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Neonatal Surgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916231/-malrotated-kidney-causing-prenatal-giant-hydronephrosis
#1
R E Massicot, S Ferracci, A-P Uzel
We report the case of a malrotated right kidney associated with giant prenatal hydronephrosis due to a non vascular extrinsic ureteropelvic compression. The kidney presented an hyper-rotation of 180° in relation to the original fetal position, with the renal hilum backward looking. At neonatal surgery we discover that the inferior pole of the kidney pushes laterally the ureteropelvic junction like a violin bridge. The simple uncrossing of the ureteropelvic junction from the inferior renal pole relieves the extrinsic ureteral obstacle and the giant hydronephrosis...
September 12, 2017: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916046/inflammatory-response-and-long-term-behavioral-assessment-after-neonatal-co2-pneumothorax-study-in-a-rodent-model
#2
Alice Miranda, Susana Roque, Cláudia Serre-Miranda, José Miguel Pêgo, Jorge Correia-Pinto
BACKGROUND: Carbon-dioxide (CO2)-pneumothorax during minimally invasive surgery induces well-known metabolic changes. However, little is known about its impact on the central nervous system. The aim of this work is to evaluate the acute impact of CO2-pneumothorax over central cytokine response and its long-term effect on animal behavior. METHODS: This is an experimental study where neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats are submitted to CO2-pneumothorax. Peripheral and central cytokine response was evaluated 24h after insufflation, and peripheral immune cell phenotyping was evaluated 24h and 4weeks post-insufflation...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914984/hypercalcemic-disorders-in-children
#3
REVIEW
Victoria J Stokes, Morten F Nielsen, Fadil M Hannan, Rajesh V Thakker
Hypercalcemia is defined as a serum calcium concentration that is greater than 2 standard deviations above the normal mean, which in children may vary with age and sex, reflecting changes in the normal physiology at each developmental stage. Hypercalcemic disorders in children may present with hypotonia, poor feeding, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, lethargy, polyuria, dehydration, failure to thrive and seizures. In severe cases renal failure, pancreatitis and reduced consciousness may also occur and older children and adolescents may present with psychiatric symptoms...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914327/repeated-2-sevoflurane-administration-in-7%C3%A2-and-60-day-old-rats-neurotoxicity-and-neurocognitive-dysfunction
#4
He Huang, Cun-Ming Liu, Jie Sun, Wen-Jie Jin, Yu-Qing Wu, Jing Chen
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is one of the most widely used inhalation anesthetics in pediatric anesthesia. A large number of studies have demonstrated that repeated treatment with high concentrations or long durations of sevoflurane anesthesia during the neonatal period can induce neuroapoptosis and long-term learning disability. In clinical practice, we observed that a subset of patients underwent minor surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia more than once from birth to adolescence. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate whether a 2% concentration of sevoflurane (clinically relevant usage of sevoflurane) for 1 h (a short duration) can induce neuroapoptosis and neurocognitive dysfunction in adolescent rats that received sevoflurane (2% for 1 h) during the neonatal period...
September 15, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901937/advances-in-paediatric-gastroenterology
#5
REVIEW
Paul K H Tam, Patrick H Y Chung, Shawn D St Peter, Christopher P Gayer, Henri R Ford, Greta C H Tam, Kenneth K Y Wong, Mikko P Pakarinen, Mark Davenport
Recent developments in paediatric gastrointestinal surgery have focused on minimally invasive surgery, the accumulation of high-quality clinical evidence, and scientific research. The benefits of minimally invasive surgery for common disorders like appendicitis and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis are all supported by good clinical evidence. Although minimally invasive surgery has been extended to neonatal surgery, it is difficult to establish its role for neonatal disorders such as oesophageal atresia and biliary atresia through clinical trials because of the rarity of these disorders...
September 9, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901389/analysis-of-dermal-fibroblasts-isolated-from-neonatal-and-child-cleft-lip-and-adult-skin-developmental-implications-on-reconstructive-surgery
#6
Veronika Živicová, Lukáš Lacina, Rosana Mateu, Karel Smetana, Radana Kavková, Eliška Drobná Krejčí, Miloš Grim, Alena Kvasilová, Jiří Borský, Hynek Strnad, Miluše Hradilová, Jana Šáchová, Michal Kolář, Barbora Dvořánková
The nonsyndromic cleft is one of the most frequent congenital defects in humans. Clinical data demonstrated improved and almost scarless neonatal healing of reparative surgery. Based on our previous results on crosstalk between neonatal fibroblasts and adult keratinocytes, the present study focused on characterization of fibroblasts prepared from cleft lip tissue samples of neonates and older children, and compared them with samples isolated from normal adult skin (face and breast) and scars. Although subtle variances in expression profiles of children and neonates were observed, the two groups differed significantly from adult cells...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901229/intraoperative-high-frequency-jet-ventilation-is-equivalent-to-conventional-ventilation-during-patent-ductus-arteriosus-ligation
#7
Mackenzie Noonan, Joseph W Turek, John M Dagle, Steven J McElroy
BACKGROUND: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) treatment is typically pharmacologic, but if unsuccessful, surgical ligation is commonly performed. High-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) is used at the University of Iowa Stead Family Children's Hospital for extremely low birth weight infants. Historically, neonates requiring PDA ligation were temporarily transferred to conventional ventilation (CV) prior to surgery. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether conversion was necessary...
