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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922115/perilipin-5-fine-tunes-lipid-oxidation-to-metabolic-demand-and-protects-against-lipotoxicity-in-skeletal-muscle
#1
Claire Laurens, Virginie Bourlier, Aline Mairal, Katie Louche, Pierre-Marie Badin, Etienne Mouisel, Alexandra Montagner, André Marette, Angelo Tremblay, John S Weisnagel, Hervé Guillou, Dominique Langin, Denis R Joanisse, Cedric Moro
Lipid droplets (LD) play a central role in lipid homeostasis by controlling transient fatty acid (FA) storage and release from triacylglycerols stores, while preventing high levels of cellular toxic lipids. This crucial function in oxidative tissues is altered in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perilipin 5 (PLIN5) is a LD protein whose mechanistic and causal link with lipotoxicity and insulin resistance has raised controversies. We investigated here the physiological role of PLIN5 in skeletal muscle upon various metabolic challenges...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919204/use-maintenance-and-dose-effects-of-cognitive-speed-of-processing-training-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Elise G Valdés, Melissa L O'Connor, Ergun Y Uc, Robert A Hauser, Ross Andel, Jerri D Edwards
INTRODUCTION: Recent research indicated that cognitive speed of processing training (SPT) improved Useful Field of View (UFOV) among individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). The effects of SPT in PD have not been further examined. The objectives of the current study were to investigate use, maintenance, and dose effects of SPT among individuals with PD. METHODS: Participants who were randomized to SPT or a delayed control group completed the UFOV at a six-month follow-up visit...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918673/predictive-indicators-of-overuse-injuries-in-adolescent-endurance-athletes
#3
Daniel Martínez-Silván, Jaime Díaz-Ocejo, Andrew Murray
PURPOSE: To analyse the influence of training exposure and the utility of self-report questionnaires on predicting overuse injuries in adolescent endurance athletes. METHODS: 5 adolescent male endurance athletes (15.7 ± 1.4 yr) from a full-time sports academy answered 2 questionnaires (Recovery Cue; RC-q & Oslo Sports Trauma Research questionnaire; OSTRC-q) on a weekly basis for one season (37 wks) in order to detect (1) signs of overtraining and under-recovery (RC-q) and (2) early symptoms of lower limb injuries (OSTRC-q)...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918666/quantification-of-training-and-competition-loads-in-endurance-sports-methods-and-applications
#4
Iñigo Mujika
Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to the training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because the external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate concentration...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914499/exercise-training-improves-exercise-capacity-and-quality-of-life-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-a-randomized-pilot-trial
#5
Axel Pressler, Jeffrey W Christle, Benjamin Lechner, Viola Grabs, Bernhard Haller, Ina Hettich, David Jochheim, Julinda Mehilli, Rüdiger Lange, Sabine Bleiziffer, Martin Halle
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is increasingly applied for aortic stenosis in elderly patients with impaired mobility and reduced quality of life. These patients may particularly benefit from postinterventional exercise programs, but no randomized study has evaluated the safety and efficacy of exercise in this population. METHODS: In a prospective pilot study, 30 patients after TAVI (mean age, 81±6 years, 44% female, 83±34 days postintervention) were randomly allocated 1:1 to a training group (TG) performing 8 weeks of supervised combined endurance and resistance exercise or to usual care...
December 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914305/effectiveness-of-a-cross-circuit-exercise-training-program-in-improving-the-fitness-of-overweight-or-obese-adolescents-with-intellectual-disability-enrolled-in-special-education-schools
#6
Wen-Lan Wu, Yu-Fen Yang, I-Hua Chu, Hsiu-Tao Hsu, Feng-Hua Tsai, Jing-Min Liang
This study assessed the effects of a cross-circuit training intervention program on the body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, balance, and muscular strength endurance of overweight or obese students with intellectual disability. A total of 43 students with intellectual disability (aged 13-19 years) were enrolled in this program; 28 overweight/obese students were assigned to either an obesity-control group (n=14) or obesity-exercise group (n=14), and those with normal weight were assigned to a normal weight group (n=15)...
