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Adult and Childrens Immunization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828296/cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-children-with-celiac-disease-on-a-gluten-free-diet
#1
REVIEW
Caterina Anania, Lucia Pacifico, Francesca Olivero, Francesco Massimo Perla, Claudio Chiesa
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated systemic condition evoked by gluten and related prolamines in genetically predisposed subjects. It is characterised by a variable combination of gluten-dependent clinical symptoms, CD-specific antibodies, HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 haplotypes, and enteropathy. The only therapy of CD consists of a life-long gluten free diet (GFD). Strict GFD adherence results in full clinical, serological and histological remission, avoiding long-term complications in CD patients. However, this diet is not without problems...
August 8, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818050/administration-of-two-probiotic-strains-during-early-childhood-does-not-affect-the-endogenous-gut-microbiota-composition-despite-probiotic-proliferation
#2
Martin Frederik Laursen, Rikke Pilmann Laursen, Anni Larnkjær, Kim F Michaelsen, Martin Iain Bahl, Tine Rask Licht
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are increasingly applied to prevent and treat a range of infectious, immune related and gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, the mechanisms behind the putative effects of probiotics are poorly understood. One of the suggested modes of probiotic action is modulation of the endogenous gut microbiota, however probiotic intervention studies in adults have failed to show significant effects on gut microbiota composition. The gut microbiota of young children is known to be unstable and more responsive to external factors than that of adults...
August 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816920/similar-metabolic-innate-immunity-and-adipokine-profiles-in-adult-and-pediatric-sepsis-versus-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-a-pilot-study
#3
Theonymfi Tavladaki, Anna Maria Spanaki, Helen Dimitriou, Efmorfia Kondili, Christianna Choulaki, Dimitris Georgopoulos, George Briassoulis
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the septic profiles of heat shock protein 72, heat shock protein 90α, resistin, adiponectin, oxygen consumption, CO2 production, energy expenditure, and metabolic pattern, along with illness severity, nutritional, and inflammatory indices, differ between adult and pediatric patients compared with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and healthy controls. To evaluate whether these biomolecules may discriminate sepsis from systemic inflammatory response syndrome in adult and pediatric patients...
August 12, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813518/changes-in-the-incidence-of-pneumonia-bacterial-meningitis-and-infant-mortality-5-years-following-introduction-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-a-3-0-schedule
#4
Sylvia Becker-Dreps, Bryan Blette, Rafaela Briceño, Jorge Alemán, Michael G Hudgens, Gilberto Moreno, Ana Ordoñez, Julio Rocha, David J Weber, Erick Amaya
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes about 826,000 deaths of children in the world each year and many health facility visits. To reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, many nations have added pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to their national immunization schedules. Nicaragua was the first country eligible for GAVI Alliance funding to introduce the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 2010, provided to infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. The goal of this study was to evaluate the population impact of the first five years of the program...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808940/plasma-alpha-l-fucosidase-activity-in-chronic-inflammation-and-autoimmune-disorders-in-a-pediatric-cohort-of-hospitalized-patients
#5
Ildikó Endreffy, Geir Bjørklund, László Szerafin, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Mauricio A Urbina, Emőke Endreffy
Human α-fucosidase (EC 3.2.1.51) is an enzyme (hydrolase) of particular biological and medical interest, as the inherited deficiency in its activity leads to fucosidosis, a pathology belonging to severe glycoprotein lysosomal storage disorders. Although its importance has increased in latest years, data about its plasma level in children with inflammatory disorders are still lacking. In the present study, plasma activity of α-L-fucosidase-1 (FUCA-1) and its potential association with chronic inflammatory pathologies was evaluated in hospitalized individuals, both pediatric and adult ones...
August 14, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807604/focusing-on-the-implementation-of-21st-century-vaccines-for-adults
#6
Paolo Bonanni, Guglielmo Bonaccorsi, Chiara Lorini, Francesca Santomauro, Emilia Tiscione, Sara Boccalini, Angela Bechini
Adult immunization is a priority for public health, particularly in countries where an aging population has become increasingly more numerous. Protection against diseases which typically affect adults (like flu, pneumococcal diseases and Herpes zoster), the shift of age of infections which originally affected children (like measles), the decreasing protection with time for infections which need periodical booster doses of vaccines (Tdap), the availability of vaccines which can also impact on adult health (HPV) are only some examples of the importance of implementing targeted vaccination strategies...
August 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805798/repeated-aav-mediated-gene-transfer-by-serotype-switching-enables-long-lasting-therapeutic-levels-of-hugt1a1-enzyme-in-a-mouse-model-of-crigler-najjar-syndrome-type-i
#7
L Bočkor, G Bortolussi, A Iaconcig, G Chiaruttini, C Tiribelli, M Giacca, F Benvenuti, L Zentilin, A F Muro
Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy is a promising strategy to treat liver-based monogenic diseases. However, two major obstacles limit its success: first, vector dilution in actively dividing cells, such as hepatocytes in neonates/children, due to the non-integrating nature of the vector; second, development of an immune response against the transgene and/or viral vector. Crigler-Najjar Syndrome Type I (CNSI) is a rare monogenic disease with neonatal onset, caused by mutations in the liver-specific UGT1 gene, with toxic accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin in plasma, tissues and brain...
