to and recovering from chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear attacks. Since post 9-11, U.S. military service members have been deployed in the global war on terrorism. This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of the FM 3-11 in detecting, deterring or preventing a human-borne with bioagent (HBBA) terrorist breach at an entry control point (ECP). METHOD: This time-specific, cross-sectional study disseminated a validated survey tool with Cronbach's α > 0...
2015: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26688746/the-possibility-of-a-human-borne-with-bioagent-hbba-terrorist-at-foreign-fob-ecps-the-perceptions-of-u-s-military-or-security-personnel-a-preliminary-report
#10
George Edafese Alakpa, John W Collins
BACKGROUND: The global war on terrorism has prompted an increase in the deployment of security personnel from multi-national forces on foreign lands, especially in places where known terrorist groups are based. The aim of this study was to obtain U.S. military and security personnel's perceptions of the possibility of encountering a human-borne with bioagent (HBBA) terrorist at an entry control point (ECP). METHODS: This study was a mixed-method, cross-sectional, survey-based, time-limited study...
2015: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26686748/-integrated-optical-sensor-for-rapid-analysis-of-biological-samples
#11
Anna Mathesz, Sándor Valkai, Orsolya Sipos, Balázs Stercz, Béla Kocsis, Dóra Szabó, András Dér
INTRODUCTION: In the medical diagnostics of bacteria, the rapid detection of pathogenic microorganisms from body fluids is one of the most important tasks. The majority of the modern measuring techniques are based on specific labels bound to the bacteria. However, this strategy usually assumes a rather time-consuming procedure involving several steps (e.g., the widely used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay normally consists of 5 consecutive steps). Hence, there is an urgent need for the elaboration of rapid, "label-free" techniques, that are often based on Lab-on-a-chip devices...
December 27, 2015: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26686733/the-epistemology-of-moral-bioenhancement
#12
Parker Crutchfield
Moral bioenhancement is the potential practice of manipulating individuals' moral behaviors by biological means in order to help resolve pressing moral issues such as climate change and terrorism. This practice has obvious ethical implications, and these implications have been and continue to be discussed in the bioethics literature. What have not been discussed are the epistemological implications of moral bioenhancement. This article details some of these implications of engaging in moral bioenhancement. The argument begins by making the distinction between moral bioenhancement that manipulates the contents of mental states (e...
July 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26663302/a-benchmark-system-to-optimize-our-defense-against-an-attack-on-the-us-food-supply-using-the-risk-reduction-effectiveness-and-capabilities-assessment-program
#13
Ofia Hodoh, Cham E Dallas, Paul Williams, Andrew M Jaine, Curt Harris
OBJECTIVE: A predictive system was developed and tested in a series of exercises with the objective of evaluating the preparedness and effectiveness of the multiagency response to food terrorism attacks. DESIGN: A computerized simulation model, Risk Reduction Effectiveness and Capabilities Assessment Program (RRECAP), was developed to identify the key factors that influence the outcomes of an attack and quantify the relative reduction of such outcomes caused by each factor...
2015: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26561743/species-detection-using-hybeacon-%C3%A2-probe-technology-working-towards-rapid-onsite-testing-in-non-human-forensic-and-food-authentication-applications
#14
Nick Dawnay, Rebecca Hughes, Denise Syndercombe Court, Nicola Duxbury
Identifying individual species or determining species' composition in an unknown sample is important for a variety of forensic applications. Food authentication, monitoring illegal trade in endangered species, forensic entomology, sexual assault case work and counter terrorism are just some of the fields that can require the detection of the biological species present. Traditional laboratory based approaches employ a wide variety of tools and technologies and exploit a number of different species specific traits including morphology, molecular differences and immuno-chemical analyses...
January 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26528669/evaluation-of-tools-for-environmental-sampling-of-bacillus-anthracis-spores
#15
Yoshihito Fujinami, Junji Hosokawa-Muto, Natsuko Mizuno
This study describes the validation of sampling techniques used to detect biological warfare agents used in terror attacks. For this purpose, we tested the efficiencies of different sampling media and extraction solutions for the recovery of bacterial pathogens. We first used Bacillus cereus ATCC 4342 spores as a surrogate for highly pathogenic B. anthracis to compare recovery efficiencies of spores from four different surfaces. We used three different types of sampling swabs and four different solutions to extract spores from the swabs...
