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Adult and Childrens Immunization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651021/natural-immune-response-to-plasmodium-vivax-alpha-helical-coiled-coil-protein-motifs-and-its-association-with-the-risk-of-p-vivax-malaria
#1
Nora Céspedes, Connie S N Li Wai Suen, Cristian Koepfli, Camila T França, Ingrid Felger, Issa Nebie, Myriam Arévalo-Herrera, Ivo Mueller, Giampietro Corradin, Sócrates Herrera
Protein α-helical coiled coil structures are known to induce antibodies able to block critical functions in different pathogens. In a previous study, a total of 50 proteins of Plasmodium vivax erythrocytic asexual stages containing α-helical coiled coil structural motifs were identified in silico, and the corresponding peptides were chemically synthesized. A total of 43 peptides were recognized by naturally acquired antibodies in plasma samples from both Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Colombian adult donors. In this study, the association between IgG antibodies to these peptides and clinical immunity was further explored by measuring total IgG antibody levels to 24 peptides in baseline samples from a longitudinal study of children aged 1-3 years (n = 164) followed for 16 months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647558/durable-chimerism-and-long-term-survival-following-unrelated-umbilical-cord-blood-transplantation-for-pediatric-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-a-single-center-experience
#2
Sachit A Patel, Heather A Allewelt, Jesse D Troy, Paul L Martin, Timothy A Driscoll, Vinod K Prasad, Joanne Kurtzberg, Kristin M Page, Suhag H Parikh
Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disorder of immune dysregulation characterized by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, CNS disease, increased inflammatory markers and hemophagocytosis. Currently, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only curative approach for patients with HLH with reported survival ranging from 50-70% with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens. However, donor availability and transplant related mortality associated with conventional MAC are major barriers to success...
June 21, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646959/is-chickenpox-so-bad-what-do-we-know-about-immunity-to-varicella-zoster-virus-and-what-does-it-tell-us-about-the-future
#3
Anne A Gershon
Varicella and zoster continue to cause significant morbidity and even mortality in children and adults. Complications include bacterial superinfection, central nervous system manifestations such as meningitis, encephalitis, and cerebellar ataxia, and pain syndromes especially post herpetic neuralgia. Many developed countries but not all, are now administering live attenuated varicella vaccine routinely, with a decrease in the incidence of disease, providing personal and herd immunity. There is some controversy, however, in some countries concerning whether a decrease in the circulation of wild type virus will result in loss of immunity to VZV in persons who have already had varicella...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643294/-saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-influences-the-gut-associated-immune-system
#4
Heike Stier, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The impact of the intestinal microbiome is increasing steadily with regard to the immune function und the defense against pathogens. The medicinal yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (S. boulardii) has been used as probiotic for the prevention and treatment of infectious diarrhea since more than 50 years. Meta-analyses confirm the clinical efficacy of S. boulardii to treat diarrhea of various origins in children and adults. METHOD: This review article summarizes experimental studies on molecular and immunological mechanisms which explain the proven clinical efficacy of S...
June 2017: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639937/a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-compared-with-standard-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-transverse-myelitis-in-adults-and-children-strive
#5
Michael Absoud, Peter Brex, Olga Ciccarelli, Onyinye Diribe, Gavin Giovannoni, Jennifer Hellier, Rosemary Howe, Rachel Holland, Joanna Kelly, Paul McCrone, Caroline Murphy, Jackie Palace, Andrew Pickles, Michael Pike, Neil Robertson, Anu Jacob, Ming Lim
BACKGROUND: Transverse myelitis (TM) is an immune-mediated disorder of the spinal cord that affects adults and children and that causes motor, sensory and autonomic dysfunction. There is a prolonged recovery phase, which may continue for many years. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an uncommon relapsing inflammatory central nervous system condition in which TM can be the first presenting symptom. As TM and NMO affect many patients in the prime of their working life, the disorder can impose a significant demand on health resources...
May 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639095/knowledge-awareness-and-prevention-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-korean-american-parents
#6
Sarah Hyun, Seulgi Lee, William R Ventura, Joseph McMenamin
Hepatitis B (HB) affects 240 million people around the world, and children and young adults make up a large proportion of the infected population. Approximately 1 million people die from HB each year. Despite the seriousness of HB and its complications, many are poorly linked to clinical care. A lack of health literacy may be a critical barrier hindering access to HB care for adults as well as children in these populations. We, therefore, performed a survey to assess the level of knowledge of HB among Korean American parents...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637924/vp4-and-vp7-specific-antibodies-mediate-heterotypic-immunity-to-rotavirus-in-humans
#7
Nitya Nair, Ningguo Feng, Lisa K Blum, Mrinmoy Sanyal, Siyuan Ding, Baoming Jiang, Adrish Sen, John M Morton, Xiao-Song He, William H Robinson, Harry B Greenberg
Human rotaviruses (RVs) are the leading cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid induction of heterotypic protective immunity to RV, which provides the basis for the efficacy of licensed monovalent RV vaccines, have remained unknown for more than 30 years. We used RV-specific single cell-sorted intestinal B cells from human adults, barcode-based deep sequencing of antibody repertoires, monoclonal antibody expression, and serologic and functional characterization to demonstrate that infection-induced heterotypic immunoglobulins (Igs) primarily directed to VP5*, the stalk region of the RV attachment protein, VP4, are able to mediate heterotypic protective immunity...
