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Vaccination hepatitis

Xiaohong Liu, Jinmei Xu, Hua Zhang, Qin Liu, Jingfan Xiao, Yuanxing Zhang
Edwardsiella tarda is associated with edwardsiellosis in cultured fish, resulting in heavy losses in aquaculture. So far, different types of vaccine have been attempted against E. tarda. In this study, an optimized eukaryotic expression plasmid was developed and an optimized DNA vaccine co-encoding antigenic and adjuvant peptide using a bicistronic expression system was designed. As a result, a modified plasmid harbored cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter attached with R region of long terminal repeat from human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (CMV/R) and woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional response element (WPRE) component showed an increased antigenic gene expression compared with unmodified plasmid...
October 17, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
J Jiang, S L Dai, J F Xu, Y Zou, L G Zhu, H Peng, F C Zhu, X J Zhai
Objective: To evaluate the effects of blocking transmission of HBV from mother to infant in Jiangsu, and discuss influencing factors related to development of chronic HBV infection in children of HBsAg positive mother. Methods: HBsAg positive mothers delivered during 2010-2015 in three counties of Jiangsu (Zhangjiagang, Danyang and Taixing) and their neonates were included in the study. The neonates were vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine (10 μg) and hepatitis B immunoglobin (100 units) within 24 hours after birth...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Jennifer H MacLachlan, Benjamin C Cowie
Background: The Department of Health and Human Services in Victoria provides funded hepatitis B vaccine to many priority groups at risk of acquiring infection. We aimed to determine the uptake of vaccine ordering for at-risk groups over time, to assess any trends and identify any gaps in prevention of hepatitis B for those at risk. Methods: Routinely collected administrative data regarding the indication for vaccine ordered by practitioners were analysed for the period June 2013 to December 2014. Number of doses and courses distributed was determined and compared with the estimated size of the priority populations...
October 21, 2016: Sexual Health
Anagha Loharikar, Laure Dumolard, Susan Chu, Terri Hyde, Tracey Goodman, Carsten Mantel
Since the global Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was launched in 1974, vaccination against six diseases (tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and measles) has prevented millions of deaths and disabilities (1). Significant advances have been made in the development and introduction of vaccines, and licensed vaccines are now available to prevent 25 diseases (2,3). Historically, new vaccines only became available in low-income and middle-income countries decades after being introduced in high-income countries...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Monika Lindemann, Marina Zaslavskaya, Melanie Fiedler, Benjamin Wilde, Falko M Heinemann, Andreas Heinold, Peter A Horn, Oliver Witzke
Approximately 70% of kidney transplant recipients are non-responders to conventional hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines. We examined whether Fendrix(™) , an HBV vaccine containing 3-O-desacyl-4'-monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) as adjuvant, could induce HBV immunity in these patients and compared their vaccination efficacy with healthy controls tested previously by the same assays. We selected 35 kidney transplant recipients who had been vaccinated at least thrice against HBV but had never displayed anti-HBs antibodies...
October 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
B Lozano-Masdemont, L Gómez-Recuero-Muñoz, A Pulido-Pérez, I Molina-López, R Suárez-Fernández
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in pregnant women is very rare in western countries, thus, cutaneous manifestation of HBV infection may be confused with a dermatosis specific of pregnancy. We report a 39-year-old woman who presented in her 20th week of pregnancy with a pruritic rash, which consisted of generalized erythematous plaques, some of them with a purple centre. Serology testing showed acute HBV infection, and a biopsy revealed a superficial and interstitial perivascular inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes and eosinophils...
October 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Kenichi Morikawa, Tomoe Shimazaki, Rei Takeda, Takaaki Izumi, Machiko Umumura, Naoya Sakamoto
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious health threat around the world. Despite the availability of an effective hepatitis B vaccine, the number of HBV carriers is estimated to be as high as 240 million worldwide. Global mortality due to HBV-related liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be as high as 1 million deaths per year. HBV is transmitted via blood and body fluids, and is much more infectious than both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Konstantin Evdokimov, Kong Sayasinh, Phonethipsavanh Nouanthong, Keooudomphone Vilivong, Bounthome Samountry, Darouny Phonekeo, Michel Strobel, Frank Haegeman, Peter Heimann, Claude P Muller, Antony P Black
OBJECTIVES: In Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) the high burden of vaccine preventable diseases is thought to be mainly due to low vaccine coverage. Here, we investigated the seroprotective response against diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPw-HepB-Hib) vaccine in children. METHODS: Serum was collected from 1131 children aged 9 to 50 months and their mothers in a cross-sectional study between December 2013 and July 2014...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Young Hee Joung, Se Hee Park, Ki-Beom Moon, Jae-Heung Jeon, Hye-Sun Cho, Hyun-Soon Kim
Disease prevention through vaccination is considered to be the greatest contribution to public health over the past century. Every year more than 100 million children are vaccinated with the standard World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended vaccines including hepatitis B (HepB). HepB is the most serious type of liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), however, it can be prevented by currently available recombinant vaccine, which has an excellent record of safety and effectiveness. To date, recombinant vaccines are produced in many systems of bacteria, yeast, insect, and mammalian and plant cells...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ryuichi Morishita
Recent research on vaccination has extended its scope from infectious diseases to chronic diseases, including Alzheimer disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. We have designed DNA vaccine for the treatment of high blood pressure (BP) toward to human vaccine therapy to treat hypertension. Plasmid vector encoding hepatitis B core-angiotensin II (Ang II) fusion protein was injected into spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) using needleless injection system. Anti-Ang II antibody was successfully produced in hepatitis B core-Ang II group, and antibody response against Ang II was sustained for at least 6 months...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Fengcai Zhu, Henri Deckx, Raphaele Roten, Bart Michiels, Michal Sarnecki