August 14, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805207/periodontal-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Denis F Kinane, Panagiota G Stathopoulou, Panos N Papapanou
Periodontal diseases comprise a wide range of inflammatory conditions that affect the supporting structures of the teeth (the gingiva, bone and periodontal ligament), which could lead to tooth loss and contribute to systemic inflammation. Chronic periodontitis predominantly affects adults, but aggressive periodontitis may occasionally occur in children. Periodontal disease initiation and propagation is through a dysbiosis of the commensal oral microbiota (dental plaque), which then interacts with the immune defences of the host, leading to inflammation and disease...
June 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783380/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-worldwide-epidemiology
#9
Raul Isturiz, Heather L Sings, Betsy Hilton, Adriano Arguedas, Ralf-René Reinert, Luis Jodar
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes mucosal and invasive diseases with high morbidity and mortality. Introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into routine infant immunization programs worldwide resulted in serotype 19A becoming a leading cause of the remaining pneumococcal disease burden in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. This article reviews the impact of the latest generation PCVs (10-valent PCV, PCV10, and 13-valent PCV, PCV13) on serotype 19A. Areas covered: This article covers immune responses elicited by PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13 against serotype 19A and their impact on nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and disease in vaccinated and unvaccinated populations using data from surveillance systems, randomized controlled trials, and observational studies...
August 7, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775233/genetic-and-immune-features-of-resectable-malignant-brainstem-gliomas
#10
Yang Zhang, Changcun Pan, Junmei Wang, Jingli Cao, Yuhan Liu, Yajie Wang, Liwei Zhang
We surveyed common genetic mutations (IDH1, H3F3A, PPM1D, and TP53) and immune features (PD-L1 expression and CD8+ T cell tumor infiltration) in a series of 62 malignant brainstem gliomas that were resected via microsurgery. IDH1 mutations were mutually exclusive with H3F3A mutations. IDH1 mutations appeared only in adults and occurred more frequently in tumors larger than 10cm3 (8/29 vs 1/32, Fisher's exact test, p=0.010). H3F3A mutations occurred more frequently in children and adolescent patients (19/24 vs 18/38, chi-square test, p=0...
July 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770638/systematic-literature-review-comparing-rapid-3-dose-administration-of-the-gsk-tick-borne-encephalitis-vaccine-with-other-primary-immunization-schedules
#11
Ilaria Galgani, Eveline M Bunge, Lisa Hendriks, Christopher Schludermann, Cinzia Marano, Laurence De Moerlooze
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), which is endemic across large regions of Europe and Asia, is most effectively prevented through vaccination. Three-dose primary TBE vaccination schedules are either rapid (0,7,21-days) or conventional (0,28-84-days, 9-12-months). The second dose can also be administered at 14 days for faster priming and sero-protection). Areas covered: We used a three-step selection process to identify 21 publications comparing the immunogenicity and/or safety of different schedules. Expert commentary: Priming with two or three TBE vaccine doses was highly immunogenic...
September 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770443/how-to-proceed-with-examination-of-a-child
#12
REVIEW
Sonia Makhija, Poornima Tiwari
The assessment of a child is quite different from that of adults and requires knowledge of normal variations in anatomy and physiology with growth and development. An important part of initial assessment includes triage and recognizing children with emergency signs so that they can be managed at the earliest to prevent death and referred timely to the specialist. After ruling out emergency signs, the children with priority signs require prompt assessment, management and referral to the specialist. In addition to normal history as in adults, prenatal and birth history, developmental history, immunization history, feeding history and social history are important for complete assessment of the child...
August 3, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768916/high-pathogen-burden-in-childhood-promotes-the-development-of-unconventional-innate-like-cd8-t-cells
#13
Yves T Falanga, Michela Frascoli, Yasin Kaymaz, Catherine Forconi, John Michael Ong'echa, Jeffrey A Bailey, Leslie J Berg, Ann M Moormann
Cellular and humoral constituents of the immune system differ significantly between children and adults, yet very little is known about the impact of early-life pathogen exposure on this immunologic transition. We examined CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets defined by CCR7 and CD45RA expression in two longitudinal pediatric cohorts experiencing divergent levels of pathogen burden. Using multiparameter flow cytometry, along with serological, cytokine, and transcriptomic data, we show that cumulative pathogen burden promotes the development of atypical CD8dim T cells with an innate-like profile (Granzyme Bhi, IFNγlow, TNFαlow, PLFZhi, ID2hi, IKZF2hi) in contrast to age-matched children residing in a low pathogen-exposure area who display a more conventional CD8bright profile (IFNγ+, TNFα+, CCL4+)...
