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Adult and Childrens Immunization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103236/impact-of-cd4-t-cell-responses-on-clinical-outcome-following-oral-administration-of-wild-type-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-in-humans
#1
Monica A McArthur, Wilbur H Chen, Laurence Magder, Myron M Levine, Marcelo B Sztein
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a non-invasive enteric pathogen of considerable public health importance, being one of the most common attributable causes of diarrheal illness in infants and young children in developing countries and the most common cause of traveler's diarrhea. To enhance study-to-study consistency of our experimental challenge model of ETEC in volunteers, and to allow concomitant multi-site trials to evaluate anti-ETEC immunoprophylactic products, hundreds of vials, each containing a standardized inoculum of virulent wild-type (wt) ETEC strain H10407 (serotype O78:H11 expressing colonization factor antigen I and heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins), were prepared under current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) and frozen...
January 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100614/human-rhinovirus-diversity-and-evolution-how-strange-the-change-from-major-to-minor
#2
Nicole Lewis-Rogers, Jon Seger, Frederick R Adler
: Rhinoviruses are the most common cause of the common cold. Their many distinct lineages fall into "major" and "minor" groups that use different cell-surface receptors to enter host cells. Minor-group rhinoviruses are more immunogenic in laboratory studies, although their patterns of transmission and their cold symptoms are broadly similar to those of the major group. Here we present evolutionary evidence that minor-group viruses are also more immunogenic in humans. A key finding is that rates of amino-acid substitution at exposed sites in the capsid proteins VP2, VP3 and VP1 tend to be elevated in minor-group relative to major-group viruses, while rates at buried sites show no consistent differences...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096698/burkitt-lymphoma-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-management-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Massimo Dozzo, Francesca Carobolante, Pietro Maria Donisi, Annamaria Scattolin, Elena Maino, Rosaria Sancetta, Piera Viero, Renato Bassan
About one-half of all Burkitt lymphoma (BL) patients are younger than 40 years, and one-third belong to the adolescent and young adult (AYA) subset, defined by an age between 15 and 25-40 years, based on selection criteria used in different reports. BL is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm displaying highly characteristic clinico-diagnostic features, the biologic hallmark of which is a translocation involving immunoglobulin and c-MYC genes. It presents as sporadic, endemic, or epidemic disease. Endemicity is pathogenetically linked to an imbalance of the immune system which occurs in African children infected by malaria parasites and Epstein-Barr virus, while the epidemic form strictly follows the pattern of infection by HIV...
2017: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094076/influenza-vaccination-in-older-people-with-diabetes-and-their-household-contacts
#4
Lin Yang, Hairong Nan, Jun Liang, Yin Hang Chan, Laam Chan, Rita Wing Man Sum, Yee Mei Kwan, Feifei Zhou, Huaiqing Meng, Lorna Kwai Ping Suen
BACKGROUND: People with diabetes are at a higher risk of influenza infections and severe complications. The vaccination of close contacts could offer indirect protection to people with diabetes; this is known as "herd immunity." The aim of this study is to investigate the vaccination rates of people with diabetes and their household contacts in Hong Kong. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Face-to-face interviews with 158 patients diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes and aged ⩾65years were conducted in clinics...
January 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093266/comparative-analysis-of-nk-cell-receptor-repertoire-in-adults-and-very-elderly-subjects-with-cytomegalovirus-infection
#5
Guillermo Juárez-Vega, Velia Rangel-Ramírez, Adriana Monsiváis-Urenda, Perla Niño-Moreno, Christian Garcia-Sepúlveda, Daniel E Noyola, Roberto González-Amaro
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in children and young adults has been associated with changes in the innate immune system. We herein analyzed the possible effect of very long term HCMV infection on the expression of several NK cell receptors. Ninety HCMV-seropositive individuals were included and classified as young adults (n=30), elderly (n=30) and very elderly subjects (n=30). A peripheral blood sample was obtained and the expression of NK cell receptors (NKG2A, NKG2C, ILT2, CD161, KIR2DL1, KIR3DL1, and KIR3DL2) by NK and other lymphocyte subsets was assessed by flow cytometry...
