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Vaccination hepatitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911488/hepatocellular-carcinoma-as-an-emerging-morbidity-in-the-thalassemia-syndromes-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Hassan M Moukhadder, Racha Halawi, Maria Domenica Cappellini, Ali T Taher
The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with thalassemia is on the rise. The 2 well recognized HCC risk factors in thalassemia are iron overload and chronic viral infection with hepatitis C. The carcinogenicity of iron is related to its induction of oxidative damage, which results in genotoxicity, and to immunologic dysregulation, which attenuates cancer immune surveillance. Chronic hepatitis B and C infections lead to necroinflammation, which can prompt progression to HCC, but an independent role of hepatitis B virus in hepatic carcinogenesis among patients with thalassemia has not been demonstrated...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911082/necrotizing-and-haemorrhagic-hepatitis-and-enteritis-in-commercial-layer-pullets
#2
Yuko Sato, William L Wigle, Tsang Long Lin, Eric Gingerich, Patricia S Wakenell
This case report describes an episode of recurring severe necrotizing and haemorrhagic hepatitis and enteritis experienced in a flock of commercial layer pullets at 12 weeks of age and again at 18 weeks of age in Indiana. Pullets had been vaccinated at 10 weeks old using a trivalent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE)/Newcastle disease/infectious bronchitis oil-emulsion-inactivated vaccine. The pullets were found dead at 12 weeks with firm but friable, enlarged, haemorrhagic livers, enlarged spleens, and necrohaemorrhagic intestines...
December 2, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907975/-is-it-necessary-to-revaccinate-against-hepatitis-b-virus-when-the-titer-of-anti-hbs-drops-below-10-iu-l
#3
Pavel Polák, Petr Husa, Petr Smejkal, Jan Kamelander, Gabriela Chlupová, Miroslav Penka
Viral hepatitis B still represents a major epidemiological issue worldwide. After recombinant vaccine administration, a titer of anti-HBs antibodies ≥ 10 IU/L has long been considered to be seroprotective. Persons without this antibody level after complete vaccination are referred to as non-responders. A progressive decline in anti-HBs levels over years is also commonly seen in responders. Recently, there has been increasing evidence that the titer of anti-HBs ≥ 10 IU/L does not provide 100 % protection against infection and clinically manifest illness...
September 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905837/long-term-persistence-of-immunity-after-hepatitis-b-vaccination-a-fact-not-a-fancy
#4
Andrea Trevisan
On the basis of an article previously published in the journal regarding immune persistence after hepatitis B vaccination in infancy, I discuss why this persistence is a fact and not a fancy. Immune memory after a primary vaccination series has been widely demonstrated by prompt response to booster doses and the proliferation of T cells secreting IFNγ. In a large cohort of medical students, 79% of subjects were positive for anti-HBs antibodies, and only 1.9% of the subjects had serological evidence of past hepatitis B infection...
December 1, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905821/effects-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-boosters-on-anti-hbs-negative-children-after-primary-immunization
#5
Shunshun Lu, Jingjing Ren, Qian Li, Zhenggang Jiang, Yongdi Chen, Kaijin Xu, Bing Ruan, Shigui Yang, Tiansheng Xie, Linna Yang, Jing Li, Jun Yao
This study was aimed at evaluating the changes of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) titer after booster vaccinations in 5-15-year-old children with negative antibodies (< 10 mIU/mL). 225 subjects (mean age, 9.28 ± 2.95 years) included in the study consisted of 123 males and 102 females, with a complete hepatitis B vaccination during infancy. The participants were divided into three groups according to their pre-booster anti-HBs level: Group I, < 0.1 mIU/mL; Group II, 0.1 to < 1.0 mIU/mL; Group III, 1...
December 1, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905089/novel-paradigm-for-immunotherapy-of-ovarian-cancer-by-engaging-prophylactic-immunity-against-hepatitis-b-virus
#6
Marek Malecki, Emily Putzer, Caroline Quach, Chaitanya Dodivenaka, Xenia Tombokan
BACKGROUND: Only eight women out of one hundred diagnosed with ovarian epithelial cancers, which progressed to the clinical stage IV, survive 10 years. First line therapies: surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy inflict very serious iatrogenic consequences. Passive immunotherapy of ovarian cancers offers only low efficacy. Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for ovarian cancers are not available. Interestingly, prophylactic vaccines for Hepatitis B Viruses (HBV) are very effective...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902933/the-fda-approved-drug-sofosbuvir-inhibits-zika-virus-infection
#7
Kristen M Bullard-Feibelman, Jennifer Govero, Zhe Zhu, Vanessa Salazar, Milena Veselinovic, Michael S Diamond, Brian J Geiss
The rapidly expanding Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has affected thousands of individuals with severe cases causing Guillain-Barré syndrome, congenital malformations, and microcephaly. Currently, there is no available vaccine or therapy to prevent or treat ZIKV infection. We evaluated whether sofosbuvir, an FDA-approved nucleotide polymerase inhibitor for the distantly related hepatitis C virus, could have antiviral activity against ZIKV infection. Cell culture studies established that sofosbuvir efficiently inhibits replication and infection of several ZIKV strains in multiple human tumor cell lines and isolated human fetal-derived neuronal stem cells...
