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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078668/mitochondrial-adaptations-to-exercise-in-human-skeletal-muscle-a-possible-role-for-cristae-density-as-a-determinant-of-muscle-fitness
#1
Christopher G R Perry
Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable plasticity in response to repeated exercise challenges (i.e. exercise 'training'). A hallmark phenotypic change is an increase in the ability to sustain contraction and resist fatigue. Such increased muscle endurance is linked, in part, to an improved ability to sustain ATP synthesis aerobically through coordinated enhancements in the delivery of oxygen (e.g. cardiorespiratory, vascular adaptations) and its utilization within skeletal muscle mitochondria for the oxidation of fat and carbohydrates...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074493/ampk-does-not-play-a-requisite-role-in-regulation-of-ppargc1a-gene-expression-via-the-alternative-promoter-in-endurance-trained-human-skeletal-muscle
#2
Daniil V Popov, Evgeny A Lysenko, Alexey D Butkov, Tatiana F Vepkhvadze, Dmitriy V Perfilov, Olga L Vinogradova
In human skeletal muscle, PGC-1α is constitutively expressed via the canonical promoter. By contrast, the expression of PGC-1α mRNA via the alternative promoter was found to be highly dependent on the intensity of exercise and to contribute largely to the post-exercise increase of total PGC-1α mRNA. This study investigated the role of AMPK in regulating PGC-1α gene expression via the alternative promoter through a cAMP responsive element-binding protein-1 (CREB1)-dependent mechanism in human skeletal muscle...
January 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074468/do-changes-in-mitochondrial-quality-contribute-to-increases-in-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-capacity-following-endurance-training
#3
Miles F Bartlett, Julia D Miehm, Liam F Fitzgerald, Chad R Straight
Endurance training improves skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, but the molecular adaptations that drive this process are not fully understood. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067808/effects-of-beetroot-juice-supplementation-on-cardiorespiratory-endurance-in-athletes-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Raúl Domínguez, Eduardo Cuenca, José Luis Maté-Muñoz, Pablo García-Fernández, Noemí Serra-Paya, María Carmen Lozano Estevan, Pablo Veiga Herreros, Manuel Vicente Garnacho-Castaño
Athletes use nutritional supplementation to enhance the effects of training and achieve improvements in their athletic performance. Beetroot juice increases levels of nitric oxide (NO), which serves multiple functions related to increased blood flow, gas exchange, mitochondrial biogenesis and efficiency, and strengthening of muscle contraction. These biomarker improvements indicate that supplementation with beetroot juice could have ergogenic effects on cardiorespiratory endurance that would benefit athletic performance...
January 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066619/clinical-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-with-muscle-dysfunction
#5
REVIEW
Joaquim Gea, Carme Casadevall, Sergi Pascual, Mauricio Orozco-Levi, Esther Barreiro
Muscle dysfunction is frequently observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, contributing to their exercise limitation and a worsening prognosis. The main factor leading to limb muscle dysfunction is deconditioning, whereas respiratory muscle dysfunction is mostly the result of pulmonary hyperinflation. However, both limb and respiratory muscles are also influenced by other negative factors, including smoking, systemic inflammation, nutritional abnormalities, exacerbations and some drugs...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062351/training-the-workforce-description-of-a-longitudinal-interdisciplinary-education-and-mentoring-program-in-palliative-care
#6
Stacie Levine, Sean O'Mahony, Aliza Baron, Aziz Ansari, Catherine Deamant, Joel Frader, Ileana Leyva, Michael Marschke, Michael Preodor
CONTEXT: The rapid increase in demand for palliative care (PC) services has led to concerns regarding workforce shortages and threats to the resiliency of PC teams. OBJECTIVES: To describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a regional interdisciplinary training program in PC. METHODS: Thirty nurse and physician "fellows" representing 22 health systems across the Chicago region participated in a two-year PC training program...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056805/endurance-training-significantly-increases-serum-endocan-but-not-osteoprotegerin-levels-a-prospective-observational-study
#7
Michael Sponder, Ioana-Alexandra Campean, Michael Emich, Monika Fritzer-Szekeres, Brigitte Litschauer, Jutta Bergler-Klein, Senta Graf, Jeanette Strametz-Juranek
BACKGROUND: Endocan (EN) was suggested a potential inflammatory and cardiovascular disease (CVD) marker which might also be involved in renal failure and/or renal failure-associated vascular events. It is not clear whether osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a pro- or anti-atherogenic factor, however, it is agreed upon that OPG is elevated in subjects with increased calcification status. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of long-term physical activity on serum endocan (EN) and osteoprotegerin-levels...