January 13, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091362/epicutaneous-immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-peanut-allergy-in-children-and-young-adults
#6
Stacie M Jones, Scott H Sicherer, A Wesley Burks, Donald Y M Leung, Robert W Lindblad, Peter Dawson, Alice K Henning, M Cecilia Berin, David Chiang, Brian P Vickery, Robbie D Pesek, Christine B Cho, Wendy F Davidson, Marshall Plaut, Hugh A Sampson, Robert A Wood
BACKGROUND: Peanut allergy is common, life-threatening, and without therapeutic options. We evaluated peanut epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) by using Viaskin Peanut for peanut allergy treatment. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the clinical, safety, and immunologic effects of EPIT for the treatment of peanut allergy. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 74 participants with peanut allergy (ages 4-25 years) were treated with placebo (n = 25), Viaskin Peanut 100 μg (VP100; n = 24) or Viaskin Peanut 250 μg (VP250; n = 25; DBV Technologies, Montrouge, France)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077023/hiv-associated-sub-acute-sclerosing-panencephalitis-an-emerging-threat
#7
Abi Manesh, Mahesh Moorthy, Rini Bandopadhyay, Priscilla Rupali
Earlier age of measles virus infection predisposes to development of sub-acute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and this risk is heightened in HIV-infected children. We describe a HIV-infected young adult on antiretroviral therapy, presenting with a non-classical, fulminant form of SSPE to highlight the unpredictable nature of measles presentation. The recent spate of measles outbreaks due to virus introduction in populations with sub-optimal vaccine coverage or waning immunity and co-existing paediatric HIV cohorts is a cause for concern...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069363/adolescent-booster-with-hepatitis-b-virus-vaccines-decreases-hbv-infection-in-high-risk-adults
#8
Yuting Wang, Taoyang Chen, Ling-Ling Lu, Minjie Wang, Dongmei Wang, Hongyu Yao, Chunsun Fan, Jun Qi, Yawei Zhang, Chunfeng Qu
BACKGROUND: Neutralizing antibodies (anti-HBs) after immunization with hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines against HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) wane after 10-15years. We analyzed the effect of an adolescent booster given to vaccination-protected children born to mothers with different HBsAg-carrying status against HBV infection in their mature adulthood. METHODS: A total of 9793 individuals, who were HBsAg-negative at childhood (baseline) and donated blood samples, both during childhood and adulthood, from the vaccination group in "Qidong Hepatitis B Intervention Study", were enrolled...
January 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069071/sporadic-cases-of-adult-measles-a-research-article
#9
Ranjan Premaratna, Nathasha Luke, Harsha Perera, Mahesh Gunathilake, Pubudu Amarasena, T G A Nilmini Chandrasena
BACKGROUND: Measles caused by a paramyxovirus, characterized by fever, malaise, cough, coryza conjunctivitis, a maculopapular rash is known to result in pneumonia, encephalitis and death. Fatal cases of measles in Sri Lanka are rare after implementation of the National Immunization Programme in 1984. Thereafter 0.1% case fatality rate was observed during October 1999-June 2000 which is a very low figure compared to other regional countries. Immunization guidelines were further revised in 2001, 2011 and in 2012 when additional immunization was recommended to age group 4-21 years; who are likely to have inadequate immunization, in order to achieve elimination of Measles by 2020...
January 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068925/effectiveness-of-a-serological-tool-to-predict-malaria-transmission-intensity-in-an-elimination-setting
#10
Rajika Lasanthi Dewasurendra, Janaka Nandana Dias, Nuno Sepulveda, Geethika Sharmini Abayaweera Gunawardena, Naduviladath Chandrasekharan, Chris Drakeley, Nadira Dharshani Karunaweera
BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka achieved the WHO certificate as a malaria free country in September 2016, thus monitoring of malaria transmission using sensitive and effective tools is an important need. Use of age-specific antibody prevalence as a serological tool to predict transmission intensity is proven to be a cost effective and reliable method under elimination settings. This paper discusses the correlation of four anti-malarial antibodies against vivax and falciparum malaria with the declining transmission intensities in two previously high malaria endemic districts i...
