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Hengyi Cao, Sarah C McEwen, Jennifer K Forsyth, Dylan G Gee, Carrie E Bearden, Jean Addington, Bradley Goodyear, Kristin S Cadenhead, Heline Mirzakhanian, Barbara A Cornblatt, Ricardo E Carrión, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Aysenil Belger, Larry J Seidman, Heidi Thermenos, Ming T Tsuang, Theo G M van Erp, Elaine F Walker, Stephan Hamann, Alan Anticevic, Scott W Woods, Tyrone D Cannon
While graph theoretical modeling has dramatically advanced our understanding of complex brain systems, the feasibility of aggregating connectomic data in large imaging consortia remains unclear. Here, using a battery of cognitive, emotional and resting fMRI paradigms, we investigated the generalizability of functional connectomic measures across sites and sessions. Our results revealed overall fair to excellent reliability for a majority of measures during both rest and tasks, in particular for those quantifying connectivity strength, network segregation and network integration...
March 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Giuseppina Caiazzo, Michele Fratello, Federica Di Nardo, Francesca Trojsi, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Fabrizio Esposito
PURPOSE: Advances in computational network analysis have enabled the characterization of topological properties of human brain networks (connectomics) from high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI structural measurements. In this study, the effect of changing the diffusion weighting (b value) and sampling (number of gradient directions) was investigated in ten healthy volunteers, with specific focus on graph theoretical network metrics used to characterize the human connectome...
March 8, 2018: Neuroradiology
Daniel H De La Iglesia, Juan F De Paz, Gabriel Villarrubia González, Alberto L Barriuso, Javier Bajo
Context-aware monitoring systems designed for e-Health solutions and ambient assisted living (AAL) play an important role in today's personalized health-care services. The majority of these systems are intended for the monitoring of patients' vital signs by means of bio-sensors. At present, there are very few systems that monitor environmental conditions and air quality in the homes of users. A home's environmental conditions can have a significant influence on the state of the health of its residents. Monitoring the environment is the key to preventing possible diseases caused by conditions that do not favor health...
March 2, 2018: Sensors
Ahmed K Abdel Aal, David P Jones, Jessica Caraway, Amr S Moustafa, Sherif M Moawad, Edgar S Underwood
A case of a 79-year-old man, status post laparoscopic cholecystectomy with a drainage catheter placed at the gallbladder fossa is presented. The case was complicated postoperatively by abdominal pain and bilious discharge from the drainage catheter. Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography demonstrated leakage through the cystic duct stump into the gallbladder fossa. Placement of a covered metal stent endoscopically failed to seal the leak. We performed percutaneous embolization of the cystic duct stump using a combination of coils and gelatin sponge through the drainage catheter in the gallbladder fossa...
December 2017: Radiology Case Reports
Souheil Saddekni, Amr Ahmed Abouateya, Rafik Mohamed Ibrahim, Maysoon Farouk Hamed, Sherif Magdy Moawad, Ahmed Anwar Abouarab, Ahmed Kamel Abdel Aal
We present the case of a 54-year-old male patient diagnosed with a right upper lobe lung cancer and was referred for resection. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan showed a prominent vascular structure in the right lung, suspicious for vascular malformation. A computed tomography angiography was done, demonstrating an intercostobronchial trunk-pulmonary artery fistula. There was also non-tapering dilated wandering pulmonary artery coursing through the right lower lung without any abnormal connection with pulmonary veins and were supplying normal lung parenchyma...
December 2017: Radiology Case Reports
Jing Lu, Sijia Guo, Mingming Chen, Weixia Wang, Hua Yang, Daqing Guo, Dezhong Yao
Many methods have been developed to translate a human electroencephalogram (EEG) into music. In addition to EEG, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another method used to study the brain and can reflect physiological processes. In 2012, we established a method to use simultaneously recorded fMRI and EEG signals to produce EEG-fMRI music, which represents a step toward scale-free brain music. In this study, we used a neural mass model, the Jansen-Rit model, to simulate activity in several cortical brain regions...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Baskar Duraisamy, Jayanthi Venkatraman Shanmugam, Jayanthi Annamalai
An early intervention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is highly essential due to the fact that this neuro degenerative disease generates major life-threatening issues, especially memory loss among patients in society. Moreover, categorizing NC (Normal Control), MCI (Mild Cognitive Impairment) and AD early in course allows the patients to experience benefits from new treatments. Therefore, it is important to construct a reliable classification technique to discriminate the patients with or without AD from the bio medical imaging modality...