September 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900356/humidifiers-for-oxygen-therapy-what-risk-for-reusable-and-disposable-devices
#8
REVIEW
V La Fauci, G B Costa, A Facciolà, A Conti, R Riso, R Squeri
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial pneumonia accounts for the vast majority of healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Although numerous medical devices have been discussed as potential vehicles for microorganisms, very little is known about the role played by oxygen humidifiers as potential sources of nosocomial pathogens. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the safety of the reuse of humidifiers by analysing the rate of microbial contamination in reusable and disposable oxygen humidifiers used during therapy, and then discuss their potential role in the transmission of respiratory pathogens...
June 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891072/stable-control-of-physiological-parameters-but-not-infection-in-preterm-lambs-maintained-on-ex-vivo-uterine-environment-therapy
#9
Yuichiro Miura, Haruo Usuda, Shimpei Watanabe, Eleanor Woodward, Masatoshi Saito, Gabrielle C Musk, Suhas G Kallapur, Shinichi Sato, Ryuta Kitanishi, Tadashi Matsuda, John P Newnham, Sarah J Stock, Matthew W Kemp
Ex vivo uterine environment (EVE) therapy is an experimental neonatal intensive care strategy wherein gas exchange is performed by membranous oxygenators attached to the umbilical vessels. Our aim was to assess the ability of a newly refined EVE system to maintain key physiological parameters in preterm lambs within optimal ranges for 48 h. EVE group; n = 6: Preterm lambs were delivered under general anesthesia at 115 ± 2 days of gestational age. Animals were submerged in a bath of artificial amniotic fluid on EVE therapy for 48 h...
September 11, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890522/characterization-of-the-testicular-regeneration-potential-in-premature-cockerels
#10
Po-Liang Cheng, Hui-Ru Wu, Cheng-Yan Li, Chih-Feng Chen, Hsu-Chen Cheng
Previous studies have shown that grafted neonatal chicken testicular tissue can develop and produce functional sperm; however, it was unclear whether regenerative processes or proportional growth caused the re-appearance of spermatogenic tissue. We dissociated testicular tissues, performed subcutaneous auto-transplantation of the re-aggregated cells to castrated cockerels, and monitored the post-surgery development of these transplanted aggregates. We found that these transplanted cell aggregates experienced compensatory growth in the form of a 300-fold increase in size, rather than the 30-fold increase observed in normal testis development...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889833/acute-kidney-injury-following-first-stage-palliation-in-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome-hybrid-versus-norwood-palliation
#11
Richard U Garcia, Girija Natarajan, Henry L Walters, Ralph E Delius, Sanjeev Aggarwal
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of acute kidney injury after first-stage surgical palliation in patients with a single ventricle and to explore associated risk factors and outcomes. Design and patients This single-centre retrospective study included neonates who underwent either Norwood or Hybrid procedure from 2008 to 2015 for a single ventricle. Postoperative acute kidney injury was defined using the paediatric risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage renal disease (pRIFLE), criteria within 72 hours of the procedure...
September 11, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889829/neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-reflects-inflammation-and-is-not-a-reliable-renal-biomarker-in-neonates-and-infants-after-cardiopulmonary-bypass-a-prospective-case-control-study
#12
Karl Reiter, Gunter Balling, Vittorio Bonelli, Jelena Pabst von Ohain, Siegmund Lorenz Braun, Peter Ewert, Bettina Ruf
Introduction Acute kidney injury is a frequent complication after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass in infants. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin has been suggested to be a promising early biomarker of impending acute kidney injury. On the other hand, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin has been shown to be elevated in systemic inflammatory diseases without renal impairment. In this secondary analysis of data from our previous study on acute kidney injury after infant cardiac surgery, our hypothesis was that neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin may be associated with surgery-related inflammation...
September 11, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889811/cardiovascular-ct-for-evaluation-of-single-ventricle-heart-disease-risks-and-accuracy-compared-with-interventional-findings
#13
B Kelly Han, Marnie Huntley, David Overman, Dawn Witt, David Dassenko, Ross F Garberich, John R Lesser
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the risk and image quality from cardiovascular CT in patients across all stages of single-ventricle palliation, and to define accuracy by comparing findings with intervention and surgery. METHODS: Consecutive CT scans performed in patients with single-ventricle heart disease were retrospectively reviewed at a single institution. Diagnosis, sedation needs, estimated radiation dose, and adverse events were recorded. Anatomical findings, image quality (1-4, 1=optimal), and discrepancy compared with interventional findings were determined...