June 21, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624119/skin-infiltrating-interleukin-22-producing-t-cells-differentiate-pediatric-psoriasis-from-adult-psoriasis
#8
Kelly M Cordoro, Maria Hitraya-Low, Keyon Taravati, Priscila Munoz Sandoval, Esther Kim, Jeffrey Sugarman, Mariela L Pauli, Wilson Liao, Michael D Rosenblum
BACKGROUND: Evidence from adult psoriasis studies implicates an imbalance between regulatory and effector T cells, particularly TH-17-producing T cells, in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Little is known about the immunopathology of psoriasis in children. OBJECTIVE: We sought to functionally characterize the inflammatory cell profiles of psoriatic plaques from pediatric patients and compare them with healthy, age-matched controls and adult psoriasis patients. METHODS: Skin samples from pediatric psoriasis patients and healthy controls were analyzed by multiparameter flow cytometry to determine the dominant immune cell subsets present and cytokines produced...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620836/sox2-immunity-and-tissue-resident-memory-in-children-and-young-adults-with-glioma
#9
Juan C Vasquez, Anita Huttner, Lin Zhang, Asher Marks, Amy Chan, Joachim M Baehring, Kristopher T Kahle, Kavita M Dhodapkar
Therapies targeting immune checkpoints are effective in tumors with a high mutation burden that express multiple neo-antigens. However, glial tumors including those seen in children carry fewer mutations and there is an unmet need to identify new antigenic targets of anti-tumor immunity. SOX2 is an embryonal stem cell antigen implicated in the biology of glioma initiating cells. Expression of SOX2 by pediatric glial tumors and the capacity of the immune system in these patients to recognize SOX2 has not been previously studied...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615416/il-17-receptor-a-maintains-and-protects-the-skin-barrier-to-prevent-allergic-skin-inflammation
#10
Achilleas Floudas, Sean P Saunders, Tara Moran, Christian Schwartz, Emily Hams, Denise C Fitzgerald, James A Johnston, Graham S Ogg, Andrew N McKenzie, Patrick T Walsh, Padraic G Fallon
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease affecting up to 20% of children and 3% of adults worldwide and is associated with dysregulation of the skin barrier. Although type 2 responses are implicated in AD, emerging evidence indicates a potential role for the IL-17A signaling axis in AD pathogenesis. In this study we show that in the filaggrin mutant mouse model of spontaneous AD, IL-17RA deficiency (Il17ra(-/-) ) resulted in severe exacerbation of skin inflammation. Interestingly, Il17ra(-/-) mice without the filaggrin mutation also developed spontaneous progressive skin inflammation with eosinophilia, as well as increased levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and IL-5 in the skin...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614111/comparing-paternal-and-maternal-factors-in-childhood-atopic-dermatitis
#11
Alexandra R Vaughn, Raja K Sivamani, Peter A Lio, Vivian Y Shi
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease that chronically affects children and adults worldwide. Environmental exposures, heritable factors, immune dysregulation, and skin barrier malfunction all contribute to the multifactorial nature of AD. It is known that maternal and paternal influences are important predictors for the risk of AD in offspring. This review examines and compares the evidence and mechanisms behind specific maternal and paternal factors that may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD...
June 13, 2017: Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609450/serological-signatures-of-declining-exposure-following-intensification-of-integrated-malaria-control-in-two-rural-senegalese-communities
#12
Ronald Perraut, Marie-Louise Varela, Cheikh Loucoubar, Oumy Niass, Awa Sidibé, Adama Tall, Jean-François Trape, Amele Nyedzie Wotodjo, Babacar Mbengue, Cheikh Sokhna, Inès Vigan-Womas, Aissatou Touré, Vincent Richard, Odile Mercereau-Puijalon
Recent control scale-up has reduced malaria in many areas but new tools are needed to monitor further progress, including indicators of decreasing exposure to parasite infection. Although serology is considered a promising approach in this regard, the serological impact of control interventions has been so far studied using indirect quantification of exposure. Cohort surveys concomitantly recording entomological and malariometric indices have been conducted in two Senegalese settings where supervised control intensification implemented in 2006 shifted malaria from historically holoendemic in Dielmo and mesoendemic in Ndiop to hypoendemic in both settings by 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604239/continuing-challenges-and-current-issues-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#13
Ankit Kansagra, Saurabh Dahiya, Mark Litzow
Conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has resulted into high cure rates for pediatric patients, however outcomes for adult patients remain suboptimal. The 5-year overall survival is only 30-40% in adults and elderly patients with ALL compared to 90% in children. We have seen major advances in our understanding and management of ALL related to identification of new cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities and development of novel targeted agents for the treatment of ALL...
