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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454031/automatic-and-adaptive-paddy-rice-mapping-using-landsat-images-case-study-in-songnen-plain-in-northeast-china
#1
Bingwen Qiu, Difei Lu, Zhenghong Tang, Chongcheng Chen, Fengli Zou
Spatiotemporal explicit information on paddy rice distribution is essential for ensuring food security and sustainable environmental management. Paddy rice mapping algorithm through the Combined Consideration of Vegetation phenology and Surface water variations (CCVS) has been efficiently applied based on the 8day composites time series datasets. However, the great challenge for phenology-based algorithms introduced by unpromising data availability in middle/high spatial resolution imagery, such as frequent cloud cover and coarse temporal resolution, remained unsolved...
April 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448827/dopamine-cognitive-biases-and-assessment-of-certainty-a-neurocognitive-model-of-delusions
#2
REVIEW
Annabel Broyd, Ryan P Balzan, Todd S Woodward, Paul Allen
This paper examines the evidence that delusions can be explained within the framework of a neurocognitive model of how the brain assesses certainty. Here, 'certainty' refers to both low-level interpretations of one's environment and high-level (conscious) appraisals of one's beliefs and experiences. A model is proposed explaining how the brain systems responsible for assigning certainty might dysfunction, contributing to the cause and maintenance of delusional beliefs. It is suggested that delusions arise through a combination of perturbed striatal dopamine and aberrant salience as well as cognitive biases such as the tendency to jump to conclusions (JTC) and hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446096/band-5-nurses-perceptions-and-experiences-of-professional-development
#3
Susan Wilkinson, Richard Hayward
Aim The aim of this qualitative study was to explore band 5 nurses' perceptions and experiences of professional development in an acute care provider to identify what, if any, effect these have on their job satisfaction and intention to stay in post. Method An adapted grounded theory approach was used. Theoretical sampling identified band 5 nurses in their first 24 months of employment in the trust. Data were collected through focus groups and analysed using the constant comparative method. Results Findings suggest that the provision of, and support for, development opportunities affect nurses' job satisfaction, and investment in these opportunities is likely to improve staff retention...
April 27, 2017: Nursing Management (Harrow)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445229/a-cross-sectional-and-retrospective-cohort-analysis-of-the-effects-of-age-on-flexibility-strength-endurance-lower-body-power-and-aerobic-fitness-in-law-enforcement-officers
#4
Robert G Lockie, J Jay Dawes, Charles L Kornhauser, Ryan J Holmes
There can be a great age range in cohorts of law enforcement officers. As the tasks required of officers generally do not change with advancing age, it is important to understand how physical performance in tests that assess job-specific characteristics may be altered. Retrospective analysis of performance test data for 383 officers (362 males, 21 females) was conducted. The tests included: sit-and-reach to determine hamstring and lower back flexibility; maximal push-up and sit-up repetitions in 60 s to measure muscle endurance; vertical jump (VJ) to assess lower-body power; and 2...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445100/remap-a-framework-for-goals-of-care-conversations
#5
Julie W Childers, Anthony L Back, James A Tulsky, Robert M Arnold
Conversations regarding goals of care with patients who have advanced cancer still occur too late, and oncologists say they lack the training to have these conversations effectively. Experts recommend a number of strategies when having these discussions, including discussing prognosis, responding to patient emotion, exploring values, and often making a recommendation for medical treatments that fit those values. To help learners, from residents to attending oncologists, learn these complex conversational skills, we have developed a framework with a mnemonic, REMAP: Reframe, Expect emotion, Map out patient goals, Align with goals, and Propose a plan...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444805/2d-multi-spectral-imaging-for-fast-mri-near-metal
#6
Brian A Hargreaves, Valentina Taviani, Daniel V Litwiller, Daehyun Yoon
PURPOSE: To develop a fast 2D method for MRI near metal with reduced B0 in-plane and through-slice artifacts. METHODS: Multi-spectral imaging (MSI) approaches reduce artifacts in MR images near metal, but require 3D imaging of multiple excited volumes regardless of imaging geometry or artifact severity. The proposed 2D MSI method rapidly excites a limited slice and spectral region using gradient reversal between excitation and refocusing pulses, then uses standard 2D imaging, with the process repeating to cover multiple spectral offsets that are combined as in other MSI techniques...
