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Biliary tract

Pei-Shan Wu, Chien Chuang, Ping-Feng Wu, Yi-Tsung Lin, Fu-Der Wang
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics with anaerobic coverage are widely used for the treatment of biliary tract infection (BTI), even in the absence of isolated anaerobes. The current study aimed to investigate the differences in clinical outcomes in patients with community-onset bacteremic BTIs without anaerobic bacteremia, treated with vs. without anti-anaerobic coverage. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted at a medical center in Taiwan from September 2014 to March 2016...
June 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Doaa M Mokhtar
Fish liver is considered as a key organ that controls various life functions. The cellular and stromal elements of liver of eighteen specimens of adult grass carp were investigated by light- and electron- microscopy and enzyme histochemistry. The liver was formed of two lobes with a long process extended from the right lobe. Serial paraffin section of the liver identified different kinds of vascular- biliary structures as follows: 1) pancreatic-venous-biliary-arteriolar tracts (P-VBAT); 2) venous-biliary-arteriolar tracts, (VBAT); 3) pancreatic-venous-biliary tracts (P-VBT); 4) venous-biliary tracts (VBT); 5) venous-arteriolar tracts (VAT); 6) isolated veins named as venous tracts (VT); 7) isolated bile ducts, named as biliary tracts (BT); 8) biliary-arteriolar tracts (BAT); 9) pancreatic-biliary tracts (P-BT); 10) pancreatic- venous tracts (P-VT)...
June 6, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Jolien Derdeyn, Wim Laleman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Every year more than one million people worldwide undergo an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for disorders of the bile duct system. This review aims to discuss recent clinical data with regard to single-operator peroral cholangioscopy (POC). RECENT FINDINGS: Innovations and technical optimizations of POC devices have extended diagnostic and therapeutic options for patients with complex biliary disease. Most of the currently available clinically relevant data are obtained with the single-operator peroral cholangioscopy (SOC)-system SpyGlass, which in a period of a decade has evolved further to a digital platform with increasing applicability, usefulness and cost-effectiveness...
June 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Hayato Nakagawa, Yuki Hayata, Tomoharu Yamada, Satoshi Kawamura, Nobumi Suzuki, Kazuhiko Koike
The identification of the cellular origin of cancer is important for our understanding of the mechanisms regulating carcinogenesis, thus the cellular origin of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a current topic of interest. Although CCA has been considered to originate from biliary epithelial cells, recent studies have suggested that multiple cell types can develop into CCA. With regard to the hilar and extrahepatic bile ducts, peribiliary glands (PBGs), a potential stem cell niche of biliary epithelial cells, have attracted attention as the cellular origin of biliary tract cancer...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chigusa Morizane, Makoto Ueno, Masafumi Ikeda, Takuji Okusaka, Hiroshi Ishii, Junji Furuse
Biliary tract cancer, carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts, carcinoma of the gall bladder, ampullary carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma are often identified at an advanced stage and have poor prognoses. Although effective chemotherapy regimens are needed, their development remains unsatisfactory. From the results of a phase III clinical trial (ABC-02 trial), gemcitabine plus cisplatin is the standard first-line chemotherapeutic regimen for advanced biliary tract cancer. A phase III trial of gemcitabine plus cisplatin vs...
June 11, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Sidra Ali, Shaik Tanveer Ahamad, Abdul Subhan Talpur, Shreeya Parajuli, Jawad Farooq
Introduction Gallstone disease (GD) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the west and most of the countries worldwide. Cholelithiasis and diseases of the biliary tract are becoming more prevalent with the socioeconomic burden in developing countries like Pakistan. GD is a chronic, recurrent hepatobiliary disease, the basis of which is the impaired metabolism of cholesterol, bilirubin, and bile acids, which is characterized by the formation of gallstones in the hepatic bile duct, common bile duct, or gallbladder...