November 27, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898721/hepatitis-b-virus-infections-and-associated-factors-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-care-clinic-at-deder-hospital-eastern-ethiopia
#8
Abdi Umare, Berhanu Seyoum, Tesfaye Gobena, Tamirat Haile Mariyam
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem worldwide. Reports have shown that 68,600 people die of HBV infection and more than 300,000 deaths due to liver cancer secondary to hepatitis B every year globally. Women who are infected with HBV can vertically transmit the infection to their infants. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and associated factors among pregnant women. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinic (ANC) for routine pregnancy check-up between 18 March 2015 and 15 May 2015...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894721/vaccination-against-hepatitis-b-virus-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-20year-experience-from-a-swedish-needle-exchange-program
#9
M Alanko Blomé, P Björkman, L Flamholc, H Jacobsson, A Widell
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at particular risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) acquisition, but often have poor access or adherence to HBV vaccination. Vaccination against HBV has been offered at a major Swedish needle exchange program (NEP) since 1994. The aim of this study was to evaluate vaccine completion and response rates, and the effect of sequential booster doses to non-responders to the standard vaccination schedule. METHODS: PWID enrolled in the NEP 1994-2013, without serological markers for HBV at baseline (negative for HBsAg/anti-HBc/anti-HBs), were offered a three-dose standard intramuscular vaccination schedule (Engerix®-B, GSK, 20μg/mL, intended to be received at months 0, 1 and 6)...
November 25, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894717/hepatitis-b-vaccine-alone-may-be-enough-for-preventing-hepatitis-b-virus-transmission-in-neonates-of-hbsag-hbeag-mothers
#10
Ying Lu, Xiao-Feng Liang, Fu-Zhen Wang, Ling Yan, Rong-Cheng Li, Yan-Ping Li, Feng-Cai Zhu, Xiang-Jun Zhai, Jie Li, Hui Zhuang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To prospectively evaluate the efficacy of vaccine alone compared with vaccine plus HBIG for preventing HBV transmission in neonates of HBsAg (+)/HBeAg (-) mothers. METHODS: Combined immunization is currently recommended for neonates of HBsAg (+) mothers in China. As a result, a randomized design is infeasible due to ethical reasons. In practice, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Jiangsu Province implement vaccine alone and vaccine plus HBIG strategies for neonates born to HBsAg (+)/HBeAg (-) mothers, respectively...
November 25, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892847/international-adoption-from-ethiopia-an-overview-of-the-health-status-at-arrival-in-belgium
#11
Lydia Van Kesteren, Marek Wojciechowski
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is a densely populated country with a fast growing economy. Still socioeconomic and health issues render many children parentless. One thousand and twenty eight Ethiopian children have been adopted in Belgium from September 2005 to September 2015. Little has been published about their health status at arrival. METHODS: Three hundred and fifteen children adopted from Ethiopia were clinically evaluated at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp from 1 January 2008 until 31 December 2014...
November 28, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892722/present-and-future-dna-vaccines-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-treatment
#12
Lucyna Cova
With at least 240 million hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide, being at a high risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), chronic hepatitis B remains a major public health issue. Because current antiviral treatments are only virostatic, there is an urgent need for the development of innovative anti-HBV strategies leading to the functional cure. In this context, DNA-based vaccines appear as a promising approach. Area covered: In this review, the authors summarize the pertinent features of DNA vaccines for chronic hepatitis B therapy...
November 28, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891533/screening-for-cancer-in-persons-living-with-hiv-infection
#13
James J Goedert, H Dean Hosgood, Robert J Biggar, Howard D Strickler, Charles S Rabkin
Survival with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has greatly improved due to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). As infectious complications have declined, malignancy now accounts for over one-third of deaths among people living with HIV (PLWH). Based on practices in the general population, cancer screening of PLWH can decrease both morbidity and mortality. In this article, we review and consider directed approaches for colorectal, breast, cervical and lung cancer screening. Furthermore, routine physical examinations may detect lymphomas and skin, anal and oral cancers...