February 19, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Lena V Schumacher, Marco Reisert, Kai Nitschke, Karl Egger, Horst Urbach, Jürgen Hennig, Cornelius Weiller, Christoph P Kaller
As quantitative measures derived from fiber tractography are increasingly being used to characterize the structural connectivity of the brain, it is important to establish their reproducibility. However, no such information is as yet available for global tractography. Here we provide the first comprehensive analysis of the reproducibility of streamline counts derived from global tractography as quantitative estimates of structural connectivity. In a sample of healthy young adults scanned twice within one week, within-session and between-session test-retest reproducibility was estimated for streamline counts of connections based on regions of the AAL atlas using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for absolute agreement...
February 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Angelo Costa, Jaime Andres Rincon, Carlos Carrascosa, Paulo Novais, Vicente Julian
The elderly population is increasing and the response of the society was to provide them with services directed to them to cope with their needs. One of the oldest solutions is the retirement home, providing housing and permanent assistance for the elderly. Furthermore, most of the retirement homes are inhabited by multiple elderly people, thus creating a community of people who are somewhat related in age and medical issues. The ambient assisted living (AAL) area tries to solve some of the elderly issues by producing technological products, some of them dedicated to elderly homes...
February 6, 2018: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Qiang Chen, Gianluca Ursini, Adrienne L Romer, Annchen R Knodt, Karleigh Mezeivtch, Ena Xiao, Giulio Pergola, Giuseppe Blasi, Richard E Straub, Joseph H Callicott, Karen F Berman, Ahmad R Hariri, Alessandro Bertolino, Venkata S Mattay, Daniel R Weinberger
The use of polygenic risk scores has become a practical translational approach to investigating the complex genetic architecture of schizophrenia, but the link between polygenic risk scores and pathophysiological components of this disorder has been the subject of limited research. We investigated in healthy volunteers whether schizophrenia polygenic risk score predicts hippocampal activity during simple memory encoding, which has been proposed as a risk-associated intermediate phenotype of schizophrenia. We analysed the relationship between polygenic risk scores and hippocampal activity in a discovery sample of 191 unrelated healthy volunteers from the USA and in two independent replication samples of 76 and 137 healthy unrelated participants from Europe and the USA, respectively...
February 3, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Jared A White, Stephen H Gray, Peng Li, Heather N Simpson, Brendan M McGuire, Devin E Eckhoff, Ahmed Mohamed Kamel Abdel Aal, Souheil Saddekni, Derek A Dubay
Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the most common oncologic therapy used according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines established in 2005, revised in 2011. The purpose of this study was to determine how AASLD criteria for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have impacted TACE practice in the community. Clinical, demographic, and cause of death information were collected for patients diagnosed with HCC in the 2012 linkage of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Medicare database...
June 2017: Hepatology Communications
Abdelrahim Abdrabou Sadek, Shaimaa Mohamed Mahmoud, Mohammed Abd El-Aal, Ahmed Ahmed Allam, Walaa Ibrahim Abd El-Halim
Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common childhood form of muscular dystrophy. The incidence of cardiomyopathy in DMD increases with age, so its early detection is important because institution of cardioprotective medical therapies may slow adverse remodeling and attenuate heart failure symptoms in these patients. Objective: To assess the cardiac functions in children clinically suspected to have DMD. Methods: Over a one-year period, 28 male children aged from 3 to 18 years old, who met the criteria for diagnosis of DMD compared to 47 healthy controls children, were approached to participate in the study...
