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Rajkumar Bharatia, Manoj Chitale, Ganesh Narain Saxena, Raman Ganesh Kumar, Chikkalingaiah, Abhijit Trailokya, Kalpesh Dalvi, Suhas Talele
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension (HTN), being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is an important issue of medical and public health. High blood pressure (BP) is ranked as the third most important risk factor for attributable burden of disease in south Asia (2010). Hypertension (HTN) exerts a substantial public health burden on cardiovascular health status and healthcare systems in India. Uncontrolled hypertension among adults with hypertension is associated with increased mortality...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Laura Q Rogers, Kerry S Courneya, Phillip M Anton, Patricia Hopkins-Price, Steven Verhulst, Randall S Robbs, Sandra K Vicari, Edward McAuley
BACKGROUND: Most breast cancer survivors do not meet physical activity recommendations. Understanding mediators of physical activity behavior change can improve interventions designed to increase physical activity in this at-risk population. PURPOSE: Study aims were to determine the 3-month Better Exercise Adherence after Treatment for Cancer (BEAT Cancer) behavior change intervention effects on social cognitive theory constructs and the mediating role of any changes on the increase in accelerometer-measured physical activity previously reported...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Gulgun Cetintas Afsar, Ozlem Oruc, Sema Sarac, Özgür Bilgin Topçuoğlu, Cuneyt Salturk, Fatma Merve Tepetam, Ismet Bulut
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep disorder affecting 2-4 % of the adult population. In addition to several potential mechanisms, inflammation is one of the suggested etiological factors in OSA. Fractalkine/CX3CL1 which is detected in activated or stressed endothelium, smooth muscle cells, skeletal muscle cells, macrophages, neurons, and hepatocytes is an inflammatory marker and attracts attention of sleep specialists in OSA pathogenesis. In this study, we had two goals...
October 17, 2016: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Ramon Vilallonga, José Manuel Moreno Villares, Diego Yeste Fernández, Raquel Sánchez Santos, Felipe Casanueva Freijo, Francisco Santolaya Ochando, Nuria Leal Hernando, Albert Lecube Torelló, Luis Antonio Castaño González, Albert Feliu, Gontrand Lopez-Nava, Dolores Frutos, Antonio J Torres Garcia, Juan Carlos Ruiz de Adana
PURPOSE: In recent years, the incidence of childhood obesity in Europe, and Spain in particular, has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery could play a major role in treating of adolescents with severe obesity. However, no specific guidelines for bariatric surgery currently exist in Spain. METHODS: The Board of the Spanish Society for Obesity Surgery and Metabolic Diseases (SECO) proposed a study of childhood obesity by using the Delphi method. This prospective study involved 60 experts from nine national societies...
October 17, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Byoung-Joon Oh, Yong-Gyun Im, Eunjung Park, Young-Gi Min, Sang-Cheon Choi
OBJECTIVE: The effect of induced hypothermia on severe acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning remains to be addressed further. We investigated the effect of induced hypothermia on severe acute CO poisoning. METHODS: Retrospective chart review was conducted for patients who diagnosed as severe acute CO poisoning in emergency department and underwent induced hypothermia from May 2013 to May 2014. Hospital courses with critical medication and major laboratory results were investigated through the chart review...
June 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Andreas Spiegler, Enrique C A Hansen, Christophe Bernard, Anthony R McIntosh, Viktor K Jirsa
When the brain is stimulated, for example, by sensory inputs or goal-oriented tasks, the brain initially responds with activities in specific areas. The subsequent pattern formation of functional networks is constrained by the structural connectivity (SC) of the brain. The extent to which information is processed over short- or long-range SC is unclear. Whole-brain models based on long-range axonal connections, for example, can partly describe measured functional connectivity dynamics at rest. Here, we study the effect of SC on the network response to stimulation...
September 2016: ENeuro
Raju Vaishya, Ahmad Tariq Azizi, Amit Kumar Agarwal, Vipul Vijay
Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) is a condition in which the patellar tendon insertion on the tibial tuberosity becomes inflamed. It is a well-known condition in late childhood characterized by pain and a bony prominence over the tibial tuberosity. The pain is usually exacerbated by physical activities like running, jumping, and climbing stairs. In the acute stage, the margins of the patellar tendon become blurred in radiographs due to the soft tissue swelling. After three to four months, bone fragmentation at the tibial tuberosity is viewed...
