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Vaccination hepatitis

Alajos Pár, Gabriella Pár
More than 25 years after the discovery of hepatitis C virus, the development of the direct acting antivirals can lead to the regional or long-term global elimination of the virus with over 90% efficacy. This is the success of basic and clinical translational research. Yet, some unsolved challanges remain, such as the great number of unidentified patients who are not aware of their condition, the limited access to the therapy due to the high prices of the drugs, and the treatment of resistance-associated variants...
March 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Olivia Falconer, Marie-Louise Newell, Christine E Jones
The success of prevention of mother to child transmission programs over the last two decades has led to an increasing number of infants who are exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but who are not themselves infected (HIV-exposed, uninfected infants). Although the morbidity and mortality among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants is considerably lower than that among HIV-infected infants, they may remain at increased risk of infections in the first 2 years of life compared with their HIV-unexposed peers, especially in the absence of breastfeeding...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Li Liu, Di Xiao, Jin-Hong Yu, Rui Shen, Meng Wang, Qiang Li
OBJECTIVES: In China, the epidemic pattern of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has changed from waterborne outbreaks to foodborne sporadic cases. However, the clinical course of sporadic acute hepatitis E has not been well defined. METHODS: Consecutive AHE inpatients who were admitted to the Jinan Infectious Disease Hospital, Jinan, Shandong Province, between January 2003 and December 2014 were evaluated and followed. Demographic data, clinical manifestations, results of laboratory tests,and outcomes were recorded...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Li Zhang, Bingyu Yan, Jingjing Lv, Jiaye Liu, Wenlong Wu, Yi Feng, Aiqiang Xu
Hepatitis B breakthrough infection (HBBI) and its risk factors are rarely reported among adults in China. In 2009-2010 in three townships of China, hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) administration and anti-HBs detection after HepB were conducted among the residents aged 18-59 years. HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc were detected for these vaccinees in 2013. A total of 252 out of 4701 vaccinees turned to be positive for anti-HBc in 2013, but nobody was positive for HBsAg. The HBBI rate was 5.36% (95% CI 4.73, 6.04). The highest rate was found in age-group of 18-29 years (7...
March 13, 2018: Vaccine
Juliana Gil Melgaço, Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Vinicius da Motta de Mello, Mariana Leal, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Marcelo Alves Pinto
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common etiology of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Recombinant HEV vaccines have been developed, but only one is commercially available and licensed in China since 2011. Epidemiological studies have identified genotype 3 as the major cause of chronic infection in immunocompromised individuals. Ribavirin has been shown to be effective as a monotherapy to induce HEV clearance in chronic patients who have undergone solid organ transplant (SOT) under immunosuppressive therapy. Efforts and improvements in prevention and control have been made to reduce the instances of acute and chronic hepatitis E in endemic and nonendemic countries...
2018: BioMed Research International
Minghua Zheng, Jie Jiang, Xiao Zhang, Nan Wang, Kaihang Wang, Qiong Li, Tingting Li, Qingshan Lin, Yingbin Wang, Hai Yu, Ying Gu, Jun Zhang, Shaowei Li, Ningshao Xia
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is associated with acute hepatitis disease. Numerous truncated HEV capsid proteins have been successfully expressed using different expression systems. Among these, p495, a protein truncated at its N- and C-termini by 111 and 54 amino acids (aa), respectively (HEV ORF2 aa 112-606) can self-assemble into T = 1 virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed by insect cells. A shorter p239 (aa 368-606) protein is a particulate antigen that we have previously used in our commercialized HEV vaccine, Hecolin...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
Carlos Fritzsche, M Loebermann, E C Reisinger
BACKGROUND: Vaccination against hepatitis A virus infection is recommended for men who have sex with men and other risk groups. The protection offered by the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine is comparable to that offered by the monovalent hepatitis A vaccine. CASE: A 38-year-old HIV-positive patient presented with right upper abdominal pain, fever and jaundice. Serological work-up and detection of hepatitis A RNA in stool sample revealed an acute hepatitis A infection despite a previous complete vaccination with the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine...