April 7, 2018: Curēus
Edith Lahner, Marina Capasso, Marilia Carabotti, Bruno Annibale
BACKGROUND: Pernicious anaemia (PA) is associated with increased gastric cancer risk, but the evidence is conflicting regarding the associated risk of other cancers. AIM: To systematically determine the incidence rates of gastro-intestinal cancers other than gastric cancers (GI-other-than-GC) and non-gastrointestinal cancers (non-GIC) in PA adults, globally and per tumour site, and the risk associated with PA for GI-other than GC and non-GIC. METHODS: Studies of PA patients reporting the incidence of GI-other-than-GCs and non-GICs were identified with MEDLINE (PubMed)-EMBASE (from first date available to April 2017)...
May 24, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
James H Tabibian, Todd H Baron
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare but clinically important cholestatic liver disease. Histopathologically and cholangiographically, PSC is characterized by intra- and/or extra-hepatic bile duct inflammation and fibro-obliteration, which ultimately leads to biliary cirrhosis and related sequelae, including development of hepatobiliary and colorectal carcinomata. PSC can be diagnosed at essentially any age and carries a median survival of 15-20 years, regardless of age at diagnosis, and is a foremost risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma...
June 8, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Jean-Baptiste Cazauran, Arnaud Muller, Baptiste Hengy, Pierre-Jean Valette, Laurent Gruner, Olivier Monneuse
BACKGROUND: Biliary leak following severe blunt liver injuries is a complex problem becoming more frequent with improvements in non-operative management. Standard treatment requires main bile duct drainage usually performed by endoscopic sphincterotomy and stent placement. We report our experience with cholecystostomy as a first minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic approach. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with post-traumatic biliary leak between 2006 and 2015...
June 7, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Bin Sun, DongHai Yu, Ji Chen, YongHui Tang, Han Wu
Congenital biliary dilatation (CBD) is usually associated with complications such as recurrent cholangitis, manifested as abdominal pain, vomiting, and jaundice. If cholangitis cannot be controlled by conservative treatment, a good therapeutic effect can be obtained through percutaneous biliary drainage or open T-tube drainage. We aimed to evaluate our experiences in biliary drainage through endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in children with cholangitis caused by CBD. From January 2014 to December 2017, 167 children with CBD were treated in our hospital...
June 5, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
Tzu-Yi Wu, Chia-Hua Chung, Chia-Ni Lin, Jing-Shiang Hwang, Jung-Der Wang
Background: The mortality rates for different cancers are no longer an efficient tool for making national policy. The purpose of this study were to quantify the lifetime risks, life expectancies (LEs) after diagnosis, expected years of life lost (EYLL), and lifetime health care expenditures for 19 major cancers in Taiwan. Methods: A total of 831,314 patients with 19 pathologically proven cancers were abstracted from the Taiwan Cancer Registry from 1998 to 2012. They were linked to the National Mortality Registry (1998-2014) and National Health Insurance reimbursement database (1998-2013) for survival and health care costs...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Margaret A Hill, William B Alexander, Bing Guo, Yasutaka Kato, Krushna Chandra Patra, Michael R O'Dell, Matthew N McCall, Christa L Whitney-Miller, Nabeel Bardeesy, Aram F Hezel
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is a primary liver cancer epidemiologically linked with liver injury which has poorly understood incipient stages and lacks early diagnostics and effective therapies. While iCCA is conventionally thought to arise from the biliary tract, studies have suggested that both hepatocytes and biliary cells (cholangiocytes) may give rise to iCCA. Consistent with the plasticity of these cell lineages, primary liver carcinomas exhibit a phenotypic range from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to iCCA with intermediates along this spectrum...
June 5, 2018: Cancer Research
Philippe Bulens, Melissa Thomas, Christophe M Deroose, Karin Haustermans
Radiotherapy is the standard of care in the multimodality treatment of a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) tumours, such as oesophageal cancer, gastric cancer, rectal cancer and anal cancer. Additionally, radiotherapy has served as an alternative for surgery in patients with liver cancer, cancer of the biliary tract and pancreatic cancer. Positron-emission tomography (PET), generally in combination with computed tomography (CT), has an established role in the diagnosis, response assessment and (re-)staging of several GI tumours...
