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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166320/exercise-alters-gut-microbiota-composition-and-function-in-lean-and-obese-humans
#1
Jacob M Allen, Lucy J Mailing, Grace M Niemiro, Rachel Moore, Mark D Cook, Bryan A White, Hannah D Holscher, Jeffrey A Woods
PURPOSE: Exercise is associated with altered gut microbial composition, but studies have not investigated whether the gut microbiota and associated metabolites are modulated by exercise training in humans. We explored the impact of six weeks of endurance exercise on the composition, functional capacity, and metabolic output of the gut microbiota in lean and obese adults with multiple-day dietary controls prior to outcome variable collection. METHODS: Thirty-two lean (n=18 [9 female]) and obese (n=14 [11 female]), previously sedentary subjects participated in six weeks of supervised, endurance-based exercise training (3 days/wk) that progressed from 30 to 60 minutes/day and from moderate (60% of heart rate reserve [HRR]) to vigorous intensity (75% HRR)...
November 20, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164325/effects-of-recreational-football-on-women-s-fitness-and-health-adaptations-and-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Peter Krustrup, Eva Wulff Helge, Peter R Hansen, Per Aagaard, Marie Hagman, Morten B Randers, Maysa de Sousa, Magni Mohr
The review describes the fitness and health effects of recreational football in women aged 18-65 years. The review documents that 2 × 1 h of recreational football training for 12-16 weeks causes marked improvements in maximal oxygen uptake (5-15%) and myocardial function in women. Moreover, mean arterial blood pressure was shown to decrease by 2-5 mmHg in normotensive women and 6-8 mmHg in hypertensive women. This review also show that short-term (< 4 months) and medium-term (4-16 months) recreational football training has major beneficial impact on metabolic health profile in women, with fat losses of 1-3 kg and improvements in blood lipid profile...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161767/effects-of-different-endurance-exercise-modalities-on-migraine-days-and-cerebrovascular-health-in-episodic-migraineurs-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Henner Hanssen, Alice Minghetti, Stefano Magon, Anja Rossmeissl, Maria Rasenack, Athina Papadopoulou, Christopher Klenk, Oliver Faude, Lukas Zahner, Till Sprenger, Lars Donath
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise training is a promising complementary treatment option in migraine and can reduce migraine days and improve retinal microvascular function. Our aim was to elucidate whether different aerobic exercise programs at high vs. moderate intensities distinctly affect migraine days as primary outcome and retinal vessel parameters as a secondary. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, migraine days were recorded by a validated migraine diary in 45 migraineurs of which 36 (female: 28; age: 36 (SD:10)/ BMI: 23...
November 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161094/the-effect-of-resistance-training-in-a-hypoxic-chamber-on-physical-performance-in-elite-rugby-athletes
#4
Brad Mayo, Cory Miles, Stacy Sims, Matthew Driller
Mayo, Brad, Cory Miles, Stacy Sims, and Matthew Driller. The effect of resistance training in a hypoxic chamber on physical performance in elite rugby athletes. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-Limited research suggests that muscle adaptations may be enhanced through resistance training in a hypoxic environment. Seventeen professional rugby union athletes (age [mean ± SD], 24 ± 3 years; body mass, 98.7 ± 12.8 kg; and height, 188.9 ± 7.9 cm), performed 12 resistance training sessions over a 3-week period...
November 21, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159669/thyroid-hormones-and-commonly-cited-symptoms-of-overtraining-in-collegiate-female-endurance-runners
#5
Justin X Nicoll, Disa L Hatfield, Kathleen J Melanson, Christopher S Nasin
PURPOSE: Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is reported in endurance sports. Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate metabolism, mood, and energy production, and may play a role in OTS of endurance athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships in TH and symptoms of OTS in track and field endurance runners (ER). METHODS: Sixteen female track and field middle distance (MD; n = 9; age: 20.2 ± 1.5 years; ht: 167.86 ± 5.04 cm; body-mass: 57.97 ± 5...
November 20, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156141/one-year-unsupervised-individualized-exercise-training-intervention-enhances-cardiorespiratory-fitness-but-not-muscle-deoxygenation-or-glycemic-control-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#6
Antti-Pekka E Rissanen, Heikki O Tikkanen, Anne S Koponen, Jyrki M Aho, Juha E Peltonen
Adaptations to long-term exercise training in type 1 diabetes are sparsely studied. We examined the effects of a 1-year individualized training intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, exercise-induced active muscle deoxygenation, and glycemic control in adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Eight men with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and eight healthy men (CON) matched for age, anthropometry, and peak pulmonary O2 uptake (V̇O2peak), completed a 1-year individualized training intervention in an unsupervised real-world setting...