June 11, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592296/pigsties-near-dwellings-as-a-potential-risk-factor-for-the-prevalence-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-in-adult-in-shanxi-china
#14
Xiaojie Ren, Shihong Fu, Peifang Dai, Huanyu Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Xiaolong Li, Wenwen Lei, Xiaoyan Gao, Ying He, Zhi Lv, Jingxia Cheng, Guiqin Wang, Guodong Liang
BACKGROUND: The increasing trend of adult cases of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in China, particularly in northern China, has become an important public health issue. We conducted an epidemiological investigation in the south of Shanxi Province to examine the relationships between mosquitoes, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and adult JE cases. METHODS: Mosquito specimens were collected from the courtyards of farmers' households and pig farms in Shanxi Province...
June 8, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592089/-prevalence-of-hepatitis-a-antibody-among-population-covered-by-different-hepatitis-a-immunization-strategies-in-shandong-province-2015-china
#15
Q Kong, B Y Yan, J J Lyu, Y Feng, J Y Liu, L Z Song, Q Xu, L Zhang, A Q Xu
Objective: To evaluate prevalence of hepatitis A antibody (anti-HAV IgG) among population covered by different hepatitis A vaccine immunization strategies in Shandong Province in 2015. Methods: In October 2015, according to the geographical location of Shandong Province, the stratified random sampling method was used to stratify the 17 municipal distrcts, and the random number table method was used for sampling, First, two eastern cites (Qingdao, Rizhao), two western cities (Liaocheng, Zaozhuang) and three central cities (Jinan, Zibo and Laiwu) were selected; secondly, one county was drawn from each city...
June 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576586/-the-lung-microbiota-review
#16
M-C Ploton, S Abakka, E Amouyal, C Besnard, L Dufour, S El Harrif, C Kipnis, B Prim, J Vignot, V Houdouin
In the last 20years, culture-independent DNA-based techniques ("shotgun sequencing") demonstrated that complex microbial communities reside on most epithelial surfaces, including the lower airways. Until the amniotic sac ruptures, a fetus is considered to be essentially sterile. Many factors affect the composition of the lung microbiota: inheritance, mode of delivery, diet, and age-related changes in adults. It interacts with the digestive and oropharyngeal microbiotas. Animal models show that these interactions play a role in innate pulmonary immunity and modulation of the inflammatory response...
May 30, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558985/factors-associated-with-parental-acceptance-of-seasonal-influenza-vaccination-for-their-children-a-telephone-survey-in-the-adult-population-in-germany
#17
Lena Boes, Birte Boedeker, Patrick Schmich, Matthias Wetzstein, Ole Wichmann, Cornelius Remschmidt
INTRODUCTION: Influenza vaccination of children with underlying chronic diseases is currently recommended in Germany, but targeting all children constitutes an alternative approach to control seasonal influenza. To inform the modelling of vaccination impact and possible communication activities, we aimed to assess among parents the acceptance of universal childhood vaccination against seasonal influenza and possible modifiers. METHODS: We conducted a telephone survey in households in Germany using random digit dialing...
May 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558810/varicella-associated-pneumoniae-in-a-pediatric-population
#18
Elena Bozzola, Guido Castelli Gattinara, Mauro Bozzola, Nadia Mirante, Marco Masci, Chiara Rossetti, Andrzej Krzystofiak, Luciana Nicolosi, Renato Cutrera, Laura Lancella, Alberto Eugenio Tozzi, Alberto Villani
BACKGROUND: Varicella pneumonia has been studied extensively in adults; it may also affect children and may require hospitalization. METHODS: We examined pneumonia complications in children hospitalized for varicella, over a 13 year period. RESULTS: Pneumonia occurred in 8.2% of children hospitalized for varicella. The median length of hospitalization was 6 days. No statistically significant difference in length of stay was detected between immunodepressed children and previously healthy children...
May 30, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558308/age-predicts-cytokine-kinetics-and-innate-immune-cell-activation-following-intranasal-delivery-of-ifn%C3%AE-and-gm-csf-in-a-mouse-model-of-rsv-infection
#19
Katherine M Eichinger, Erin Resetar, Jacob Orend, Kacey Anderson, Kerry M Empey
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children and is further associated with increased healthcare utilization and cost of care in the first years of life. Severe RSV disease during infancy has also been linked to the later development of allergic asthma, yet there remains no licensed RSV vaccine or effective treatment. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that disease severity and development of allergic asthma are associated with differences in cytokine production...
May 27, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557748/the-next-7-great-achievements-in-pediatric-research
#20
Tina L Cheng, Clifford W Bogue, George J Dover
The "7 Great Achievements in Pediatric Research" campaign noted discoveries in the past 40 years that have improved child and adult health in the United States and around the globe. This article predicts the next 7 great pediatric research advancements, including new immunizations, cancer immunotherapy, genomic discoveries, identification of early antecedents of adult health, impact of specific social-environmental influences on biology and health, quality improvement science, and implementation and dissemination research to reduce global poverty...
May 2017: Pediatrics
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