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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543299/low-occurrence-of-hbsag-but-high-frequency-of-transient-occult-hbv-infection-in-vaccinated-and-hbig-administered-infants-born-to-hbsag-positive-mothers
#1
Shan Zhou, Tingting Li, Jean-Pierre Allain, Bin Zhou, Yuming Zhang, Mei Zhong, Yongshui Fu, Chengyao Li
The status of chronic and occult HBV infection (OBI) in neonatal hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin (HBIG) vaccinated infants born to HBsAg+ mothers was investigated at a major hospital in China. Seventy-seven and 15 blood samples were collected in first or second follow-up detection from the vaccinated babies aged 3 to 36 months born to 43 HBsAg+ or plus 25 HBeAg+ mothers. HBV infection was analyzed between the paired baby and mother by serology and DNA analysis. Among 77 children born to 68 HBsAg+ mothers, 3...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539442/extracellular-interactions-between-hepatitis-c-virus-and-secreted-apolipoprotein-e
#2
Zhihua Li, Yadong Li, Yanwei Bi, Hui Zhang, Yufeng Yao, Qihan Li, Wei Cun, Shaozhong Dong
Interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and lipoproteins in humans play an important role in the efficient establishment of chronic infection. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) on the HCV envelope mediates virus attachment to host cells as well as immune evasion. This interaction is thought to occur in hepatocytes, as ApoE plays dual functions in HCV assembly and maturation as well as cell attachment. In the present study, we found that secreted ApoE (sApoE) can also bind to viral particles via its C-terminal domain after HCV is released from the cell...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538901/sexually-transmitted-infections-and-pro-lives-based-on-a-clinical-report
#3
Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira Velho
Physicians are also responsible for the increase in sexually transmitted infections. We report a case of patient inadequately monitored, that shows the importance of physicians to take basic measures with any individual at risk of acquiring such infections. We propose the following mnemonic acrostic: PRO-LIVES (Protection: usual and proper codom use, Responsibility, Other orientations, Laboratory tests -HIV infection, syphilis and B and C hepatitis-, Immunization: B hepatitis vaccination, Various: at least two patients, Ensure: case history and physical examination, Single dose treatment: whenever possible)...
March 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536027/live-attenuated-tetravalent-g1-g4-bovine-human-reassortant-rotavirus-vaccine-brv-tv-randomized-controlled-phase-iii-study-in-indian-infants
#4
Tarun Saluja, Sonali Palkar, Puneet Misra, Madhu Gupta, Potula Venugopal, Ashwani Kumar Sood, Ravi Mandyam Dhati, Avinash Shetty, Sangappa Malappa Dhaded, Sharad Agarkhedkar, Amlan Choudhury, Ramesh Kumar, Sundaram Balasubramanian, Sudhir Babji, Lopa Adhikary, Martin Dupuy, Sangeet Mohan Chadha, Forum Desai, Darshna Kukian, Badri Narayan Patnaik, Mandeep Singh Dhingra
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus remains the leading cause of diarrhoea among children <5years. We assessed immunogenic non-inferiority of a tetravalent bovine-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (BRV-TV) over the licensed human-bovine pentavalent rotavirus vaccine RV5. METHODS: Phase III single-blind study (parents blinded) in healthy infants randomized (1:1) to receive three doses of BRV-TV or RV5 at 6-8, 10-12, and 14-16weeks of age. All concomitantly received a licensed diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTwP-HepB-Hib) and oral polio vaccine (OPV)...