November 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148128/step-ergometer-training-augmented-with-functional-electrical-stimulation-in-individuals-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury-a-feasibility-study
#7
Candy Tefertiller, Don Gerber
Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in loss of upright mobility and independence subsequently challenging rehabilitation practitioners for meaningful intervention strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and potential impact on walking function of the stimulation and ergometer training protocol (STEP) in chronic SCI. Fourteen individuals with a chronic motor incomplete SCI (>1-year post injury) were enrolled in the study. The intervention consisted of a 12-week walking training program delivered three times per week from 20 up to 45 min in combination with 10 channels of FES on a step ergometer...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146412/skeletal-muscle-overexpression-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyl-transferase-in-mice-coupled-with-voluntary-exercise-augments-exercise-endurance
#8
Sheila R Costford, Bram Brouwers, Meghan E Hopf, Lauren M Sparks, Mauro Dispagna, Ana P Gomes, Heather H Cornnell, Chris Petucci, Peter Phelan, Hui Xie, Fanchao Yi, Glenn A Walter, Timothy F Osborne, David A Sinclair, Randall L Mynatt, Julio E Ayala, Stephen J Gardell, Steven R Smith
OBJECTIVE: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway that produces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), an essential co-substrate regulating a myriad of signaling pathways. We produced a mouse that overexpressed NAMPT in skeletal muscle (NamptTg) and hypothesized that NamptTg mice would have increased oxidative capacity, endurance performance, and mitochondrial gene expression, and would be rescued from metabolic abnormalities that developed with high fat diet (HFD) feeding...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146288/unusual-iliac-crest-stress-fracture-in-a-marathoner-a-case-report
#9
Amy M West, Kelly C McInnis
This case presentation describes a 50-year-old healthy woman who developed left sided hip pain while training for the Boston Marathon. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) demonstrates a stress fracture of the left iliac body. This injury is unique in that it did not occur in the setting of low bone mineral density and it does not fall into the current published radiographic categorization based on location of injury. This case illustrates an uncommon and atypical bone stress injury in an endurance athlete. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of runners presenting with hip or lumbopelvic pain...
November 13, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145831/copd-online-rehabilitation-versus-conventional-copd-rehabilitation-rationale-and-design-for-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial-study-protocol-core-trial
#10
Henrik Hansen, Theresa Bieler, Nina Beyer, Nina Godtfredsen, Thomas Kallemose, Anne Frølich
BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a key treatment in COPD. However, despite the existing evidence and a strong recommendation from lung associations worldwide, 50% of patients with COPD decline to participate in COPD rehabilitation program and 30-50% drop-out before completion. The main reasons are severe symptoms, inflexible accessibility and necessity for transportation. Currently there are no well-established and evident rehabilitation alternatives...
November 16, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143975/sustained-cardiac-programming-by-short-term-juvenile-exercise-training-in-male-rats
#11
Y Asif, M E Wlodek, M J Black, A P Russell, P F Soeding, G D Wadley
The aim of this study was to investigate if endurance training during juvenile life 'reprograms' the heart and leads to sustained improvements in the structure, function, and morphology of the adult heart. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were exercise trained 5 days/week for four weeks in either juvenile (5-9 weeks of age), adolescent (11-15 weeks of age) or adult life (20-24 weeks of age). Juvenile exercise training, when compared to 24 week old sedentary rats, led to sustained increases in left ventricle (LV) mass (+18%; P < 0...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142094/standardized-automated-training-of-rhesus-monkeys-for-neuroscience-research-in-their-housing-environment
#12
Michael Berger, Antonino Calapai, Valeska Stephan, Michael Niessing, Leonore Burchardt, Alexander Gail, Stefan Treue
Teaching non-human primates the complex cognitive behavioral tasks that are central to cognitive neuroscience research is an essential and challenging endeavor. It is crucial for the scientific success that the animals learn to interpret the often complex task rules, and reliably and enduringly act accordingly. To achieve consistent behavior and comparable learning histories across animals, it is desirable to standardize training protocols. Automatizing the training can significantly reduce the time invested by the person training the animal...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141513/alternative-scapular-stabilization-exercises-to-target-strength-endurance-and-function-of-shoulders-in-tetraplegia-a-prospective-non-controlled-intervention-study
#13
Carolina Lins, Alex Castro, Giovanna I S Medina, Eliza R F B M Azevedo, Bruno S Donato, Marina S S Chagas, Janaína Roland Tancredo, Letícia Vargas de Almeida, Alberto Cliquet
OBJECTIVE: Scapular stabilization exercises (SSE) are well-established for the able-bodies. The aim of the current study is to access the potential benefits of SSE on isometric internal and external rotator strength, endurance and function of the shoulder in persons with tetraplegia, throughout a 12-week exercise program consisting of five resisted movements with elastic bands. DESIGN: Prospective non-controlled intervention study. Setting/Participants/Interventions: A convenience sample of 17 subjects (age, 40...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141215/octopamine-drives-endurance-exercise-adaptations-in-drosophila
#14
Alyson Sujkowski, Divya Ramesh, Axel Brockmann, Robert Wessells