March 14, 2018: Infection
Sascha Suffner, Nadine Gerstenberg, Maria Patra, Paula Ruibal, Ahmed Orabi, Michael Schindler, Volker Bruss
During hepatitis B virus infections subviral particles (SVP) consisting only of viral envelope proteins and lipids are secreted. Heterologous expression of the small envelope protein S in mammalian cells is sufficient for SVP generation. S is synthesized as a transmembrane protein with N-terminal (TM1), central (TM2), and C-terminal (HCR) transmembrane domains. The loops between TM1 and TM2 (CL) and between TM2 and HCR (LL) are located in the cytosol and in the ER lumen, respectively. To define domains of S mediating oligomerization during SVP morphogenesis S mutants were characterized by expression in transiently transfected cells...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Shelly Popowich, Ashish Gupta, Betty Chow-Lockerbie, Lisanework Ayalew, Neil Ambrose, Davor Ojkic, Thushari Gunawardana, Shanika Kurukulasuriya, Philip Willson, Suresh K Tikoo, Susantha Gomis
Historically, fowl adenovirus (FAdV) associated inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) was considered a secondary disease in broiler chickens associated with immunosuppression. However, we previously reported the occurrence of IBH as a primary disease in the broiler chicken industry in Canada as a result of infections with various FAdV serotypes. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop an immunization strategy in broiler breeders using live FAdV 11-1047 and FAdV8a-TR59 to confer homologous and heterologous protection in broiler progeny against IBH and to study the efficacy of natural exposure of naïve broiler breeders to a vaccine virus from live FAdV vaccinated birds as an immunization technique...
March 5, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Francelena de Sousa Silva, Yonna Costa Barbosa, Mônica Araújo Batalha, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa Ribeiro, Vanda Maria Ferreira Simões, Maria Dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho Branco, Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz, Waleska Regina Machado Araújo, Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva
This study estimated the percentages of incomplete immunization with new vaccines and old vaccines and associated factors in children 13 to 35 months of age belonging to a birth cohort in São Luís, the capital of Maranhão State, Brazil. The sample was probabilistic, with 3,076 children born in 2010. Information on vaccination was obtained from the Child's Health Card. The new vaccines, namely those introduced in 2010, were meningococcal C and 10-valent pneumococcal, and the old vaccines, or those already on the childhood immunization schedule, were BCG, hepatitis B, human rotavirus, polio, tetravalent (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae b), yellow fever, and triple viral (measles, mumps, rubella)...
March 12, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Nao Nishida, Masaya Sugiyama, Hiromi Sawai, Sohji Nishina, Aiko Sakai, Jun Ohashi, Seik-Soon Khor, Keisuke Kakisaka, Takayo Tsuchiura, Keisuke Hino, Ryo Sumazaki, Yasuhiro Takikawa, Kazumoto Murata, Tatsuo Kanda, Osamu Yokosuka, Katsushi Tokunaga, Masashi Mizokami
Approximately 5-10% of individuals, who are vaccinated with a hepatitis B (HB) vaccine designed based on the HBV genotype C, fail to acquire protective levels of antibodies. Here, host genetic factors behind low immune response to this HB vaccine were investigated by a genome wide association study (GWAS) and HLA association tests. A GWAS and HLA association tests were carried out using a total of 1,193 Japanese individuals including 107 low responders, 351 intermediate responders, and 735 high responders. Classical HLA class II alleles were statistically imputed using the genome-wide SNP typing data...
March 13, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Cynthuja Thilakanathan, Gabrielle Wark, Michael Maley, Scott Davison, Joseph Lawler, Aimei Lee, Nicholas Shackel, Vi Nguyen, Kathy Jackson, Anne Glass, Stephen A Locarnini, Miriam T Levy
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Anti-partum antiviral therapy in the setting of high viral load is recommended to prevent mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B although recommended viral load cut-offs vary. Quantitative HBsAg has been proposed as an alternative screening strategy to identify high viral load in this setting. Guidelines suggest testing all infants for vaccine response and infection. We set out to re-examine viral load cut-offs; the predictive value of quantitative HBsAg and the need for follow-up infant testing in our cohort...
March 12, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Bruce L Innis, Julia A Lynch
Soon after the 1991 molecular cloning of hepatitis E virus (HEV), recombinant viral capsid antigens were expressed and tested in nonhuman primates for protection against liver disease and infection. Two genotype 1 subunit vaccine candidates entered clinical development: a 56 kDA vaccine expressed in insect cells and HEV 239 vaccine expressed in Escherichia coli Both were highly protective against hepatitis E and acceptably safe. The HEV 239 vaccine was approved in China in 2011, but it is not yet prequalified by the World Health Organization, a necessary step for introduction into those low- and middle-income countries where the disease burden is highest...