April 25, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442803/effects-of-fitness-training-on-physical-fitness-parameters-and-quality-of-life-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-indian-females
#7
Renuka Patil, Apurv Shimpi, Savita Rairikar, Ashok Shyam, Parag Sancheti
PURPOSE: Highly active antiretroviral therapy has significantly extended survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. These drugs suppress replication of HIV but at the same time, have many physical and mental side effects which may affect daily activities of the patients. The present study assessed if moderate intensity exercise program helped in enhancing the physical fitness and quality of life (QoL) in HIV positive females which may reduce the comorbidities associated with the disease and medications...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440211/a-cluster-randomised-trial-cost-effectiveness-analysis-and-psychosocial-evaluation-of-insulin-pump-therapy-compared-with-multiple-injections-during-flexible-intensive-insulin-therapy-for-type-1-diabetes-the-repose-trial
#8
Simon Heller, David White, Ellen Lee, Julia Lawton, Daniel Pollard, Norman Waugh, Stephanie Amiel, Katharine Barnard, Anita Beckwith, Alan Brennan, Michael Campbell, Cindy Cooper, Munyaradzi Dimairo, Simon Dixon, Jackie Elliott, Mark Evans, Fiona Green, Gemma Hackney, Peter Hammond, Nina Hallowell, Alan Jaap, Brian Kennon, Jackie Kirkham, Robert Lindsay, Peter Mansell, Diana Papaioannou, David Rankin, Pamela Royle, W Henry Smithson, Carolin Taylor
BACKGROUND: Insulin is generally administered to people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using multiple daily injections (MDIs), but can also be delivered using infusion pumps. In the UK, pumps are recommended for patients with the greatest need and adult use is less than in comparable countries. Previous trials have been small, of short duration and have failed to control for training in insulin adjustment. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pump therapy compared with MDI for adults with T1DM, with both groups receiving equivalent structured training in flexible insulin therapy...
April 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438529/an-erp-investigation-of-vertical-reading-fluency-in-scrabble-%C3%A2-experts
#9
Sophia van Hees, Sabine Seyffarth, Penny M Pexman, Filomeno Cortese, Andrea B Protzner
Previous studies have found that competitive Scrabble expertise is associated with enhanced performance on visual lexical decision tasks (LDT), particularly for vertically presented stimuli. In the current study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms responsible for this vertical fluency. We examined behaviour and neural activity during LDT in 19 competitive Scrabble players and 18 matched controls. Using event related potentials (ERP), we investigated whether Scrabble expertise modulates the N170, P300, and late positive component (LPC), associated with visual-orthographic processing, working memory, and stimulus classification, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436903/robust-multiview-data-analysis-through-collective-low-rank-subspace
#10
Zhengming Ding, Yun Fu
Multiview data are of great abundance in real-world applications, since various viewpoints and multiple sensors desire to represent the data in a better way. Conventional multiview learning methods aimed to learn multiple view-specific transformations meanwhile assumed the view knowledge of training, and test data were available in advance. However, they would fail when we do not have any prior knowledge for the probe data's view information, since the correct view-specific projections cannot be utilized to extract effective feature representations...
April 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436847/learning-trans-dimensional-random-fields-with-applications-to-language-modeling
#11
Bin Wang, Zhijian Ou, Zhiqiang Tan
To describe trans-dimensional observations in sample spaces of different dimensions, we propose a probabilistic model, called the trans-dimensional random field (TRF) by explicitly mixing a collection of random fields. In the framework of stochastic approximation (SA), we develop an effective training algorithm, called augmented SA, which jointly estimates the model parameters and normalizing constants while using trans-dimensional mixture sampling to generate observations of different dimensions. Furthermore, we introduce several statistical and computational techniques to improve the convergence of the training algorithm and reduce computational cost, which together enable us to successfully train TRF models on large datasets...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436583/physical-activity-and-exercise-for-chronic-pain-in-adults-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#12
REVIEW
Louise J Geneen, R Andrew Moore, Clare Clarke, Denis Martin, Lesley A Colvin, Blair H Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning...
April 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420973/no-overt-effects-of-a-6-week-exergame-training-on-sensorimotor-and-cognitive-function-in-older-adults-a-preliminary-investigation
#13
Madeleine Ordnung, Maike Hoff, Elisabeth Kaminski, Arno Villringer, Patrick Ragert
Several studies investigating the relationship between physical activity and cognition showed that exercise interventions might have beneficial effects on working memory, executive functions as well as motor fitness in old adults. Recently, movement based video games (exergames) have been introduced to have the capability to improve cognitive function in older adults. Healthy aging is associated with a loss of cognitive, as well as sensorimotor functions. During exergaming, participants are required to perform physical activities while being simultaneously surrounded by a cognitively challenging environment...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418227/barriers-and-facilitators-to-implementing-family-support-and-education-in-early-psychosis-intervention-programmes-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Avra Selick, Janet Durbin, Nhi Vu, Karen O'Connor, Tiziana Volpe, Elizabeth Lin
Family support is a core component of the Early Psychosis Intervention (EPI) model, yet it continues to have relatively low rates of implementation in practice. This paper reports results of a literature review on facilitators and barriers to delivering family interventions in EPI programmes. A search was conducted of 4 electronic databases, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Joanna Briggs, from 2000 to 2015 using terms related to early onset psychosis, family work and implementation. Four thousand four hundred and two unique studies were identified, 7 of which met inclusion criteria...
