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Adult and Childrens Immunization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335454/porcine-rotaviruses-epidemiology-immune-responses-and-control-strategies
#1
REVIEW
Anastasia N Vlasova, Joshua O Amimo, Linda J Saif
Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in young animals and children worldwide. Immunocompetent adults of different species become resistant to clinical disease due to post-infection immunity, immune system maturation and gut physiological changes. Of the 9 RV genogroups (A-I), RV A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively) are associated with diarrhea in piglets. Although discovered decades ago, porcine genogroup E RVs (RVE) are uncommon and their pathogenesis is not studied well...
March 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335198/gold-nanoparticles-an-efficient-antimicrobial-agent-against-enteric-bacterial-human-pathogen
#2
Shahzadi Shamaila, Noshin Zafar, Saira Riaz, Rehana Sharif, Jawad Nazir, Shahzad Naseem
Enteric bacterial human pathogens, i.e., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, are the major cause of diarrheal infections in children and adults. Their structure badly affects the human immune system. It is important to explore new antibacterial agents instead of antibiotics for treatment. This project is an attempt to explain how gold nanoparticles affect these bacteria. We investigated the important role of the mean particle size, and the inhibition of a bacterium is dose-dependent...
April 14, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334393/adjuvant-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-for-secondary-prevention-a-systematic-review
#3
Gregory R Dion, Stephanie Teng, Leslie R Boyd, Antonia Northam, Charlotte Mason-Apps, Dorice Vieira, Milan R Amin, Ryan C Branski
Importance: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended for children and younger adults but not older adults or those with prior HPV exposure, leaving a large portion of the population at risk for HPV-mediated disease. Emerging data suggest a possible role for vaccination as an adjuvant treatment for individuals with HPV-related clinical disease. Objective: To systematically review the literature regarding HPV vaccination for secondary disease prevention after treatment of active clinical disease across disease sites to serve as a platform for the management of HPV-related disease of the head and neck...
March 23, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330812/molecular-evidence-for-differential-long-term-outcomes-of-early-life-severe-acute-malnutrition
#4
Allan Sheppard, Sherry Ngo, Xiaoling Li, Michael Boyne, Debbie Thompson, Anthony Pleasants, Peter Gluckman, Terrence Forrester
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in infants may present as one of two distinct syndromic forms: non-edematous (marasmus), with severe wasting and no nutritional edema; or edematous (kwashiorkor) with moderately severe wasting. These differences may be related to developmental changes prior to the exposure to SAM and phenotypic changes appear to persist into adulthood with differences between the two groups. We examined whether the different response to SAM and subsequent trajectories may be explained by developmentally-induced epigenetic differences...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324192/the-presence-of-human-papillomavirus-hpv-in-placenta-and-or-cord-blood-might-result-in-th2-polarization
#5
H-M Koskimaa, A Paaso, M J P Welters, S Grénman, K Syrjänen, S H van der Burg, S Syrjänen
The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an early exposure to human papillomavirus (HPV) during the prenatal period or infancy could result in HPV16-specific T helper (Th) responses resembling those of adults with HPV-induced lesions. We tested HPV16-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in children born with HPV-positive umbilical cord blood and/or placenta or having persistent oral HPV infection and in constantly oral HPV-negative controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 33 children from the Finnish HPV Family Study cohort (mean age 14...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322484/tfe3-positive-renal-cell-carcinoma-occurring-in-three-children-with-dysfunctional-kidneys-on-immunosuppression
#6
Beverly A Schaefer, Theodore S Johnson, David K Hooper, Jaimie D Nathan, James I Geller
Pediatric RCC is a rare pediatric neoplasm and is distinctly different compared to adult RCC, often demonstrating translocation morphology evidenced by unique histopathological features and TFE3 or TFEB nuclear expression. We report three cases of pediatric TFE3 positive RCC (TFE3-RCC) occurring in the setting of chronic kidney disease and long-term pharmacological immunosuppression, including two cases that developed in the native kidney following kidney transplantation. Together, these cases suggest that the kidney microenvironment in combination with immune dysregulation is likely contributing factors in the pathogenesis of some pediatric RCC, warranting further study...
March 21, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301822/elevated-lead-levels-and-changes-in-blood-morphology-and-erythrocyte-cr1-in-preschool-children-from-an-e-waste-area
#7
Yifeng Dai, Xia Huo, Yu Zhang, Tian Yang, Minghui Li, Xijin Xu
Improper dismantling and combustion of electronic waste (e-waste) may release persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals that possess potential risk for human health. Lead (Pb) is carried through the circulatory system by erythrocytes and is known to alter the functions of hematopoietic and immune systems. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Pb exposure on blood morphology and erythrocyte complement receptor 1 (CR1) levels as related to immunologic function in preschool children. We recruited 484 preschool children, 2- to 6-years of age, among whom 332 children were from Guiyu, a typical and primitive e-waste processing area, and 152 children from Haojiang (reference area)...