January 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068297/fatty-acid-derivative-chemokine-and-cytokine-profiles-in-exhaled-breath-condensates-can-differentiate-adult-and-children-paucibacillary-tuberculosis-patients
#11
Sergio Fabián Mosquera-Restrepo, Ana Cecilia Caro, Luis F García, Carlos Alberto Peláez-Jaramillo, Mauricio Rojas
The anti-mycobacterial immune response in adults and children with tuberculosis (TB), as well as the response in bacteriologically positive and negative patients, is different. However, knowledge of the immunological events occurring in the lungs in these clinical situations remains scarce. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples may be useful for studying the inflammatory environment of the lower airways in TB patients. The fatty acid, cytokine, and chemokine profiles in EBC from healthy adults; smear-positive and smear-negative adult patients; and healthy, asthmatic, and TB children were determined using gas chromatography and LUMINEX, respectively...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067813/pneumococcal-colonization-in-the-familial-context-and-implications-for-anti-pneumococcal-immunization-in-adults-results-from-the-binocolo-project-in-sicily
#12
Fabio Tramuto, Emanuele Amodio, Giuseppe Calamusa, Vincenzo Restivo, Claudio Costantino, Francesco Vitale, On Behalf Of The Binocolo Group
The spread of Streptococcus pneumoniae within families has been scarcely investigated so far. This feasibility study aimed to estimate the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage in school-aged children and co-habiting relatives and to explore the potential link between the family environment and the sharing of pneumococcal serotypes covered by the vaccine. Oropharyngeal samples of 146 subjects belonging to 36 different family groups were molecularly tested for pneumococcal detection and serotyping. The overall prevalence of pneumococcal carriage was 65...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066895/anti-hmgcr-necrotizing-myopathy-masquerading-as-a-muscular-dystrophy-in-a-child
#13
Payam Mohassel, A Reghan Foley, Sandra Donkervoort, Pierre R Fequiere, Katherine Pak, Carsten G Bönnemann, Andrew L Mammen
INTRODUCTION: Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies (IMNM) are characterized by progressive weakness, elevated serum creatine kinase levels, and necrotizing myopathic features on muscle biopsy. Presence of highly specific autoantibodies against signal recognition particle (SRP) or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl- coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) can aid in recognition and confirmation of IMNMs. METHODS: We describe a boy with HMGCR-positive necrotizing myopathy and highlight the clinical features in this patient...
January 9, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065838/current-results-and-future-research-priorities-in-late-effects-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-hct-for-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-and-thalassemia-a-consensus-statement-from-the-second-pediatric-blood-and-marrow-transplant-consortium-international
#14
Shalini Shenoy, Emanuele Angelucci, Staci D Arnold, K Scott Baker, Monica Bhatia, Dorine Bresters, Andrew C Dietz, Josu De La Fuente, Christine Duncan, Javid Gaziev, Allison A King, Michael A Pulsipher, Angela Smith, Mark C Walters
Sustained donor engraftment after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) converts to healthy donor hemoglobin synthesis and halts disease symptoms in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemia major. A disease free survival probability that exceeds 90% has been reported when HCT using an HLA-matched sibling donor is performed in young patients with low risk disease or treatment related risk factors. Alternate donor HCT and HCT in adults is performed infrequently due to a higher risk profile...
January 5, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065474/a-single-low-dose-of-a-cgmp-recombinant-bcg-vaccine-elicits-protective-t-cell-immunity-against-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-and-prevents-lung-pathology-in-mice
#15
Pablo F Céspedes, Emma Rey-Jurado, Janyra A Espinoza, Claudia A Rivera, Gisela Canedo-Marroquín, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major health burden worldwide, causing the majority of hospitalizations in children under two years old due to bronchiolitis and pneumonia. HRSV causes year-to-year outbreaks of disease, which also affects the elderly and immunocompromised adults. Furthermore, both hRSV morbidity and epidemics are explained by a consistently high rate of re-infections that take place throughout the patient life. Although significant efforts have been invested worldwide, currently there are no licensed vaccines to prevent hRSV infection...