January 5, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056786/immune-adaptation-to-chronic-intense-exercise-training-new-microarray-evidence
#8
Dongmei Liu, Ru Wang, Ana R Grant, Jinming Zhang, Paul M Gordon, Yuqin Wei, Peijie Chen
BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise training, especially the high-intensity training, exhibits a strong influence on the immune system. However, the mechanisms underpinning the immune-regulatory effect of exercise remain unclear. Consequently, we chose to investigate the alterations in the transcriptional profile of blood leukocytes in young endurance athletes as compared with healthy sedentary controls, using Affymetrix human gene 1.1 ST array. RESULTS: Group differences in the transcriptome were analyzed using Intensity-based Hierarchical Bayes method followed by a Logistic Regression-based gene set enrichment method...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052113/zoonoses-in-veterinary-students-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#9
Antonio Sánchez, Miranda Prats-van der Ham, Juan Tatay-Dualde, Ana Paterna, Christian de la Fe, Ángel Gómez-Martín, Juan C Corrales, Antonio Contreras
BACKGROUND: Veterinary students face diverse potential sources of zoonotic pathogens since the first years of their academic degree. Such sources include different animal species and pathologic materials which are used at university facilities as well as commercial clinics, farms and other external facilities. OBJECTIVES: The present study utilizes a systematic review of the literature to identify zoonoses described in veterinary students. DATA SOURCES: Web of Science and PubMed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045340/the-sensitivity-of-the-alternative-maximal-accumulated-oxygen-deficit-method-to-discriminate-training-status
#10
Alessandro M Zagatto, Fabio Y Nakamura, Fabio Milioni, Willian E Miyagi, Rodrigo A B de Poli, Johnny Padulo, Nicola L Bragazzi, Marcelo Papoti
The purpose of the study was to investigate the sensitivity of an alternative maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAODALT) method to discriminate the "anaerobic" capacity while comparing: least trained (LT) participants (n = 12), moderately trained (MT) participants (n = 12), endurance trained (ET) participants (n = 16), and rugby (RG) players (n = 11). Participants underwent a graded exercise test on a treadmill and a supramaximal effort for assessing MAODALT. MAODALT was calculated as the sum of oxygen equivalents from the phosphagen and glycolytic metabolic pathways...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044282/are-prepubertal-children-metabolically-comparable-to-well-trained-adult-endurance-athletes
#11
REVIEW
Sébastien Ratel, Anthony J Blazevich
It is well acknowledged that prepubertal children have smaller body dimensions and a poorer mechanical (movement) efficiency, and thus a lower work capacity than adults. However, the scientific evidence indicates that prepubertal children have a greater net contribution of energy derived from aerobic metabolism in exercising muscle and reduced susceptibility to muscular fatigue, which makes them metabolically comparable to well-trained adult endurance athletes. For example, the relative energy contribution from oxidative and non-oxidative (i...
January 2, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039888/aerobic-training-in-myotonia-congenita-effect-on-myotonia-and-fitness
#12
Grete Andersen, Nicoline Løkken, John Vissing
INTRODUCTION: Exercise has not been investigated in myotonia congenita (MC). We investigated whether regular aerobic training can reduce myotonia and improve fitness. METHODS: Untrained patients with MC (age: 24-62 years, n=6) completed 28±3 sessions of 30-minute cycle ergometer training at 75% of maximal capacity for 11±1 weeks. Fitness was evaluated by maximal oxygen uptake. The level of myotonia was assessed by the Myotonia Behavior Scale, 14 step stair test, timed up and go test, and hand and eye closure-open tests...