Endurance exercise is an effective therapeutic intervention with substantial pro-healthspan effects. Male Drosophila respond to a ramped daily program of exercise by inducing conserved physiological responses similar to those seen in mice and humans. Female flies respond to an exercise stimulus but do not experience the adaptive training response seen in males. Here, we use female flies as a model to demonstrate that differences in exercise response are mediated by differences in neuronal activity. The activity of octopaminergic neurons is specifically required to induce the conserved cellular and physiological changes seen following endurance training...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140910/polygenic-profile-and-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-by-a-competitive-half-ironman
#15
Juan Del Coso, Juan J Salinero, Beatriz Lara, César Gallo-Salazar, Francisco Areces, David Herrero, Carlos Puente
Del Coso, J, Salinero, JJ, Lara, B, Gallo-Salazar, C, Areces, F, Herrero, D, and Puente, C. Polygenic profile and exercise-induced muscle damage by a competitive half-ironman. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-To date, it is still unknown why some individuals develop higher levels of muscle damage than other individuals, despite participating in exercise with comparable levels of physical intensity. The aim of this investigation was to analyze 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are candidates to explain individual variations in the level of muscle damage attained during a half-ironman competition...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137117/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-proteomics-literature-on-the-response-of-human-skeletal-muscle-to-obesity-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-t2dm-versus-exercise-training
#16
REVIEW
Kanchana Srisawat, Sam O Shepherd, Paulo J Lisboa, Jatin G Burniston
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of proteomics literature that reports human skeletal muscle responses in the context of either pathological decline associated with obesity/T2DM and physiological adaptations to exercise training. Literature was collected from PubMed and DOAJ databases following PRISMA guidelines using the search terms 'proteom*', and 'skeletal muscle' combined with either 'obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance' or 'exercise, training'. Eleven studies were included in the systematic review, and meta-analysis was performed on a sub-set (four studies) of the reviewed literature that reported the necessary primary data...
November 11, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135641/the-pediatric-endurance-athlete
#17
Mary L Solomon, Susannah M Briskin, Nicole Sabatina, Jennifer E Steinhoff
Youth sports participation numbers continue to grow in the United States. A shift toward sport specialization has caused an increase in sport training frequency and intensity that places the growing athlete at risk for overtraining, nutritional deficits, and injuries. Individuals who participate in endurance sports are at especially high risk. Youth runners and swimmers are high-risk populations that require special attention to their training schedules, nutritional intake, and injuries. Appropriate scheduling of training, dedicating time to rest, and nutrition education can help prevent problems in the endurance athlete...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134050/mental-strategies-predict-performance-and-satisfaction-with-performance-among-soccer-players
#18
Magdalena Kruk, Jan Blecharz, Monika Boberska, Karolina Zarychta, Aleksandra Luszczynska
This study investigated the changes in mental strategies across the season and their effects on performance and satisfaction with individual performance. Data were collected three times: at the pre-season at Time 1 (T1; baseline), in the mid-season at Time 2 (T2; two-month follow-up), and at the end-of-season at Time 3 (T3; nine-month follow-up) among male soccer players (N = 97) aged 16-27. Athletes completed the questionnaires assessing the use of nine psychological strategies in competition and the level of satisfaction with individual performance...
October 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130051/the-effect-of-a-12-week-health-training-program-on-selected-anthropometric-and-biochemical-variables-in-middle-aged-women
#19
Wanda Pilch, Łukasz Tota, Ewa Sadowska-Krępa, Anna Piotrowska, Magdalena Kępińska, Tomasz Pałka, Adam Maszczyk
Regular moderate physical activity positively affects health, fitness, and body composition; it regulates the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines levels. Vitamin D plays an important regulatory role; its adequate levels correlate with low values of inflammation markers and an increase in muscle strength and fitness in exercising people. The study's aim was to evaluate changes in somatic variables, oxidative stress, and inflammation markers, as well as blood calcidiol concentration in middle-aged healthy women after 12 weeks of aerobics classes-endurance exercises, including choreographic sequences, aiming to improve fitness and motor coordination...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129021/the-effect-of-natural-or-simulated-altitude-training-on-high-intensity-intermittent-running-performance-in-team-sport-athletes-a-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Michael J Hamlin, Catherine A Lizamore, Will G Hopkins
BACKGROUND: While adaptation to hypoxia at natural or simulated altitude has long been used with endurance athletes, it has only recently gained popularity for team-sport athletes. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effect of hypoxic interventions on high-intensity intermittent running performance in team-sport athletes. METHODS: A systematic literature search of five journal databases was performed. Percent change in performance (distance covered) in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1 and level 2 were used without differentiation) in hypoxic (natural or simulated altitude) and control (sea level or normoxic placebo) groups was meta-analyzed with a mixed model...
November 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
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