September 13, 2016: Curēus
Jessica H Knight, Penelope P Howards, Jessica B Spencer, Katina C Tsagaris, Sam S Lim
OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disproportionately affects women and often develops during their reproductive years. Research suggests that some women who receive cyclophosphamide as treatment for SLE experience earlier decline in menstrual function, but reproductive health among women with SLE who have not taken this drug is less well understood. This study aims to better understand the relation between SLE and reproduction by assessing early secondary amenorrhoea and pregnancy in women treated with and without cyclophosphamide from a population-based cohort with large numbers of African-Americans...
2016: Lupus Science & Medicine
Sarah Pinnington, Brigid Atterton, Sarah Ingleby
Severe sepsis is a clinical emergency. Despite the nationwide recognition of the sepsis six treatment bundle as the first line emergency treatment for this presentation, compliance in sepsis six provision remains inadequately low. The project goals were to improve compliance with the implementation of the Sepsis Six in patients with severe sepsis and/or septic shock. In improving timely care delivery it was anticipated improvements would be made in relation to patient safety and experience, and reductions in length of stay (LoS) and mortality...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Gennaro D'Amato, Carolina Vitale, Antonio Molino, Anna Stanziola, Alessandro Sanduzzi, Alessandro Vatrella, Mauro Mormile, Maurizia Lanza, Giovanna Calabrese, Leonardo Antonicelli, Maria D'Amato
Despite major advances in the treatment of asthma and the development of several asthma guidelines, people still die of asthma currently. According to WHO estimates, approximately 250,000 people die prematurely each year from asthma. Trends of asthma mortality rates vary very widely across countries, age and ethnic groups. Several risk factors have been associated with asthma mortality, including a history of near-fatal asthma requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation, hospitalization or emergency care visit for asthma in the past year, currently using or having recently stopped using oral corticosteroids (a marker of event severity), not currently using inhaled corticosteroids, a history of psychiatric disease or psychosocial problems, poor adherence with asthma medications and/or poor adherence with (or lack of) a written asthma action plan, food allergy in a patient with asthma...
2016: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Erika Yeh, Lauren A Weiss
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been long known to have substantial genetic etiology. Much research has attempted to identify specific genes contributing to ASD risk with the goal of tying gene function to a molecular pathological explanation for ASD. A unifying molecular pathology would potentially increase understanding of what is going wrong during development, and could lead to diagnostic biomarkers or targeted preventative or therapeutic directions. We review past and current genetic mapping approaches and discuss major results, leading to the hypothesis that global dysregulation of gene or protein expression may be implicated in ASD rather than disturbance of brain-specific functions...
October 14, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Carlos M Mery, Keila N Lopez, Silvana Molossi, S Kristen Sexson-Tejtel, Rajesh Krishnamurthy, E Dean McKenzie, Charles D Fraser, Scott B Cantor
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to use decision analysis to evaluate the impact of varying uncertainties on the outcomes of patients with anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery. METHODS: Two separate decision analysis models were created: one for anomalous left coronary artery (ALCA) and one for anomalous right coronary artery (ARCA). Three strategies were compared: observation, exercise restriction, and surgery. Probabilities and health utilities were estimated on the basis of existing literature...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Axel C Mühlbacher, Susanne Bethge, Anika Kaczynski
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is one of the most common causes of death worldwide, with many individuals having experienced acute coronary syndrome (ACS). How patients with a history of ACS value aspects of their medical treatment have been evaluated rarely. The aim of this study was to determine patient priorities for long-term drug therapy after experiencing ACS. METHODS: To identify patient-relevant treatment characteristics, a systematic literature review and qualitative patient interviews were conducted...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
Christopher I McHugh, Jawana M Lawhorn-Crews, Dipenkumar Modi, Kirk A Douglas, Steven K Jones, Thomas J Mangner, Jerry M Collins, Anthony F Shields