December 31, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039193/short-term-intense-exercise-training-reduces-stress-markers-and-alters-the-transcriptional-response-to-exercise-in-skeletal-muscle
#13
James Matthew Hinkley, Adam R Konopka, Miranda K Suer, Matthew P Harber
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of short-term intense endurance training on cycling performance, along with the acute and chronic signaling responses of skeletal muscle stress and stability markers. Ten recreationally active subjects (25 ± 2 yr, 79 ± 3 kg, 47 ± 2 ml·kg·min-1) were studied before and after a 12-day cycling protocol to examine the effects of short-term intense (70-100% VO2max) exercise training on resting and exercise-induced regulation of molecular factors related to skeletal muscle cellular stress and protein stability...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039190/endurance-training-attenuates-the-increase-in-peripheral-chemoreflex-sensitivity-with-intermittent-hypoxia
#14
Amanda J Miller, Charity L Sauder, Aimee E Cauffman, Cheryl A Blaha, Urs A Leuenberger
Patients with heart failure and sleep apnea have greater chemoreflex sensitivity, presumably due to intermittent hypoxia (IH), and this is predictive of mortality. We hypothesized that endurance training would attenuate the effect of IH on peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity in healthy humans. Fifteen young healthy subjects (9 female, 26 ± 1 years) participated. Between visits, 11 subjects underwent eight weeks of endurance training that included running four times/week at 80% predicted max heart rate and interval training, and 4 control subjects did not change activity...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034442/electrocardiographic-changes-induced-by-endurance-training-and-pubertal-development-in-male-children
#15
Flavio D'Ascenzi, Marco Solari, Francesca Anselmi, Francesca Valentini, Riccardo Barbati, Paola Palmitesta, Marta Focardi, Marco Bonifazi, Sergio Mondillo
Training-induced electrocardiographic changes are common in adult athletes. However, a few data are available on electrocardiogram (ECG) in preadolescent athletes and little is known about the potential changes induced by training on 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) at rest. Twelve-lead ECGs at rest and complete echocardiographic examinations were performed in 94 children (57 endurance athletes, 37 sedentary controls; mean age 10.8 ± 0.2 and 10.2 ± 0.2 years, respectively) at baseline and after 5 months of growth and training in athletes and of natural growth in controls...
December 3, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033124/variances-in-strength-and-conditioning-practice-in-elite-rugby-union-between-the-northern-and-southern-hemispheres
#16
Thomas W Jones, Andrew Smith, Lindsay S Macnaughton, Duncan N French
The strength and conditioning (S&C) practices in elite Rugby Union (RU) have previously been detailed. There is also research which indicates playing styles can differ between Northern hemisphere (NH) and Southern hemisphere (SH) teams. It is not presently known if these variances in playing styles are reflected in the S&C practices of those supporting NH and SH teams. As such, the present study examines any variances in S&C practices between those supporting NH and SH elite level teams. A validated questionnaire was employed that comprised 7 sections; personal details, physical testing, strength and power development, concurrent training, unique aspects of the programme and any further relevant information regarding prescribed training programmes...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032568/seven-day-intensive-preoperative-rehabilitation-for-elderly-patients-with-lung-cancer-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Yutian Lai, Jian Huang, Mei Yang, Jianhua Su, Jing Liu, Guowei Che
BACKGROUND: As a newly developed treatment, preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has been studied in depth. However, few studies have assessed the relationship between advanced age and a shorter term intensive pattern of preoperative PR in patients with lung cancer (LC) and especially those patients waiting for therapeutic LC surgeries. This study investigated short-term preoperative PR combined with inspiratory muscle training (IMT) and aerobic endurance training in elderly patients scheduled to undergo LC lobectomy...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032343/tracking-motor-units-longitudinally-across-experimental-sessions-with-high-density-surface-electromyography
#18
E Martinez-Valdes, F Negro, C M Laine, D Falla, F Mayer, D Farina
A new method is proposed for tracking individual motor units (MUs) across multiple experimental sessions on different days. The technique is based on a novel decomposition approach for high-density surface electromyography and was tested with two experimental studies for reliability and sensitivity. Experiment I (reliability): ten participants performed isometric knee extensions at 10, 30, 50 and 70% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force in three sessions, each separated by 1 week. Experiment II (sensitivity): seven participants performed 2 weeks of endurance training (cycling) and were tested pre-post intervention during isometric knee extensions at 10 and 30% MVC...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030533/physical-and-physiological-profile-of-wrestler-athletes-short-review
#19
Helmi Chaabene, Yassine Negra, Raja Bouguezzi, Bessem Mkaouer, Emerson Franchini, Ursula Julio, Younés Hachana
Wrestling is one of the oldest combat sports, disputed since the ancient Greek Olympic Games. This combat sport discipline has caught the attention of scientists since 1943 which is the date that matches the appearance of the first scientific research dealing with wrestling. The current short review aimed to summarize and critically analyze the scientific literature related to wrestling's physical and physiological attributes and to provide practical recommendations for testing/training together with new perspective and areas of future scientific research...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028816/physiological-limits-to-endurance-exercise-performance-influence-of-sex
#20
Michael J Joyner
This brief review summarizes factors associated with elite endurance performance, trends in distance running training, and participation by men and more recently women. It is framed in the context of key ideas about the physiological determinants of endurance performance but also touches on some historical and sociological factors relevant to the overall topic. Historical trends that served to increase women's participation in elite endurance events are also discussed as is the role of increased volume and intensity of training...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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