August 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890663/hepatitis-b-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-amongst-backpackers-in-thailand
#14
Georgina Frew, Elizabeth McGeorge, Sabrina Grant, Gilles de Wildt
BACKGROUND: In 2013, 200 million tourists visited countries that are endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV). Backpackers are potentially at greater risk of hepatitis B than other travellers yet exposure to HBV remains under researched in this population. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey of backpackers visiting two islands in Thailand was performed during early 2015. Participation in activities with high HBV exposure risk was recorded, alongside rates of vaccination and an evaluation of knowledge and attitudes towards the risk of HBV...
November 23, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889711/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-liquid-hexavalent-vaccine-in-indian-infants
#15
Jugesh Chhatwal, Sanjay Lalwani, Emmanuel Vidor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid, hexavalent diphtheria tetanus acellular pertussis inactivated poliovirus hepatitis B Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP IPV HB PRPT) vaccine in Indian infants. DESIGN: Phase III, single-arm study. SETTING: Two tertiary care hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 177 healthy, 6-week-old infants. INTERVENTION: All participants received HB and OPV vaccines at birth and DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP~T at 6, 10, 14 weeks of age...
November 5, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887796/vaccine-strategies-optimising-outcomes
#16
Karin Hardt, Paolo Bonanni, Susan King, Jose Ignacio Santos, Mostafa El-Hodhod, Gregory D Zimet, Scott Preiss
Successful immunisation programmes generally result from high vaccine effectiveness and adequate uptake of vaccines. In the development of new vaccination strategies, the structure and strength of the local healthcare system is a key consideration. In high income countries, existing infrastructures are usually used, while in less developed countries, the capacity for introducing new vaccines may need to be strengthened, particularly for vaccines administered beyond early childhood, such as the measles or human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine...
November 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885748/protective-efficacy-and-hepatitis-b-virus-clearance-in-mice-enhanced-by-cell-mediated-immunity-with-novel-prime-boost-regimens
#17
X Chuai, P Chen, H Chen, W Wang, Y Deng, L Ruan, W Li, W Tan
In this study, anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunity was evaluated in mice using several regimens of the HBV recombinant protein vaccine HBSS1 that expressed in CHO cells containing S (1-223 aa) and preS1 (21-47 aa) and recombinant adenovirus rAdSS1 vaccine. Further, the protective efficacy of these vaccine regimens was studied in a mouse model. High titres of antigen-specific antibodies and neutralizing activity were elicited in mice after vaccination. However, robust multi-antigen (preS1 and S)-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was only detected in mice primed with HBSS1 and boosted with rAdSS1...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882063/design-construction-and-evaluation-of-1a-jfh1-hcv-chimera-by-replacing-the-intergenotypic-variable-region
#18
Faezeh Ghasemi, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Alireza Pasdar, Hamid Pourianfar, Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi, Hamed Gouklani, Zahra Meshkat
BACKGROUND: The E2 glycoprotein is an important encoded hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein that contains three different variable regions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to construct an HCV 1a/JFH1 chimeric virus by replacing the intergenotypic variable region (igVR) fragment of the highly variable region of the E2 gene of the Japanese Fulminant hepatitis genotype 2a JFH1 virus with a similar region of HCV genotype 1a. This chimera was produced as a model virus with the ability to be cultured...
October 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878345/low-vaccination-rates-among-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-a-german-outpatient-clinic
#19
Marco Krasselt, Jean-Philipp Ivanov, Christoph Baerwald, Olga Seifert
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at an increased risk of acquiring infections due to two reasons: the disease itself and the immunosuppressive therapy. Vaccinations against preventable diseases are therefore of utmost importance for these group of patients. To estimate vaccination frequencies among patients with rheumatoid arthritis, we studied patients in a survey and calculated vaccination rates based on their vaccination documents. Patients have been recruited from our outpatient clinic during one of their routine visits...
November 22, 2016: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876203/impact-of-the-national-targeted-hepatitis-a-immunisation-program-in-australia-2000-2014
#20
Craig Thompson, Aditi Dey, Emily Fearnley, Benjamin Polkinghorne, Frank Beard
In November 2005, hepatitis A vaccine was funded under the Australian National Immunisation Program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) children aged 12-24months in the targeted jurisdictions of Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and the Northern Territory. We reviewed the epidemiology of hepatitis A from 2000 to 2014 using data from the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, the National Hospital Morbidity Database, and Australian Bureau of Statistics causes-of-death data...
November 18, 2016: Vaccine
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