April 18, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418043/predicting-protein-protein-association-rates-using-coarse-grained-simulation-and-machine-learning
#15
Zhong-Ru Xie, Jiawen Chen, Yinghao Wu
Protein-protein interactions dominate all major biological processes in living cells. We have developed a new Monte Carlo-based simulation algorithm to study the kinetic process of protein association. We tested our method on a previously used large benchmark set of 49 protein complexes. The predicted rate was overestimated in the benchmark test compared to the experimental results for a group of protein complexes. We hypothesized that this resulted from molecular flexibility at the interface regions of the interacting proteins...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414371/flexible-global-calibration-of-multiple-cameras-with-nonoverlapping-fields-of-view-using-circular-targets
#16
Zheng Gong, Zhen Liu, Guangjun Zhang
Global calibration of multicamera systems is a difficult problem. The key is to find an appropriate calibration target. This paper proposes a flexible method to construct a global calibration target with circular targets. Any object that is to be measured by the system can be used as a calibration target with the help of a hand-held scanner. The calibration method does not need a special calibration target or multiple shots, which makes it flexible in applications. Circular targets pasted on the calibration target are used as features that are captured by cameras...
April 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411728/improvements-in-musculoskeletal-health-and-computing-behaviors-effects-of-a-macroergonomics-office-workplace-and-training-intervention
#17
Michelle M Robertson, Yueng Hsiang Huang, Jin Lee
Computer use and its association with musculoskeletal and visual symptoms is an escalating concern. Organizations are shifting to a more proactive injury prevention perspective. Accordingly, a macroergonomics intervention consisting of flexible workplace design and office ergonomics training was designed to examine the effects on worker's computing behaviors, postures, and musculoskeletal discomfort, and their relationship to psychosocial factors. Participants were assigned to either group: 1) no-intervention control 2) flexible Workplace-only (WP-only), and 3) flexible Workplace + Training (WP+T)...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410705/patients-perception-towards-directly-observed-treatment-a-qualitative-study-from-kollam-district-kerala-southern-india
#18
P S Rakesh, Shibu Balakrishnan, V Krishnaveni, Vishnu Narayanan, Swapna Pillai, Sumi Merin Thomas
BACKGROUND: The Direct Observation of Treatment (DOT) is an important component of the country's TB Control strategy. Standards of TB care in India and the End TB strategy emphasised the importance of a patient-centered approach to foster adherence. A qualitative study was conducted to explore the perception of people with Tuberculosis in Kerala regarding DOT, mechanisms to make the treatment of TB more patients centered and to identify the preferable mechanisms to ensure adherence. METHODS: Six focus group discussions were conducted - two among people with TB from rural area, two among people with TB in urban area, one among multipurpose health workers of rural area and one among key field staff of TB control in urban area...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409648/assessment-of-simulated-emergency-scenarios-are-trained-observers-necessary
#19
Juliane Noveanu, Felix Amsler, Wolfgang Ummenhofer, Thomas von Wyl, Mathias Zuercher
OBJECTIVES: Simulation-based medical training is associated with superior educational outcomes and improved cost efficiency. Self- and peer-assessment may be a cost-effective and flexible alternative to expert-led assessment. We compared accuracy of self- and peer-assessment of untrained raters using basic evaluation tools to expert assessment using advanced validation tools including validated questionnaires and post hoc video-based analysis. METHODS: Twenty-eight simulated emergency airway management scenarios were observed and video-recorded for further assessment...
April 14, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409595/exercise-prescriptions-in-older-adults
#20
Pearl Guozhu Lee, Elizabeth A Jackson, Caroline R Richardson
Regular physical activity and exercise are important for healthy aging and are beneficial for chronic disease management. Exercise prescriptions for older adults should account for the individual's health status and functional capacity. Any amount of exercise is better than being sedentary, even if health status prevents a person from achieving recommended goals. For most health outcomes, more benefits occur with physical activity performed at higher intensity, greater frequency, or longer duration. Guidelines recommend at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity and at least two days of muscle-strengthening activities per week...
April 1, 2017: American Family Physician
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