March 12, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Daniel Enosi Tuipulotu, Natalie E Netzler, Jennifer H Lun, Jason M Mackenzie, Peter A White
Norovirus infections are a significant health and economic burden globally, accounting for hundreds of millions of cases of acute gastroenteritis every year. In the absence of an approved norovirus vaccine, there is an urgent need to develop antivirals to treat chronic infections, and provide prophylactic therapy to limit viral spread during epidemics and pandemics. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been explored widely for their antiviral potential and several are progressing through clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and as adjuvants for norovirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
M Joseph John, Amrith Mathew, Sunil Bhat, Anushree Prabhakaran, Biju George, Jacob John
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are more susceptible to infections from vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) than the general population. Indian stem cell transplant registry (ISCTR) post-BMT vaccination guidelines were formulated in 2015. The objective of the survey was to assess the compliance to these guidelines among transplant physicians in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey executed as the quantitative research strategy to explore the various aspects of vaccination practices among transplant physicians in India...
March 9, 2018: Vaccine
Wolfgang Miehsler, Clemens Dejaco, Hans-Peter Gröchenig, Harry Fuchssteiner, Christoph Högenauer, Lili Kazemi-Shirazi, Harald Maier, Andreas Mayer, Alexander Moschen, Walter Reinisch, Wolfgang Petritsch, Reingard Platzer, Pius Steiner, Herbert Tilg, Harald Vogelsang, Heimo Wenzl, Gottfried Novacek
Anti-TNFα-antibodies have revolutionized the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases and other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Due to the increasing application of these substances, the Working Group of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of the Austrian Association of Gastroenterology and Hepatology intended to update their consensus report on the safe use of Infliximab (published in 2010) and to enlarge its scope to cover all anti-TNFα-antibodies. The present consensus report summarizes the current evidence on the safe use of anti-TNFα-antibodies and covers the following topics: general risk of infection, bacterial infections (i...
March 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Robert Hecht, Lindsey Hiebert, Wendy C Spearman, Mark W Sonderup, Teresa Guthrie, Timothy B Hallett, Shevanthi Nayagam, Homie Razavi, Shan Soe-Lin, Kgomotso Vilakazi-Nhlapo, Yogan Pillay, Stephen Resch
Even though WHO has approved global goals for hepatitis elimination, most countries have yet to establish programs for hepatitis B and C, which account for 320 million infections and over a million deaths annually. One reason for this slow response is the paucity of robust, compelling analyses showing that national HBV/HCV programs could have a significant impact on these epidemics and save lives in a cost-effective, affordable manner. In this context, our team used an investment case approach to develop a national hepatitis action plan for South Africa, grounded in a process of intensive engagement of local stakeholders...
February 26, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Wadad Yazji, Wafaa Habal, Fawza Menem
This cross-sectional study estimates HBV prevalence and evaluates vaccination efficiency among multitransfused patients. 159 patients with various hemoglobinopathies were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The serological results were then compared with the relevant documentation in medical records. Seropositivity of HBV was detected in 1/8 of recruited patients. Serological immunity was found in only half of patients, while the other half were either infected or non-immune...
March 5, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Alejandro José García Ferreira, Aida Ortega Alonso, Julia Cobos Rodríguez, Paula Bardón de Tena, Miguel Calderón Cid, Alberto Manuel García García, María Dolores García Escaño, Ramiro Alcántara Benitez, Encarnacíon Clavijo Frutos, Miren García-Cortés, Raúl Andrade
In 2016, an outbreak of hepatitis A was identified in the Malaga province among patients with specific epidemiological characteristics, which were predominantly males. This is a report of 51 subjects with acute hepatitis A and a mean age of 35.7 years, 90% were male and 55% of cases were men who had had sex with other men within the last two months. Half of them required hospitalization for significant coagulopathy at diagnosis and no cases progressed to fulminant failure or encephalopathy. Four patients had ascites at the time of diagnosis...
March 12, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Vladimir Alexei Morozov, Sylvie Lagaye
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver diseases including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Approximately 3% of the world population is infected with HCV. Thus, HCV infection is considered a public healthy challenge. It is worth mentioning, that the HCV prevalence is dependent on the countries with infection rates around 20% in high endemic countries. The review summarizes recent data on HCV molecular biology, the physiopathology of infection (immune-mediated liver damage, liver fibrosis and lipid metabolism), virus diagnostic and treatment...
February 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
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