November 30, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913948/branched-chain-amino-acids-administration-suppresses-endurance-exercise-related-activation-of-ubiquitin-proteasome-signaling-in-trained-human-skeletal-muscle
#7
Evgeny A Lysenko, Tatiana F Vepkhvadze, Egor M Lednev, Olga L Vinogradova, Daniil V Popov
We tested whether post exercise ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA < 10 g) is sufficient to activate signaling associated with muscle protein synthesis and suppress exercise-induced activation of mechanisms associated with proteolysis in endurance-trained human skeletal muscle. Nine endurance-trained athletes performed a cycling bout with and without BCAA ingestion (0.1 g/kg). Post exercise ACC(Ser79/222) phosphorylation (endogenous marker of AMPK activity) was increased (~3-fold, P < 0...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913813/-rehabilitation-after-hip-and-knee-endoprosthetic-treatment-in-the-elderly
#8
H Bork
Due to current demographic developments with a continuous increase in average life expectancy and improved medical treatment, the number of elderly patients with joint replacement of the lower extremities also has increased in recent years. Most of these patients have not only one but several chronic diseases requiring treatment and medication. Drug-drug interaction and functional restrictions of the elderly additionally reduce the postoperative psychophysical capacity; therefore, special knowledge in rehabilitative treatment and pain management is necessary...
December 2, 2016: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908698/potential-role-of-endurance-training-in-altering-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-ckd
#9
REVIEW
Erin J Howden, Justin S Lawley, Murray Esler, Benjamin D Levine
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), is characterized by a progressive loss of renal function and increase in cardiovascular risk. In this review paper, we discuss the pathophysiology of increased sympathetic nerve activity in CKD patients and raise the possibility of endurance exercise being an effective countermeasure to address this problem. We specifically focus on the potential role of endurance training in altering renal sympathetic nerve activity as increased renal sympathetic nerve activity negatively impacts kidney function as well indirectly effects multiple other systems and organs...
November 25, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908291/muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-modulates-satellite-cell-number-and-proliferation-by-remodeling-the-stem-cell-niche
#10
Ivana Dinulovic, Regula Furrer, Markus Beer, Arnaud Ferry, Bettina Cardel, Christoph Handschin
BACKGROUND: The myogenic capacity of satellite cells (SCs), adult muscle stem cells, is influenced by aging, exercise, and other factors. In skeletal muscle, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a key regulator of oxidative metabolism and endurance training adaptation. However, a link between PGC-1α and SC behavior remains unexplored. METHODS: We have now studied SC function in a PGC-1α fiber-specific gain-of-function animal model...
December 2, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899900/fiber-type-specific-satellite-cell-content-in-cyclists-following-heavy-training-with-carbohydrate-and-carbohydrate-protein-supplementation
#11
Alec I McKenzie, Andrew C D'Lugos, Michael J Saunders, Keith D Gworek, Nicholas D Luden
The central purpose of this study was to evaluate the fiber type-specific satellite cell and myonuclear responses of endurance-trained cyclists to a block of intensified training, when supplementing with carbohydrate (CHO) vs. carbohydrate-protein (PRO). In a crossover design, endurance-trained cyclists (n = 8) performed two consecutive training periods, once supplementing with CHO (de facto "control" condition) and the other with PRO. Each training period consisted of 10 days of intensified cycle training (ICT-120% increase in average training duration) followed by 10 days of recovery (RVT-reduced volume training; 33% volume reduction vs...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899898/effects-of-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-training-on-endurance-performance
#12
Menno P Veldman, Julien Gondin, Nicolas Place, Nicola A Maffiuletti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898872/the-effect-of-oxidative-stress-during-exercise-in-the-horse
#13
C A Williams
Oxidative stress is an imbalance of the oxidant-to-antioxidant ratio in the body. Increases in oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant status have been shown during endurance and intense exercise and eventing competition in horses. Antioxidants include vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and proteins that must be synthesized in the body or obtained from the diet. Therefore, exercise level and diet are both factors that play a role in influencing the oxidative stress and antioxidant status of the equine athlete...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897989/periodization-of-carbohydrate-intake-short-term-effect-on-performance
#14
Laurie-Anne Marquet, Christophe Hausswirth, Odeline Molle, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke, Eve Tiollier, Jeanick Brisswalter
BACKGROUND: "Sleep-low" consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability-low glycogen recovery after "train high" glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training ("train low") the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance...