BACKGROUND: A principal goal for the use of positron emission tomography (PET) in oncology is for real-time evaluation of tumor response to chemotherapy. Given that many contemporary anti-neoplastic agents function by impairing cellular proliferation, it is of interest to develop imaging modalities to monitor these pathways. Here we examined the effect of capecitabine on the uptake of thymidine analogs used with PET: 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT), 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-[(18)F]fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl) thymidine ((18)F-FMAU), and 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-[(18)F]fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl) uracil ((18)F-FAU) in patients with advanced cancer...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
Shannon B Juengst, Galen Switzer, Byung Mo Oh, Patricia M Arenth, Amy K Wagner
INTRODUCTION: Behavioral changes often occur after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can lead to poor health, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life. Challenges in evaluating these behaviors often result from the complexity and variability in the way they are conceptualized and defined. We propose and test a conceptual model that is specific to behavioral symptoms after TBI, to serve as a basis for better assessment and treatment. We hypothesized that clusters of individuals, with unique emotional, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics, would emerge that would illustrate this conceptual model...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Gwendal Lazennec, Paula Y Lam
Tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in coordination with cancer cells in the establishment, growth and dissemination of the tumor. Among cells of the microenvironment, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their ability to evolve into cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have recently generated a major interest in the field. Numerous studies have described the potential pro- or anti-tumorigenic action of MSCs. The goal of this review is to synthesize recent and emerging discoveries concerning the mechanisms by which MSCs can be attracted to tumor sites, how they can generate CAFs and by which way MSCs are able to modulate the growth, response to treatments, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis of tumors...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Tapasi Rana, Pravallika Kotla, Roderick Fullard, Marina Gorbatyuk
Expression of T17M rhodopsin (T17M) in rods activates the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) and leads to the development of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). The rod death occurs in adRP retinas prior to cone photoreceptor death, so the mechanism by which cone photoreceptors die remains unclear. Therefore, the goal of the study was to verify whether UPR in rods induces TNFa-mediated signaling to the cones and to determine whether the TNFa deficit could prevent adRP cone cell death. Primary rod photoreceptors and cone-derived 661W cells transfected with siRNA against TNFa were treated with tunicamycin to mimic activation of UPR in T17M retinas expressing normal and reduced TNFa levels...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jonathan Avery, Bernadine H Han, Erin Zerbo, Guojiao Wu, Elizabeth Mauer, Joseph Avery, Stephen Ross, Julie B Penzner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychiatry residents provide care for individuals diagnosed with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders (SUDs). Small studies have shown that clinicians in general possess negative attitudes towards these dually diagnosed individuals. This is a serious concern, as clinicians' stigmatizing attitudes towards individuals with mental illnesses may have a particularly potent adverse impact on treatment. The goal of this study was to examine the attitudes of psychiatry residents towards individuals with diagnoses of schizophrenia, multiple SUDs, co-occurring schizophrenia and SUDs, and major depressive disorder...
October 17, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Abby R Rosenberg, Joanne Wolfe, Lori Wiener, Maureen Lyon, Chris Feudtner
Importance: For clinicians caring for adolescent patients living with progressive, life-threatening illness, discussions regarding prognosis, goals of care, and treatment options can be extremely challenging. While clinicians should respect and help to facilitate adolescents' emerging autonomy, they often must also work with parents' wishes to protect patients from the emotional distress of hearing bad news. Observations: We reviewed the ethical justifications for and against truth-telling, and we considered the published ethical and practice guidance, as well as the perspectives of patients, parents, and clinicians involved in these cases...
October 17, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Michael Laxy, Gabriella Knoll, Michaela Schunk, Christa Meisinger, Cornelia Huth, Rolf Holle
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the development of the quality of diabetes care in Germany. The aim of this study is to analyze time trends in patient self-management, physician-delivered care, medication, risk factor control, complications and quality of life from 2000 to 2014. METHODS: Analyses are based on data from individuals with type 2 diabetes of the population-based KORA S4 (1999-2001, n = 150), F4 (2006-2008, n = 203), FF4 (2013/14, n = 212) cohort study...
2016: PloS One
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