March 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300755/vitamin-d-impacts-the-expression-of-runx2-target-genes-and-modulates-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-membrane-vesicle-biogenesis-gene-networks-in-143b-osteosarcoma-cells
#8
Rama Garimella, Priyanka Tadikonda, Ossama Tawfik, Sumedha Gunewardena, Peter Rowe, Peter Van Veldhuizen
Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive malignancy of bone affecting children, adolescents and young adults. Understanding vitamin D metabolism and vitamin D regulated genes in OS is an important aspect of vitamin D/cancer paradigm, and in evaluating vitamin D as adjuvant therapy for human OS. Vitamin D treatment of 143B OS cells induced significant and novel changes in the expression of genes that regulate: (a) inflammation and immunity; (b) formation of reactive oxygen species, metabolism of cyclic nucleotides, sterols, vitamins and mineral (calcium), quantity of gap junctions and skeletogenesis; (c) bone mineral density; and (d) cell viability of skeletal cells, aggregation of bone cancer cells and exocytosis of secretory vesicles...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293726/inflammation-in-iga-nephropathy
#9
Thomas Rauen, Jürgen Floege
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most frequently occurring primary glomerulonephritis in Caucasian and Asian populations. Nonetheless, therapeutic recommendations are based on weak evidence, large controlled trials are scarce and, in particular, the additional value of immunosuppression beyond comprehensive supportive measures is not well-established. The use of immunosuppressants is supported by experimental insights into IgAN pathogenesis that suggest an autoimmune component in disease development...
March 14, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288018/cost-effectiveness-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-children-in-portugal
#10
Miguel Gouveia, Francesca Fiorentino, Gonçalo Jesus, João Costa, Margarida Borges
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal infections are the leading cause of vaccine-preventable death in children. In June 2015, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was introduced in the Portuguese Immunization Program. We evaluate the cost-effectiveness of children vaccination with PCV13 versus no vaccination for preventing pneumococcal diseases (PD). METHOD: A cohort simulation model for 2014 Portuguese newborns was used, considering a lifetime horizon and existence of herd effect on adults...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285330/hepatitis-b-vaccination-status-in-an-at-risk-adult-population-long-term-immunity-but-insufficient-coverage
#11
S Hustache, L Moyroud, L Goirand, O Epaulard
In France, hepatitis B (HB) vaccine has been offered to all infants since 1994, and was proposed to all children aged 11 years from 1994 to 1998. Nevertheless, HB vaccine hesitancy may result in low vaccination coverage in present-day at-risk adults. We aimed to determine HB vaccination coverage in adults attending a free testing center for sexually transmitted infections (STI). As part of routine care, three classes of data were anonymously collected from attendees over a 3-month period: results of HB serologic tests; date and number of past anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization(s) (if any) according to health records; and the risk of STI and blood-transmitted infections (BTI)...
March 11, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284681/systematic-review-of-the-cost-effectiveness-of-influenza-immunization-programs
#12
REVIEW
Eon E K Ting, Beate Sander, Wendy J Ungar
BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza immunization programs vary widely across jurisdictions. In Canada, some provinces offer universal programs while others target specific population groups. However, whether targeted or universal programs provide more benefit and value-for-money is unclear. The cost-effectiveness of influenza immunization programs was systematically reviewed to inform policy. METHODS: Citation databases and the grey literature were searched for economic evaluations of influenza immunization programs...
March 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283855/the-role-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-infections-in-the-immunopathology-of-the-respiratory-tract
#13
REVIEW
Malgorzata Pawełczyk, Marek Leszek Kowalski
Viral infections are leading causes of both upper and lower airway acute illness in all age groups of healthy persons, and have also been implicated in the acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disorders like asthma and COPD. Human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus and coronavirus have been considered as the most important respiratory pathogens and relatively little attention has been paid to the role of parainfluenza viruses (hPIVs). Human parainfluenza viruses are single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family that may evoke lower respiratory infections in infants, children and immunocompromised individuals...
March 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283156/dietary-therapy-and-nutrition-management-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-a-work-group-report-of-the-american-academy-of-allergy-asthma-and-immunology
#14
Marion Groetch, Carina Venter, Isabel Skypala, Berber Vlieg-Boerstra, Kate Grimshaw, Raquel Durban, Alison Cassin, Michelle Henry, Kara Kliewer, Lynda Kabbash, Dan Atkins, Anna Nowak-Węgrzyn, Mark Holbreich, Mirna Chehade
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic/immune-antigen-mediated disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. Dietary elimination therapy has been shown to be an effective, drug-free prescription for the treatment of EoE. A range of different dietary elimination therapies have been used. Regardless of the elimination diet chosen, dietary therapy requires in-depth nutrition assessment and management. Elimination diets are not without risk and may impact nutritional status, eating pleasure, and overall quality of life...