AIM: Compare efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of Hepavax-Gene TF (thimerosal free) vaccine with comparator in Chinese neonates. METHODS: Double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, stratified study was conducted at multiple sites in China in healthy neonates, consisting of three doses of Hepavax-Gene TF or Engerix-B vaccines administered at birth, one and six months of age, with a six month follow-up after vaccination. Based on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection status of mothers, infants were assigned to one of two study strata for mothers positive for HBV infection (Stratum 1), with or without active replicating virus (Substrata 1a, 1b) and for HBV negative mothers (Stratum 2)...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Richard Treger, Ramy M Hanna, Brian M Lee, Eduardo A Lopez, James Wilson, Dalila Corry
The introduction of hepatitis B vaccination and infection control in 1977 has greatly decreased the prevalence of hepatitis B. Currently, approximately 2.8% of the end-stage renal disease population is hepatitis B positive with a presence in 27.7% of the USA hemodialysis (HD) units according to the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study data. The behavior of hepatitis B infection differs significantly between immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts. Immunosuppressed hosts present more subtly with complications of chronic hepatitis B infection, being more challenging to detect...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Ahmed E Arafa, Amel A Mohamed, Manal M Anwar
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Blood-borne pathogens (BBP) [hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV] pose a considerable infectious risk for nurses, resulting in unwanted health outcomes and psychological stress. AIM OF THE WORK: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and practices of nurses and define administrative roles regarding in BBP and infection control (IC) measures in selected Beni-Suef Hospitals. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out from December 2014 to January 2015 using a self-administered questionnaire...
September 2016: Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association
Zhangmin Tan, Yuzhu Yin, Jin Zhou, Lingling Wu, Chengfang Xu, Hongying Hou
This prospective study evaluated the viability of telbivudine for blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.Pregnant women positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen began telbivudine treatment before 14 weeks of gestation (i.e., early), between 14 and 28 weeks of gestation (late), or not at all (control). In the late-treatment group, 55 women terminated telbivudine therapy within puerperium. All neonates underwent routine hepatitis B immunoglobulin plus vaccination...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Marc D Cohen, Edward Keystone
Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed at the CD20 molecule on the surfaces of some but not all B cells. It depletes almost all peripheral B cells, but other niches of B cells are variably depleted, including synovium. Its mechanism of action in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is only partially understood. Rituximab was efficacious in clinical trials of patients with RA, including those who are methotrexate naïve, those with an incomplete response to methotrexate, and those with an incomplete response to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors...
December 2015: Rheumatol Ther
Kyungtaek Im, Jisu Kim, Hyeyoung Min
Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is a heat-processed ginseng developed by the repeated steaming and air-drying of fresh ginseng. Compared with fresh ginseng, KRG has been shown to possess greater pharmacological activities and stability because of changes that occur in its chemical constituents during the steaming process. In addition to anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory activities, KRG and its purified components have also been shown to possess protective effects against microbial infections. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the properties of KRG and its components on infections with human pathogenic viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus, hepatitis virus, norovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, and coxsackievirus...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Charles Béguelin, Darius Moradpour, Roland Sahli, Franziska Suter-Riniker, Alexander Lüthi, Matthias Cavassini, Huldrych F Günthard, Manuel Battegay, Enos Bernasconi, Patrick Schmid, Alexandra Calmy, Dominique Braun, Hansjakob Furrer, Andri Rauch, Gilles Wandeler
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection accelerates the progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease. We assessed the epidemiological characteristics of HDV infection in the nationwide Swiss HIV Cohort Study and evaluated its impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: All HIV-infected patients with a positive HBsAg test were considered and tested for anti-HDV antibodies. HDV amplification and sequencing were performed in anti-HDV-positive patients...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Anonh Xeuatvongsa, Siddhartha Sankar Datta, Edna Moturi, Kathleen Wannemuehler, Phanmanisone Philakong, Viengnakhone Vongxay, Vansy Vilayvone, Minal K Patel
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B vaccine birth dose (HepB-BD) was introduced in Lao People's Democratic Republic to prevent perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission in 2008; high coverage is challenging since only 38% of births occur in a health facility. Healthcare workers report being unaware of home births and thus unable to conduct timely postnatal care (PNC) home visits. A quasi-experimental pilot study was conducted wherein mobile phones and phone credits were provided to village health volunteers (VHV) and healthcare workers (HCWs) to assess whether this could improve HepB-BD administration, as well as birth notification and increase home visits...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
Alan W Hemming, Jennifer Berumen, Kristin Mekeel
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide, and its incidence has been increasing in the last decade largely in parallel to the incidence and duration of exposure to hepatitis B and C. The widespread implementation of hepatitis B vaccine, hepatitis B antivirals, and the introduction of direct antiviral therapies for hepatitis C virus may have a substantial impact in reducing the incidence of HCC. This report reviews the risk factors and underlying mechanisms associated with the development of HCC in hepatitis B, along with advances in the diagnosis, imaging, and management of HCC...
November 2016: Clinics in Liver Disease
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