May 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531172/experimental-evaluation-of-cryopreservative-solutions-to-maintain-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-infectivity-of-p-berghei-sporozoites
#5
Naresh Singh, Samantha J Barnes, Sandra Kennedy, John H Adams
The rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei is an excellent model organism for laboratory-based experimental evaluation of anti-malarial therapeutics prior to studies with human malaria parasites. The rodent model is especially important for evaluation of pre-erythrocytic (PE) stage therapies, especially as current efforts to develop new PE vaccines and drugs is limited by access to P. falciparum and P. vivax sporozoites. Developing a more effective method for cryopreservation of sporozoites would help improve access to sporozoites for laboratories lacking suitable insectary facilities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529116/italian-consensus-guidelines-for-the-management-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infections-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#6
Marco Sebastiani, Fabiola Atzeni, Laura Milazzo, Luca Quartuccio, Carlo Scirè, Giovanni Battista Gaeta, Giovanni Lapadula, Orlando Armignacco, Marcello Tavio, Ignazio Olivieri, Pierluigi Meroni, Laura Bazzichi, Walter Grassi, Alessandro Mathieu, Claudio Mastroianni, Evangelista Sagnelli, Teresa Santantonio, Caterina Uberti Foppa, Massimo Puoti, Loredana Sarmati, Paolo Airò, Oscar Massimiliano Epis, Rossana Scrivo, Miriam Gargiulo, Agostino Riva, Andreina Manfredi, Giovanni Ciancio, Gianguglielmo Zehender, Gloria Taliani, Luca Meroni, Salvatore Sollima, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini, Massimo Galli
OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis B (HBV) infection, which is prevalent worldwide, is also frequently seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR) and the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases (SIMIT) endorsed a national consensus process to review the available evidence on HBV management in RA patients and to produce practical, hospital-wide recommendations. METHODS: The consensus panel consisted of infectious disease consultants, rheumatologists and epidemiologists and used the criteria of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine to assess the quality of the evidence and the strength of their recommendations...
May 18, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528763/evaluation-of-recombinant-chinese-avian-hepatitis-e-virus-cahev-orf2-and-orf3-proteins-for-protection-of-chickens-against-cahev-infection
#7
Shahid Faraz Syed, Yani Sun, Taofeng Du, Yiyang Chen, Baoyuan Liu, Xinjie Wang, Huixia Li, Yuchen Nan, En-Min Zhou, Qin Zhao
Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the etiologic agent of big liver and spleen disease in chickens. In 2010, the Chinese avian HEV (CaHEV) strain was isolated from chickens and demonstrated to cause the decreased egg production in layer hens. No avian HEV commercial vaccine has yet been developed to prevent virus infection in China. In this study, recombinant CaHEV truncated ORF2 and complete ORF3 proteins were evaluated separately for immunoprotection of chickens against CaHEV infection. First, truncated ORF2 and complete ORF3 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli...
May 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526972/patient-experiences-attitudes-and-expectations-towards-receiving-information-about-anti-tnf-medication-a-quantitative-study
#8
Jon Packham, Paul Arkell, Tom Sheeran, Ann Brownfield, Anthony Cadwgan, Sarah Ryan
The objective of the study was to measure patient attitudes and experience of information received during drug counselling for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) medications. This is a cross-sectional UK postal questionnaire study. Three RA patient groups-disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) only, first anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) and failed anti-TNF-were sent postal questionnaires. Data on patient history/demographics, drug counselling experience, knowledge of drug side effects, attitudes to vaccinations, cancer screening and blood borne virus testing was collected; 264/679 (39%) patients responded (median age 65 years, 66% female, median disease duration 15 years)...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522427/association-of-chitosan-and-aluminium-as-a-new-adjuvant-strategy-for-improved-vaccination
#9
F Lebre, D Bento, J Ribeiro, M Colaço, G Borchard, M C Pedroso de Lima, O Borges
The use of particulate adjuvants offers an interesting possibility to enhance and modulate the immune responses elicited by vaccines. Aluminium salts have been extensively used as vaccine adjuvants, but they lack the capacity to induce a strong cellular and mucosal immune response. Taking this into consideration, in this study we designed a new antigen delivery system combining aluminium salts with chitosan. Chitosan-aluminium nanoparticles (CH-Al NPs) exhibited a mean diameter of 280nm and a positive surface charge...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521532/new-antivirals-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#10
Vincent Soriano, Pablo Barreiro, Laura Benitez, Jose M Peña, Carmen de Mendoza
Current treatment with oral nucleos(t)ides entecavir or tenofovir provide sustained suppression of HBV replication and clinical benefit in most chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected persons. However, HBV rebound generally occurs upon drug discontinuation due to persistence of genomic HBV reservoirs as episomic cccDNA and chromosomic integrated HBV-DNA. There is renewed enthusiasm on HBV drug discovery following recent successes with antivirals for hepatitis C and immunotherapies for some cancers. Areas covered: New drugs that target distinct steps of the HBV life cycle are been developed, including inhibitors of viral entry, new polymerase inhibitors, capsid and assembly inhibitors, virus release blockers, and disruptors of cccDNA formation and transcription...