August 3, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768407/the-big-vitamin-d-mistake
#14
Dimitrios T Papadimitriou
Since 2006, type 1 diabetes in Finland has plateaued and then decreased after the authorities' decision to fortify dietary milk products with cholecalciferol. The role of vitamin D in innate and adaptive immunity is critical. A statistical error in the estimation of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin D was recently discovered; in a correct analysis of the data used by the Institute of Medicine, it was found that 8895 IU/d was needed for 97.5% of individuals to achieve values ≥50 nmol/L. Another study confirmed that 6201 IU/d was needed to achieve 75 nmol/L and 9122 IU/d was needed to reach 100 nmol/L...
July 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767726/high-resolution-phenotyping-identifies-nk-cell-subsets-that-distinguish-healthy-children-from-adults
#15
Sanjana Mahapatra, Emily M Mace, Charles G Minard, Lisa R Forbes, Alexander Vargas-Hernandez, Teresa K Duryea, George Makedonas, Pinaki P Banerjee, William T Shearer, Jordan S Orange
Natural killer (NK) cells are critical in immune defense against infected, stressed or transformed cells. Their function is regulated by the heterogeneous expression of a wide array of surface receptors that shape its phenotypic diversity. Although NK cells develop in the bone marrow and secondary lymphoid tissues, substantive differentiation is apparent in the peripheral blood including known age-related variation. In order to gain greater insight into phenotypic and functional variation within peripheral blood NK cells across age groups, we used multi-parametric, polyfunctional flow cytometry to interrogate the NK cell variability in 20 healthy adults and 15 5-10, 11-15 and 16-20 year-old children...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763485/cxcr2-signaling-and-the-microbiome-suppress-inflammation-bile-duct-injury-and-the-phenotype-of-experimental-biliary-atresia
#16
Junbae Jee, Reena Mourya, Pranavkumar Shivakumar, Lin Fei, Michael Wagner, Jorge A Bezerra
Biliary atresia is progressive fibro-inflammatory cholangiopathy of young children. Central to pathogenic mechanisms of injury is the tissue targeting by the innate and adaptive immune cells. Among these cells, neutrophils and the IL-8/Cxcl-8 signaling via its Cxcr2 receptor have been linked to bile duct injury. Here, we aimed to investigate whether the intestinal microbiome modulates Cxcr2-dependent bile duct injury and obstruction. Adult wild-type (WT) and Cxcr2-/- mice were fed a diet supplemented with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP) during pregnancy and lactation, and their pups were injected intraperitoneally with rhesus rotavirus (RRV) within 24 hours of life to induce experimental biliary atresia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762696/probiotics-for-gastrointestinal-conditions-a-summary-of-the-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Thad Wilkins, Jacqueline Sequoia
Probiotics contain microorganisms, most of which are bacteria similar to the beneficial bacteria that occur naturally in the human gut. Probiotics have been widely studied in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The most-studied species include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces. However, a lack of clear guidelines on when to use probiotics and the most effective probiotic for different gastrointestinal conditions may be confusing for family physicians and their patients. Probiotics have an important role in the maintenance of immunologic equilibrium in the gastrointestinal tract through the direct interaction with immune cells...
August 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762079/elevated-serum-ferritin-is-not-specific-for-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#18
Zaher K Otrock, Karl G Hock, Sarah B Riley, Theo de Witte, Charles S Eby, Mitchell G Scott
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, potentially fatal, syndrome of excessive and ineffective activation of the immune system. The majority of the reported data on HLH is from pediatric patients and lacks specificity. This makes HLH diagnosis challenging especially in adults where HLH is triggered by many conditions and can resemble many disease entities. Elevated ferritin is one of the diagnostic criteria for HLH. We determined the conditions associated with elevated ferritin at our medical center to assess how specific ferritin is for predicting HLH...
July 31, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760295/diagnostic-challenges-of-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#19
REVIEW
Zaher K Otrock, Naval Daver, Hagop M Kantarjian, Charles S Eby
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome characterized by excessive activation of the immune system, resulting in overproduction of inflammatory cytokines. Patients usually present with high fever, cytopenias, hyperferritinemia, and hepatosplenomegaly, and their disease process ranges from mild to fatal multiorgan failure. HLH is a heterogeneous group of disorders that can be triggered by infections, neoplasms, or autoimmune diseases. The HLH diagnosis can be difficult to confidently confirm in critically ill patients while waiting for pathology or reference laboratory results to return, delaying the diagnosis with significantly worsened outcomes...
July 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756176/infection-mediated-autoimmune-movement-disorders
#20
Alberto Cucca, Hamzeh A Migdadi, Alessandro Di Rocco
Infectious diseases remain the most common cause of neurological disability in the world. A number of movement disorders can develop in adults and children in response to infections. These can occur in isolation or as part of a broader neurological illness, with movement abnormalities consequent to an encephalopathy or a broader brain dysfunction. While most infection-related movement disorders are direct consequences of an active infectious process affecting cerebral structures implied in the motor network, at times a delayed immune-mediated process in response to a previous infectious is responsible for the neurological dysfunction...
July 21, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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