March 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275185/broadly-reactive-anti-rsv-g-antibodies-from-exposed-individuals-effectively-inhibit-infection-of-primary-airway-epithelial-cells
#15
B Cortjens, E Yasuda, X Yu, K Wagner, Y B Claassen, A Q Bakker, J B M van Woensel, T Beaumont
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe respiratory disease in young children. Antibodies specific for the RSV prefusion F protein have guided RSV vaccine research and in human serum these antibodies attribute to >90% of the neutralization response, however detailed insight in the composition of the human B cell repertoire against RSV is still largely unknown. In order to study the B cell repertoire of 3 healthy donors for specificity against RSV, CD27(+) memory B cells were isolated and immortalized using BCL6 and Bcl-xL...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271813/immune-response-to-exercise-during-growth
#16
Shlomit Radom-Aizik
Two papers were selected for this commentary. The first paper (Citation 1) suggests that a 10-week, moderate-intensity exercise program performed early after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is feasible in this fragile population, and might improve cell cytotoxicity by redistributing subpopulations of NK cells. This study adds to the growing evidence that enhancing immune cell surveillance (e.g., NK cells) in response to exercise could benefit cancer patients. The second paper (Citation 2) studied neutrophil-related mediators of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines in response to exercise in children compared with adults...
February 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271474/antibody-recognition-of-immunodominant-vaccinia-virus-envelope-proteins
#17
Dirk M Zajonc
Vaccinia Virus (VACV) is an enveloped double stranded DNA virus and the active ingredient of the smallpox vaccine. The systematic administration of this vaccine led to the eradication of circulating smallpox (variola virus, VARV) from the human population. As a tribute to its success, global immunization was ended in the late 1970s. The efficacy of the vaccine is attributed to a robust production of protective antibodies against several envelope proteins of VACV, which cross-protect against infection with pathogenic VARV...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270432/immunogenicity-of-augmented-compared-with-standard-dose-hepatitis-b-vaccine-in-pediatric-patients-on-dialysis-a-midwest-pediatric-nephrology-consortium-study
#18
Jason M Misurac, Rene G VanDeVoorde, Mahmoud Kallash, Franca M Iorember, Kera E Luckritz, Michelle N Rheault, Jennifer G Jetton, Martin A Turman, Gaurav Kapur, Katherine E Twombley, Shireen Hashmat, Donald J Weaver, Jeffrey D Leiser, Corina Nailescu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients on maintenance dialysis have a higher risk of unresponsiveness to hepatitis B vaccination and loss of hepatitis B immunity. Adult guidelines recommend augmented dosing (40 mcg/dose), resulting in improved response in adults. We sought to determine whether children on dialysis mount a similar antibody response when given standard or augmented dosing of hepatitis B vaccine. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This is a retrospective review of patients on dialysis aged <19 years from May 1, 2008 to May 1, 2013 at 12 pediatric dialysis units...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262601/il-6-and-tnf-%C3%AE-in-unmedicated-adults-with-adhd-relationship-to-cortisol-awakening-response
#19
M Corominas-Roso, A Armario, G Palomar, M Corrales, J Carrasco, V Richarte, R Ferrer, M Casas, J A Ramos-Quiroga
There is preliminary evidence that the immune system's cytokines may have impact on ADHD in children. Nevertheless, studies exploring the possible role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adults with ADHD are lacking. This study aimed to assess differences in serum IL-6 and TNF-α between patients and controls and their possible relationship to resting cortisol. 108 adults with ADHD (DSM-IV), 44 inattentive and 64 combined, age ranging between 18 and 55 years, and 27 healthy controls were included. Major psychiatric disorders and organic comorbidities were excluded...
February 20, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253731/age-dependent-allergic-asthma-development-and-cystathionine-gamma-lyase-deficiency
#20
Peipei Wang, Lingyun Wu, Youngjun Ju, Ming Fu, Tian Shuang, Zhong Ming Qian, Rui Wang
<b>Aims:</b> Allergic asthma is more prevalent in children than in adults, for which the pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that age-dependent expression of H2S-generating enzyme, cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE), underlies age-dependent development of allergic asthma. <b>Results:</b> Allergic asthma was induced with ovalbumin in wild-type (WT) and CSE knock-out (KO) mice at young and old ages. Young WT mice developed more severe asthmatic symptoms with higher type-2 immunoreaction than old WT mice, which resulted from lower levels of CSE expression and H2S production in immune cells of young WT mice than in old WT animals...
March 2, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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