September 11, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888583/fda-warning-on-anesthesia-and-brain-development-implications-for-obstetric-and-fetal-surgery
#14
Olutoyin A Olutoye, Byron Wycke Baker, Michael A Belfort, Oluyinka O Olutoye
There has been growing concern about the detrimental effects of certain anesthetic agents on the developing brain. Preclinical studies in small animal models as well as non-human primates, have suggested loss or death of brain cells and consequent impaired neurocognitive function following anesthetic exposure in neonates and late gestation fetuses. Human studies in this area are limited and currently inconclusive. On December 14, 2016, the United States Food and Drug administration (FDA) issued a warning regarding impaired brain development in children following exposure to certain anesthetic agents used for general anesthesia, namely the inhalational anesthetics isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, and the intravenous agents, Propofol and midazolam, in the third trimester of pregnancy...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885096/infant-hydrocephalus-in-sub-saharan-africa-the-reality-on-the-tanzanian-side-of-the-lake
#15
Maria M Santos, Derick K Rubagumya, Imani Dominic, Amos Brighton, Soledad Colombe, Philip O'Donnell, Micaella R Zubkov, Roger Härtl
OBJECTIVE Infant hydrocephalus is estimated to affect more than 100,000 new infants each year in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Bugando Medical Centre (BMC), a government-funded and patient cost-shared referral center, serves over 13 million people in the Lake and Western regions of Tanzania. The goals of this study were to characterize the infant population affected by hydrocephalus who presented to BMC and were treated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) to determine the rate of early complications associated with this surgical procedure and to assess its potential risk factors...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881393/outcomes-of-gallstone-disease-during-pregnancy-a-population-based-data-linkage-study
#16
Ibinabo Ibiebele, Margaret Schnitzler, Tanya Nippita, Jane B Ford
BACKGROUND: Gallstone disease is a leading indication for non-obstetric abdominal surgery during pregnancy. There are limited whole population data on maternal and neonatal outcomes. This population-based study aims to describe the outcomes of gallstone disease during pregnancy in an Australian setting. METHODS: Linked hospital, birth, and mortality data for all women with singleton pregnancies in New South Wales, Australia, 2001-2012 were analysed. Exposure of interest was gallstone disease (acute biliary pancreatitis, gallstones with/without cholecystitis)...
September 7, 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876575/neonatal-surgery-a-study-of-two-years-at-nelson-mandela-academic-hospital-mthatha-eastern-cape
#17
A Delgado, A Cejas, D Bangasa
BACKGROUND: Advances in diagnostic techniques and perioperative care have greatly improved the outcome of neonatal surgery. Despite this, disparity still exists in the outcome of neonatal surgery between developed and developing countries. METHOD: We performed a prospective study of neonates admitted and treated due to surgical congenital diseases and other conditions in our hospital from April 2015 to April 2017. RESULTS: There were 19 (28,7%) females and 47 (70,3%) males in this group...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875883/central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-a-resource-limited-south-african-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#18
C Geldenhuys, A Dramowski, A Jenkins, A Bekker
BACKGROUND: The rate of central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in South African (SA) public sector neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is unknown. Tygerberg Children's Hospital (TCH), Cape Town, introduced a neonatal CLABSI surveillance and prevention programme in August 2012. OBJECTIVES: To describe CLABSI events and identify risk factors for development of CLABSI in a resource-limited NICU. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted using prospectively collected NICU CLABSI events matched to four randomly selected controls, sampled from the NICU registry between 9 August 2012 and 31 July 2014...
August 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874628/ureterocele-fenestration-with-holmium-laser-in-neonates
#19
Predrag Ilic, Mirjana Jankovic, Maja Milickovic, Slobodan Dzambasanovic, Vladimir Kojovic
AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of holmium-laser fenestration of intravesical ureteroceles in neonatal period. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We retrospectively analyzed the results of the holmium-laser puncture in ten neonates with intravesical ureterocele, between September 2013 and September 2016. Laser probe was placed through the cystoscope to the lowest and medial portion of the ureterocele, near the bladder floor. Few punctures (4 to 8) were made, until ureterocele has been collapsed...
June 23, 2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870723/managing-malnourishment-in-pregnancy-after-bariatric-surgery
#20
Rachel K Harrison, Charles Berkelhammer, Victor Suarez, Helen H Kay
BACKGROUND: Little information exists to guide monitoring and treatment of malnourishment during pregnancy after bariatric surgery. Here we present a case with severe deficiencies and recommendations for testing and treatment. CASE: Our patient underwent a duodenal switch procedure resulting in significant weight loss and numerous deficiencies. She then experienced a neonatal demise with multiple congenital abnormalities, including diaphragmatic hernia, possibly related to severe vitamin A deficiency...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
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