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Adult and Childrens Immunization

Vera Kadlecek, Charissa Fay Borja-Tabora, Susanne Eder-Lingelbach, Salvacion Gatchalian, Sigrid Kiermayr, Benjamin Sablan, Michael Kundi, Christian Taucher, Katrin L Dubischar
BACKGROUND: An inactivated Vero cell culture derived Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine (IXIARO) requires a booster dose 1 year after primary schedule for long-term antibody persistence in adults. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose in children aged 2 months to <18 years. METHODS: A randomized, controlled open-label study in the Philippines. Three hundred children vaccinated with IXIARO in a previous trial were randomized 1:1 to receive either no booster or a booster 12 months after initiation of the primary series...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
E D Batu, A Sarı, A Erden, H E Sönmez, B Armağan, U Kalyoncu, Ö Karadağ, Y Bilginer, A Akdoğan, S Kiraz, S Özen
OBJECTIVE: Immunoglobulin A vasculitis/Henoch-Schönlein purpura (IgAV/HSP) is a systemic vasculitis involving small vessels with the deposition of immune complexes containing IgA. It is the most common primary systemic vasculitis of childhood and is much less common in adults. Our aim was to investigate the differences and similarities between adult and paediatric patients with IgAV/HSP. METHOD: We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 35 adult and 159 paediatric (˂ 18 years old) patients with a clinical diagnosis of IgAV/HSP who were seen at the Departments of Rheumatology and Pediatric Rheumatology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey...
June 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
S Medić, V Petrović, V Milosević, Z Lozanov-Crvenković, S Brkić, N Andrews, F de Ory, C Anastassopoulou
The present cross-sectional serosurvey constitutes the first effort to describe the varicella zoster virus (VZV) seroepidemiology in Serbia. An age-stratified serum bank of 3570 residual samples collected between 2015 and 2016 in each of the seven districts of the Vojvodina Province was tested for IgG anti-VZV antibodies with an enzyme immunoassay. Results were standardised into common units according to the European Sero-Epidemiology Network (ESEN2) methodology. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to examine the relationships between standardised anti-VZV positivity or logarithmically transformed antibody titres and demographic features of study subjects...
June 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Emmanuel Katsanis, Lauren N Sapp, Nicole Varner, Shannon Koza, Baldassarre Stea, Yi Zeng
More than half of patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation at our institution are ethnic or racial minorities, making the search for matched unrelated donors more challenging. Since the introduction of haploidentical bone marrow transplant (haplo-BMT) into our pediatric BMT program in 2015, 69.2% of the recipients have been minorities. Herein, we describe our experience with the first thirteen pediatric and young adult patients with hematologic malignancies who have undergone T-cell replete haplo-BMT following myeloablative conditioning (MAC) at our institution...
June 13, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Anna Starshinova, Irina Dovgalyuk, Andrey Berkos, Yulia Ovchinnikova, Ludmila Bubnova, Piotr Yablonskiy
Background: Nowadays, there is no doubt that the development of infectious process is determined not only by individual features of a human, but also by features of infection agent. It is commonly known that ability to form an adequate immune response is based on immunogenetic peculiarities of macroorganism. Methods: The immunogenetic study was performed in 228 children from 1 to 15 years old with different manifestations of tuberculosis (TB). Control group was consisted of 446 adult healthy donors-residents of the Northwestern region of Russia...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Hiroshi Kimura
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is associated with B-cell proliferative disorders, also transforms T- or natural killer (NK)-lineage cells and has been connected with various T- or NK (T/NK)-cell malignancies, such as extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma-nasal type and aggressive NK-cell leukemia. Chronic active EBV (CAEBV) disease , which occurs most often in children and young adults in East Asia, is an EBV-associated T-/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease. Patients with CAEBV often progress to overt lymphoma or leukemia over a long-term clinical course...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Catarina Faria, Ana Antunes, Henedina Antunes, Susana Carvalho
Herpes zoster, caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation, affects mainly the adult population, although it can occur in children. This happens when primary infection (varicella) has occurred at a very young age or in immunocompromised patients. Complications are rare in healthy individuals. They include VZV cutaneous dissemination, which affects 2%-10% of immunocompromised patients.We present a previously healthy child, with history of varicella during her first month of life, which presented at age 8 with a severe case of herpes zoster, complicated with cutaneous dissemination...