November 2017: Electronic Physician
Hisham A Abdel-Aal
Squamate reptiles (around 10,000 species of snakes and lizards) comprise a myriad of distinct terrestrial vertebrates. The diversity within this biological group offers a great opportunity for customized bio-inspired solutions that address a variety of current technological problems especially within the realm of surface engineering and tribology. One subgroup within squamata is of interest in that context, namely the legless reptiles (mainly snakes and few lizards). The promise of that group lies within their functional adaptation as manifested in optimized surface designs and locomotion that is distinguished by economy of effort even when functioning within hostile tribological environments...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Adrienne Torda, Victor Chan
BACKGROUND: Many patients admitted to hospital have an antibiotic allergy (AAL) documented in their medical record. In many of these, the reaction is not a hypersensitivity reaction or may no longer be relevant. Despite this, the label adversely affects patient care directly in terms of antibiotic selection, and indirectly in terms of patient costs and the development of antimicrobial resistance. AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of AALs in a cohort of hospitalised patients, to investigate the feasibility of de-labelling through re-challenge based solely upon clinical grounds...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Sofia B Carvalho, Ana Sofia Moreira, Joana Gomes, Manuel J T Carrondo, David J Thornton, Paula M Alves, Julia Costa, Cristina Peixoto
Mucins are high-molecular weight glycoproteins (0.25-20 MDa) containing one or more domains that are heavily O-glycosylated. Their implications as targets for cancer treatment have increased the interest in these glycoproteins, mainly in the fields of vaccines and antibodies. However, mucins present high heterogeneity, posing challenges that affect purification processes and quality control analysis. In that sense, it is necessary to develop and improve downstream processes and analytical methods to characterize these products...
2018: PloS One
Ivan Miguel Pires, Rui Santos, Nuno Pombo, Nuno M Garcia, Francisco Flórez-Revuelta, Susanna Spinsante, Rossitza Goleva, Eftim Zdravevski
An increase in the accuracy of identification of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) is very important for different goals of Enhanced Living Environments and for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) tasks. This increase may be achieved through identification of the surrounding environment. Although this is usually used to identify the location, ADL recognition can be improved with the identification of the sound in that particular environment. This paper reviews audio fingerprinting techniques that can be used with the acoustic data acquired from mobile devices...
January 9, 2018: Sensors
Luz A González-Hernández, María G Flores-Miramontes, Adriana Aguilar-Lemarroy, Krissya S Quintanilla-Peña, Fabiola L Martin-Amaya-Barajas, Moisés Ramos-Solano, Luis F Enciso Gómez, Jaime F Andrade-Villanueva, Luis F Jave-Suárez
The incidence of anal cancer has been rising, especially in HIV+ patients and has been associated with HPV infection. HIV+ patients are more at risk of HPV coinfection and are seven times more likely to have persistent HPV infection; moreover, HIV+ men have an increased risk of developing anal cancer compared to HIV+ women. The development of screening strategies for the detection of HPV in HIV+ men is of major importance; however, there is not enough information about the HPV genotypes and variants that are colonizing the anal epithelia of HIV+ men in diverse geographical regions...
January 3, 2018: Archives of Virology
Michael D Devous, Abhinay D Joshi, Michael Navitsky, Sudeepti Southekal, Michael J Pontecorvo, Haiqing Shen, Ming Lu, William R Shankle, John P Seibyl, Ken Marek, Mark A Mintun
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by beta-amyloid plaques (Aβ) and tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). There are several PET imaging biomarkers for Aβ including 11C-PiB and 18F florbetapir. Recently, PET tracers for tau NFTs have become available and have shown utility in detection and monitoring of neurofibrillary pathology over time. Flortaucipir F 18 is one such tracer. Initial clinical studies indicated greater tau binding in AD and MCI patients compared to controls in a pattern consistent with tau pathology observed at autopsy...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Shin Yazawa, Takehiko Yokobori, Kyoichi Kaira, Hiroyuki Kuwano, Takayuki Asao
BACKGROUND: Upon initiation and progression of cancer, α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) possessing highly sialylated and fucosylated glycans appears in the serum, and recently has attracted a great deal of attention, as a potential biomarker of tumorigenesis in humans. To establish a rapid and precise method for the quantitative assay of fucosylated AGP in serum samples, we developed an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) bearing an anti-AGP antibody and a fucose-binding lectin, Aleuria aurantia (AAL) with additional endeavor to improved sample handling, and antibody preparations...
December 20, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Mustafa Abd El Raouf, Xuzhu Wang, Si Miusi, Jihua Chai, Abdel Basit Mohamed AbdEl-Aal, Mekkawy M Nefissa Helmy, Shahram Ghanaati, Joseph Choukroun, Elisa Choukroun, Yufeng Zhang, Richard J Miron
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF) on cultivated chondrocytes and osteochondral regeneration in critical-sized osteochondral defect of the rabbit's knee in comparison to autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Chondrocytes were first investigated for their ability to proliferate and differentiate in response to PRP and i-PRF. Thereafter, full-thickness critical-sized osteochondral defects 5 mm in diameter and 5 mm in depth were created in the knee joint of 12 adult female New Zealand White rabbits...
December 14, 2017: Platelets
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