December 2015: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26521869/-tremendous-human-social-and-economic-losses-caused-by-obstinate-application-of-the-failed-linear-no-threshold-model
#16
REVIEW
Shizuyo Sutou
The linear no-threshold model (LNT) was recommended in 1956, with abandonment of the traditional threshold dose-response for genetic risk assessment. Adoption of LNT by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) became the standard for radiation regulation worldwide. The ICRP recommends a dose limit of 1 mSv/year for the public, which is too low and which terrorizes innocent people. Indeed, LNT arose mainly from the lifespan survivor study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors. The LSS, which asserts linear dose-response and no threshold, is challenged mainly on three points...
2015: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26426050/passive-immunotherapy-protects-against-enteric-invasion-and-lethal-sepsis-in-a-murine-model-of-gastrointestinal-anthrax
#17
Bruce Huang, Tao Xie, David Rotstein, Hui Fang, David M Frucht
The principal portal for anthrax infection in natural animal outbreaks is the digestive tract. Enteric exposure to anthrax, which is difficult to detect or prevent in a timely manner, could be exploited as an act of terror through contamination of human or animal food. Our group has developed a novel animal model of gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax for evaluation of disease pathogenesis and experimental therapeutics, utilizing vegetative Bacillus anthracis (Sterne strain) administered to A/J mice (a complement-deficient strain) by oral gavage...
October 2015: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26060873/preparedness-for-a-smallpox-pandemic-in-japan-public-health-perspectives
#18
Yasumasa Nishiyama, Susumu Matsukuma, Takuya Matsumura, Yasuhiro Kanatani, Tomoya Saito
Smallpox is an acute, febrile, contagious disease caused by the Variola virus, which is a member of the Poxviridae family. Until the 1970s, smallpox had been a pandemic disease for more than 3000 years, endemic in tropical and developing areas and periodically epidemic worldwide. The World Health Organization declared smallpox to be completely eradicated in 1980 as the result of global vaccination efforts. At that time, all routine vaccination programs were terminated, given the success of thismonumental eradication...
April 2015: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26007159/the-search-for-mass-graves-of-the-soldiers-of-the-national-armed-forces-murdered-in-september-1946-in-the-opole-region-of-poland-results-of-forensic-medical-examination
#19
Ł Szleszkowski, A Thannhäuser, K Szwagrzyk, T Jurek
UNLABELLED: The aim of the study is the identification and forensic-medical and anthropological evaluation of the remains of soldiers of the National Armed Forces murdered by the secret police in September 1946 in the Opole region. The remains were located during the search for mass graves of victims of the Communist regime carried out by the Institute of National Remembrance (IPN). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In June 2012 and April 2013, in the area of the Hubertus clearing between the villages of Barut and Dąbrówka, 41 human bone fragments were revealed in the course of archaeological works carried with use of the open pit method at the probable site of the liquidation of one of the groups of soldiers from the unit of Captain Henryk Flame, aka "Bartek"...
2015: Archiwum Medycyny Sa̧dowej i Kryminologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25954998/botulinum-neurotoxin-serotypes-detected-by-electrochemical-impedance-spectroscopy
#20
Alison C Savage, Nicholas Buckley, Jennifer Halliwell, Christopher Gwenin
Botulinum neurotoxin is one of the deadliest biological toxins known to mankind and is able to cause the debilitating disease botulism. The rapid detection of the different serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin is essential for both diagnosis of botulism and identifying the presence of toxin in potential cases of terrorism and food contamination. The modes of action of botulinum neurotoxins are well-established in literature and differ for each serotype. The toxins are known to specifically cleave portions of the SNARE proteins SNAP-25 or VAMP; an interaction that can be monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...
May 2015: Toxins
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