May 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520708/hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-screening-among-pregnant-women-and-care-of-infants-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-positive-mothers-guam-2014
#11
Winston E Abara, Susan Cha, Tasneem Malik, Mia S DeSimone, Bernadette Schumann, Esther Mallada, Michael Klemme, Vince Aguon, Anne Marie Santos, Melissa Collier, Mary Kamb
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic among adults in the U.S. territory of Guam (1,2). Perinatal HBV transmission, which occurs at birth from an infected mother to her newborn infant, is a major mode of HBV transmission and maintains HBV endemicity (3). Approximately 90% of HBV-infected infants will develop chronic HBV infection, and approximately 25% of those will die prematurely from liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma (4,5). Since 1988, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended that all pregnant women be screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), an indicator of HBV infection, and that infants of women who screen positive (HBsAg-positive women) receive postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) (hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin [HBIG])...
May 19, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517963/novel-strategies-in-vaccine-design-can-nanocapsules-help-prevent-and-treat-hepatitis-b
#12
Stephan Gehring, Anette Pietrzak-Nguyen, Michael Fichter, Katharina Landfester
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512091/conformational-flexibility-in-the-immunoglobulin-like-domain-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-glycoprotein-e2
#13
Ieva Vasiliauskaite, Ania Owsianka, Patrick England, Abdul Ghafoor Khan, Sarah Cole, Dorothea Bankwitz, Steven K H Foung, Thomas Pietschmann, Joseph Marcotrigiano, Felix A Rey, Arvind H Patel, Thomas Krey
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoprotein E2 is the major target of neutralizing antibodies and is therefore highly relevant for vaccine design. Its structure features a central immunoglobulin (Ig)-like β-sandwich that contributes to the binding site for the cellular receptor CD81. We show that a synthetic peptide corresponding to a β-strand of this Ig-like domain forms an α-helix in complex with the anti-E2 antibody DAO5, demonstrating an inside-out flip of hydrophobic residues and a secondary structure change in the composite CD81 binding site...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511308/-blood-borne-occupational-exposure-and-protection-in-medical-staff-of-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-hospital
#14
Z G Zhang, Q X Wei, Z P Yang, Q M Wei, X M Wang, X L Wang
Objective: To investigate blood-borne occupational exposure and related protection in the medical staff of a traditional Chinese medicine hospital, and to provide a reference for reducing the risk of blood-borne occupational exposure. Methods: Forty-eight medical workers with blood-borne occupational exposure in 2015 were selected to analyze the incidence of blood-borne occupational exposure, influencing factors, operations that caused blood-borne occupational exposure, pathogens, and occupational protection...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511068/biotechnology-and-the-transformation-of-vaccine-innovation-the-case-of-the-hepatitis-b-vaccines-1968-2000
#15
Farah Huzair, Steve Sturdy
The approval, from 1986, of a series of recombinant hepatitis B vaccines was a landmark both in the growth of biotechnology and in the development of the vaccine innovation system. In this paper, we show how the early development of the hepatitis B vaccines was shaped by a political and economic context that newly favoured commercialisation of academic research, including the appropriation and management of intellectual property; we elucidate the contingent interests and motivations that led new biotechnology companies and established pharmaceutical businesses to invest in developing recombinant vaccines specifically against hepatitis B; and we show how these and other factors combined to make those vaccines an unexpected commercial success...