June 4, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Babu Lal Meena, Rajeev Khanna, Chhagan Bihari, Archana Rastogi, Dinesh Rawat, Seema Alam
We studied the etiological spectrum, clinicolaboratory and histological profile, and outcome of infants and children under 18 years of age presenting between December 2010 and May 2016 with histological evidence of paucity of intralobular bile ducts (PILBD, bile ducts to portal tract ratio < 0.6) Post-transplant PILBD was excluded. Of 632 pediatric liver biopsies screened, 70 had PILBD-44 were infants. PILBD was classified histologically into destructive (n = 50) and non-destructive PILBD (n = 20)...
June 4, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Sujuan Li, Bingzhong Su, Ping Chen, Jianyu Hao
Objective Late complications after endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy (EST) include stone recurrence, but no definite risk factors for recurrence have been established. This study was performed to identify the predictors of recurrence and evaluate the clinical outcomes of EST for common bile duct stones. Methods In total, 345 eligible patients who successfully underwent EST were evaluated and followed up. Statistical analysis was performed on patients with recurrence or who had undergone at least 6 months of reliable follow-up to detect the risk factors for recurrence...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Masaru Miyazaki, Hiroaki Shimizu, Hideyuki Yoshitomi, Atsushi Kato, Katsunori Furukawa, Tsukasa Takayashiki, Satoshi Kuboki, Shigetsugu Takano, Masayuki Ohtsuka
Although recent advances in imaging diagnosis, surgical techniques, and perioperative management can result in increased resectability and improved surgical outcomes, most resected patients still develop cancer recurrence. If patients develop cancer recurrence, their prognosis is very ominous. However, there have been some recent reports to show promising outcomes by aggressive surgical strategy in selected patients who developed cancer recurrence. Because there are various surgical procedures being selected at initial surgery in patients with biliary tract cancers, recurrent patterns after resection are very variable in each patient...
September 2017: Annals of gastroenterological surgery
Dennis R Petersen, David J Orlicky, James R Roede, Colin T Shearn
OBJECTIVE: Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) is a severe cholestatic liver disease characterized by progressive peri-biliary tract inflammation, elevated oxidative stress and hepatocellular injury. A hallmark of PSC patients is the concurrent diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease occurring in approximately 70%-80% of PSC patients (PSC/IBD). We previously reported dysregulation of key anti-oxidant pathways in PSC/IBD. The objective of this study was to expand previous data by examining the abundance of thioredoxins (Trx) in PSC/IBD...
May 29, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Lu Wang, Ying Jing, Kaisheng Lai, Jingna An, Jiyong Yang
Kluyvera spp. can cause various infections. However, carbapenemase-producing Kluyvera spp. has not been previously reported. We report a case of biliary tract infection caused by KPC-2-producing K. ascorbata in a 13-year-old female. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on infection caused by carbapenemase-producing Kluyvera spp.
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Liu Yong-Jun, Sun Qing, Chen Juan, Chen Min-Ying, Ouyang Bin, Sun Hua-Dong, Nie Yao, Wang Ping-Ping, Ma Jie, Guan Xiang-Dong
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of biliary tract external drainage (BTED) on inflammatory mediators and pathomorphism of intestine, liver, and lung in septic rats. METHOD: 48 SD rats (n=8 per group) were randomized into six groups: control, sepsis, sepsis plus BTED, normal bile (obtained from 8 healthy rats) and septic bile infusion for 6 hours respectively to test the effects of BTED bile infusion on cytokines' expression and tissue injury in the intestine, liver, and lung of septic/normal rats...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Marcos I Salazar-Jiménez, Javier Alvarado-Durán, Mónica R Fermín-Contreras, Fernando Rivero-Yáñez, Arianne I Lupian-Angulo, Antonio Herrera-González
Background: Gallstone ileus (GI) represents a rare cause of mechanical intestinal occlusion, which is caused by the impaction of a gallstones at the gastrointestinal tract, being most frequently the terminal ileum; its etiology is due to the passage of a calculum through a biliary-enteric fistula. Due to its low incidence, diagnostic suspicion and adequate initial surgical treatment are essential for an adequate clinical evolution. Objective: A bibliographic review on the current surgical management of GI was carried out and exemplified by the presentation a clinical case...
2018: Cirugia y Cirujanos
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