November 25, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895662/muscle-enriched-micrornas-isolated-from-whole-blood-are-regulated-by-exercise-and-are-potential-biomarkers-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness
#15
Joshua Denham, Priscilla R Prestes
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Evidence indicating miRNAs influence exercise-induced health and performance adaptations is mounting. Circulating miRNAs are responsible for intercellular communication and could serve as biomarkers for disease and exercise-related traits. Such biomarkers would contribute to exercise screening, monitoring, and the development of personalized exercise prescription. Accordingly, we investigated the impact of long-term strenuous aerobic exercise training and a single bout of maximal aerobic exercise on five muscle-enriched miRNAs implicated in exercise adaptations (miR-1, miR-133a, miR-181a, miR-486, and miR-494)...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895542/effect-of-tart-cherry-juice-on-recovery-and-next-day-performance-in-well-trained-water-polo-players
#16
Rachel McCormick, Peter Peeling, Martyn Binnie, Brian Dawson, Marc Sim
BACKGROUND: Tart Montmorency cherries contain high concentrations of phytochemicals and anthocyanins, which have recently been linked to improved athletic recovery and subsequent performance. To date however, previous work reporting promising results has focused on land-based endurance sports, with any potential benefits to team sports remaining unknown. As such, this investigation set-out to examine the effect of supplemental tart cherry juice (CJ) on recovery and next day athletic performance in highly-trained water-based team sport athletes over seven days...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892796/using-a-divided-attention-stepping-accuracy-task-to-improve-balance-and-functional-outcomes-in-an-individual-with-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-report
#17
Susan J Leach, Richard A Magill, Joyce R Maring
A spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently results in impaired balance, endurance, and strength with subsequent limitations in functional mobility and community participation. The purpose of this case report was to implement a training program for an individual with a chronic incomplete SCI using a novel divided-attention stepping accuracy task (DASAT) to determine if improvements could be made in impairments, activities, and participation. The client was a 51-year-old male with a motor incomplete C4 SCI sustained 4 years prior...
November 28, 2016: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889869/left-ventricular-speckle-tracking-derived-cardiac-strain-and-cardiac-twist-mechanics-in-athletes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-controlled-studies
#18
REVIEW
Alexander Beaumont, Fergal Grace, Joanna Richards, John Hough, David Oxborough, Nicholas Sculthorpe
BACKGROUND: The athlete's heart is associated with physiological remodeling as a consequence of repetitive cardiac loading. The effect of exercise training on left ventricular (LV) cardiac strain and twist mechanics are equivocal, and no meta-analysis has been conducted to date. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to review the literature pertaining to the effect of different forms of athletic training on cardiac strain and twist mechanics and determine the influence of traditional and contemporary sporting classifications on cardiac strain and twist mechanics...
November 26, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888580/biology-of-vo2-max-looking-under-the-physiology-lamp
#19
REVIEW
C Lundby, D Montero, M Joyner
In this review, we argue that several key features of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) should underpin discussions about the biological and reductionist determinants of its interindividual variability: (i) training-induced increases in VO2 max are largely facilitated by expansion of red blood cell volume and an associated improvement in stroke volume, which also adapts independent of changes in red blood cell volume. These general concepts are also informed by cross-sectional studies in athletes that have very high values for VO2 max...
November 7, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879166/sex-differences-in-release-of-cardiac-troponin-t-after-endurance-exercise
#20
Zhaowei Kong, Jinlei Nie, Hua Lin, Keith George, Gang Zhao, Haifeng Zhang, Tomas K Tong, Qingde Shi
CONTEXT: Post-exercise cardiac troponin release has been extensively described in athletic groups but little attention has been given to any role of sex in mediating this phenomnenon. OBJECTIVE: We compared the release of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) after endurance running in training-experience, biological-age and maturity-matched young male and female runners. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen male (training history: 2.3±1.0 yr; mean age: 16...
November 23, 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
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