January 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065204/risk-factors-for-pertussis-in-adults-and-teenagers-in-england
#16
A Wensley, G J Hughes, H Campbell, G Amirthalingam, N Andrews, N Young, L Coole
Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis which can be fatal in infants. Although high vaccine coverage led to prolonged disease control in England, a national outbreak of pertussis in 2011 led to the largest increase in over two decades, including a marked increase in cases aged ⩾15 years. A case-control study in four regions of England was undertaken to investigate risk factors for pertussis in adolescents and adults, specifically employment type and professional and household contact with children...
January 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064385/review-of-yoga-therapy-during-cancer-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Suzanne C Danhauer, Elizabeth L Addington, Stephanie J Sohl, Alejandro Chaoul, Lorenzo Cohen
PURPOSE: Reviews of yoga research that distinguish results of trials conducted during (versus after) cancer treatment are needed to guide future research and clinical practice. We therefore conducted a review of non-randomized studies and randomized controlled trials of yoga interventions for children and adults undergoing treatment for any cancer type. METHODS: Studies were identified via research databases and reference lists. Inclusion criteria were the following: (1) children or adults undergoing cancer treatment, (2) intervention stated as yoga or component of yoga, and (3) publication in English in peer-reviewed journals through October 2015...
January 7, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063040/a-mouse-model-for-atopic-dermatitis-using-topical-application-of-vitamin-d3-or-of-its-analog-mc903
#18
Verena Moosbrugger-Martinz, Matthias Schmuth, Sandrine Dubrac
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease with pruritus and high prevalence. Indeed, 15-30 % of children and 2-10 % of adults from industrialized countries are affected. Acute AD lesions are characterized by epidermal hyperplasia associated with a dominant Th2/Th17 immune response and dermal inflammatory infiltrates. Moreover, the expression of alarmins such as TSLP, IL-33, and IL-25 is upregulated in acute AD lesions. Topical application of vitamin D3 or of its low-calcemic analog MC903 induces changes in skin morphology and inflammation resembling immune perturbations observed in acute lesions of patients with AD...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062508/arterial-calcification-in-diabetes-mellitus-preclinical-models-and-translational-implications
#19
John N Stabley, Dwight A Towler
Diabetes mellitus increasingly afflicts our aging and dysmetabolic population. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the antecedent metabolic syndrome represent the vast majority of the disease burden-increasingly prevalent in children and older adults. However, type 1 diabetes mellitus is also advancing in preadolescent children. As such, a crushing wave of cardiometabolic disease burden now faces our society. Arteriosclerotic calcification is increased in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and type 1 diabetes mellitus-impairing conduit vessel compliance and function, thereby increasing the risk for dementia, stroke, heart attack, limb ischemia, renal insufficiency, and lower extremity amputation...
December 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057010/update-on-lysinuric-protein-intolerance-a-multi-faceted-disease-retrospective-cohort-analysis-from-birth-to-adulthood
#20
Wladimir Mauhin, Florence Habarou, Stéphanie Gobin, Aude Servais, Anaïs Brassier, Coraline Grisel, Célina Roda, Graziella Pinto, Despina Moshous, Fahd Ghalim, Pauline Krug, Nelly Deltour, Clément Pontoizeau, Sandrine Dubois, Murielle Assoun, Louise Galmiche, Jean-Paul Bonnefont, Chris Ottolenghi, Jacques de Blic, Jean-Baptiste Arnoux, Pascale de Lonlay
BACKGROUND: Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare metabolic disease resulting from recessive-inherited mutations in the SLC7A7 gene encoding the cationic amino-acids transporter subunit y(+)LAT1. The disease is characterised by protein-rich food intolerance with secondary urea cycle disorder, but symptoms are heterogeneous ranging from infiltrative lung disease, kidney failure to auto-immune complications. This retrospective study of all cases treated at Necker Hospital (Paris, France) since 1977 describes LPI in both children and adults in order to improve therapeutic management...
January 5, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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