June 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Bastien Joubert, Kevin Rostásy, Jérôme Honnorat
Immune-mediated cerebellar ataxia (CA) comprises a group of rare diseases that are still incompletely described, and are probably underdiagnosed. Both acute and progressive progressions are possible. Different syndromes have been identified, including CA associated with anti-GAD antibodies, the cerebellar type of Hashimoto encephalopathy, primary autoimmune CA, gluten ataxia, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, and paraneoplastic cerebellar degenerations. Most of these syndromes are associated with autoantibodies targeting neuronal antigens...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Kenza A Mansoor, Fadi Qadan, Mathias Schmidt, Nidal A Qinna, Mujtaba Badr, Khalid Z Matalka
Background : Viral influenza infection causes serious health issues especially when an outbreak occurs. Although influenza virus vaccines are available and each year manufactures modify the vaccine depending on the expected mutated strain, it is still far from satisfactory, mainly in young children and older adults. Therefore, a product that can support and shape the immune system to protect against viral flu infections is highly essential. Methods : A functional food water-soluble mixture of pomegranate, red grape, dates, olive fruit, figs, and ginger extracts, termed herein &ldquo;Protector&rdquo;, was prepared and tested in stimulating/modulating the production of specific cytokines, and hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) antibodies following viral flu vaccination in mice...
June 8, 2018: Nutrients
David Boutboul, Hye Sun Kuehn, Zoé Van de Wyngaert, Julie E Niemela, Isabelle Callebaut, Jennifer Stoddard, Christelle Lenoir, Vincent Barlogis, Catherine Farnarier, Frédéric Vely, Nao Yoshida, Seiji Kojima, Hirokazu Kanegane, Akihiro Hoshino, Fabian Hauck, Ludovic Lhermitte, Vahid Asnafi, Philip Roehrs, Shaoying Chen, James W Verbsky, Katherine R Calvo, Ammar Husami, Kejian Zhang, Joseph Roberts, David Amrol, John Sleaseman, Amy P Hsu, Steven M Holland, Rebecca Marsh, Alain Fischer, Thomas A Fleisher, Capucine Picard, Sylvain Latour, Sergio D Rosenzweig
Ikaros/IKZF1 is an essential transcription factor expressed throughout hematopoiesis. IKZF1 is implicated in lymphocyte and myeloid differentiation and negative regulation of cell proliferation. In humans, somatic mutations in IKZF1 have been linked to the development of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adults. Recently, heterozygous germline IKZF1 mutations have been identified in patients with a B cell immune deficiency mimicking common variable immunodeficiency. These mutations demonstrated incomplete penetrance and led to haploinsufficiency...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Mariam Al-Turab, Wassim Chehadeh
Varicella (chickenpox) is the primary infection of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), it is a mild self-limiting infection, but it is also highly contagious and can cause severe complications among high-risk group of individuals. It is usually a childhood infection providing lifelong immunity, but adults without varicella history are also susceptible to infection. High-risk group of individuals is more likely to develop serious complications. Varicella vaccine was introduced to protect this group of individuals and to prevent epidemic spread of VZV infection in a community...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Murat Özkale, Ilknur Erol, Yasemin Özkale, İlknur Kozanoğlu
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is used in the treatment of neurological, hematological, renal and autoimmune diseases with known or suspected immune pathogenesis. In comparison with neurological diseases of adults, knowledge about the use of TPE in children is incomplete. We report our experience on TPE in children with neurological diseases in a single institution and describe the underlying etiology, clinical course, treatment and outcome. We retrospectively evaluated 22 consecutive children (12 girls, 10 boys, aged 2-16 years) who underwent TPE in the pediatric intensive care unit between January 2010 and January 2017...
June 7, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
C Górriz Gil, V Matallana Royo, Ó Álvarez Montero, A Rodríguez Valiente, C Fernández Manzano, B Conde García, J R García-Berrocal
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a recently recognised pathologic entity whose prevalence has risen significantly since first being described in 1993. Defined as a chronic, local immune-mediated disease with predominant eosinophil infiltration, it is nowadays the leading cause of dysphagia and food bolus impaction in children and young adults. Genetic and environmental risk factors, and especially food antigens, trigger the disease and are in the focus of investigation as avoidance can cure three quarters of patients...