May 13, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510643/how-to-face-the-outbreak-of-viral-hepatitis-a-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-france-without-vaccines
#16
D Zucman, E Farfour, L Mazaux, S Hillaire, S Dimi, P Lesprit, J-E Khan, M Vasse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509875/in-silico-analysis-of-epitope-based-vaccine-candidates-against-hepatitis-b-virus-polymerase-protein
#17
Juzeng Zheng, Xianfan Lin, Xiuyan Wang, Liyu Zheng, Songsong Lan, Sisi Jin, Zhanfan Ou, Jinming Wu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has persisted as a major public health problem due to the lack of an effective treatment for those chronically infected. Therapeutic vaccination holds promise, and targeting HBV polymerase is pivotal for viral eradication. In this research, a computational approach was employed to predict suitable HBV polymerase targeting multi-peptides for vaccine candidate selection. We then performed in-depth computational analysis to evaluate the predicted epitopes' immunogenicity, conservation, population coverage, and toxicity...
May 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504194/vaccination-with-recombinant-paramyosin-in-montanide-isa206-protects-against-schistosoma-japonicum-infection-in-water-buffalo
#18
Hannah Wei Wu, Zhi-Qiang Fu, Ke Lu, Sunthorn Pond-Tor, Rui Meng, Yang Hong, Kai Chu, Hao Li, Mario Jiz, Jin-Ming Liu, Ming Hou, Sangshin Park, Jiao-Jiao Lin, Jonathan D Kurtis
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonosis and presents significant public health problems in China and the Philippines. Vaccines targeting domestic animals constitute attractive control measures. METHODS: We conducted three vaccine trials to evaluate the protective efficacy of recombinant full-length paramyosin (rSj97) in water buffalo. Animals were immunized with 3 doses of rSj97 adjuvanted with ISA206 at 250μg/dose or 500μg/dose at 4wk intervals before challenge with 1000 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae...
May 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504192/correlates-of-protection-for-enteric-vaccines
#19
Jan Holmgren, Umesh D Parashar, Stanley Plotkin, Jacques Louis, Su-Peing Ng, Eric Desauziers, Valentina Picot, Mitra Saadatian-Elahi
An immunological Correlate of Protection (CoP) is an immune response that is statistically interrelated with protection. Identification of CoPs for enteric vaccines would help design studies to improve vaccine performance of licensed vaccines in low income settings, and would facilitate the testing of future vaccines in development that might be more affordable. CoPs are lacking today for most existing and investigational enteric vaccines. In order to share the latest information on CoPs for enteric vaccines and to discuss novel approaches to correlate mucosal immune responses in humans with protection, the Foundation Mérieux organized an international conference of experts where potential CoPs for vaccines were examined using case-studies for both bacterial and viral enteric pathogens...
May 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500726/mutations-associated-with-drug-resistance-and-prevalence-of-vaccine-escape-mutations-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#20
Maria Isabel Magalhães A Dos Santos, Sidelcina Pacheco Rugiere, Andreas Stocker, Maria Isabel Schinoni, Raymundo Paraná, Mitermayer G Reis, Luciano K Silva
BACKGROUND: The Brazilian public health system (SUS) has provided antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis B treatment for over 10 years, but a system for monitoring for drug-related resistance mutations is not available. OBJECTIVES: Determine the presence of HBV mutations associated with resistance to nucleos(t)ide analogs among 81 patients with chronic HBV infection in Salvador - BA - Brazil. STUDY DESIGN: HBV-DNA was PCR amplified with primers deduced from the rt domain at the HBV P gene, the sequence extended 1032 bp (from amino acid 1 to 344 - rt domain)...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
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