June 6, 2018: HNO
Douglas Teixeira Leffa, Iraci L S Torres, Luis Augusto Rohde
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental condition that impairs quality of life in social, academic, and occupational contexts for both children and adults. Although a strong neurobiological basis has been demonstrated, the pathophysiology of ADHD is still poorly understood. Among the proposed mechanisms are glial activation, neuronal damage and degeneration, increased oxidative stress, reduced neurotrophic support, altered neurotransmitter metabolism, and blood-brain barrier disruption...
June 6, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
A Böer-Auer, R Fölster-Holst
Compared with adulthood, inflammatory skin diseases are relatively rarely biopsied in children. Apart from the invasiveness of the procedure, the required local anesthesia, and the risks of infection and scarring, the psychological trauma of the operation has a higher impact in childhood. If a biopsy is performed, expectations towards the dermatopathology report are high. However, the evaluation of biopsies taken from children is challenging for the dermatopathologist: on the one hand, because the biopsies are often tiny or just superficial shaves and, on the other hand, because criteria for evaluation have mostly been developed from findings in adult biopsy specimens...
June 4, 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Amelia T Soderholm, Timothy C Barnett, Othmar Korn, Tania Rivera-Hernandez, Lisa M Seymour, Benjamin L Schulz, Victor Nizet, Christine A Wells, Matthew J Sweet, Mark J Walker
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus ; GAS) commonly causes pharyngitis in children and adults, with severe invasive disease and immune sequelae being an infrequent consequence. The ability of GAS to invade the host and establish infection likely involves subversion of host immune defenses. However, the signaling pathways and innate immune responses of epithelial cells to GAS are not well-understood. In this study, we utilized RNAseq to characterize the inflammatory responses of primary human tonsil epithelial (TEpi) cells to infection with the laboratory-adapted M6 strain JRS4 and the M1T1 clinical isolate 5448...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jens Schmidt
Inflammatory disorders of the skeletal muscle include polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), (immune mediated) necrotizing myopathy (NM), overlap syndrome with myositis (overlap myositis, OM) including anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS), and inclusion body myositis (IBM). Whereas DM occurs in children and adults, all other forms of myositis mostly develop in middle aged individuals. Apart from a slowly progressive, chronic disease course in IBM, patients with myositis typically present with a subacute onset of weakness of arms and legs, often associated with pain and clearly elevated creatine kinase in the serum...
2018: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
Elizabeth Barnby, Mark Reynolds
After a decade of decreases in the incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases, in the late 1980s the incidence began to increase. Four vaccine preventable diseases, including pertussis, caused major epidemics, and children were the most vulnerable during these outbreaks. Due to waning immunity, genomic changes, and inadequate herd immunity in adults, infants and children are at risk for contracting pertussis. Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease. Pertussis is difficult to diagnose early because the presentation is similar to common problems such as bronchitis or upper respiratory infections...
June 1, 2018: NASN School Nurse
Melinda Zsuzsanna Szabó
Primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) are characterized by quantitative and/or functional abnormalities of the immune system elements. Bone and joint abnormalities are not rare in patients with immunodeficiencies. Joint manifestations, of which arthritis is the most common, occur mainly in humoral PIDs (X-linked agammaglobulinemia, common variable immunodeficiency, and IgA deficiency) and occasionally in defects of the phagocyte system (chronic granulomatous disease, glicogen storage diseases). Monoarthritis or oligoarthritis is the usual pattern, caused by Mycoplasma, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pneumococcus or Haemophilus species...
June 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Jack L Martin, Anja V Gruszczyk, Timothy E Beach, Michael P Murphy, Kourosh Saeb-Parsy
Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a major problem in critically unwell children and young adults. Ischaemia reperfusion (IR) injury is a major contributor to the development of AKI in a significant proportion of these cases and mitochondria are increasingly recognised as being central to this process through generation of a burst of reactive oxygen species early in reperfusion. Mitochondria have additionally been shown to have key roles in downstream processes including activation of the immune response, immunomodulation, and apoptosis and necrosis...
June 2, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
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