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Adult and Childrens Immunization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235414/zikaplan-zika-preparedness-latin-american-network
#1
A Wilder-Smith, R Preet, K E Renhorn, R A Ximenes, L C Rodrigues, T Solomon, J Neyts, L Lambrechts, H Willison, R Peeling, A K Falconar, A R Precioso, J Logan, T Lang, H P Endtz, M C Erasmus, E Massad
The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Pacific Islands has underlined the need for a coordinated research network across the whole region that can respond rapidly to address the current knowledge gaps in Zika and enhance research preparedness beyond Zika. The European Union under its Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme awarded three research consortia to respond to this need. Here we present the ZikaPLAN (Zika Preparedness Latin American Network) consortium...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234969/monoclonal-antibodies-for-treatment-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#2
REVIEW
Mahsa Eskian, MirHojjat Khorasanizadeh, Amal H Assa'ad, Nima Rezaei
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus affecting both children and adults, with debilitating and progressive symptoms. EoE has shown an explosive epidemiological rise in the past few decades. Many patients experience a poor level of disease control despite maximal use of available guideline-based therapies, which seriously hampers their quality of life. Diet restrictions and systemic and topical corticosteroids are the current mainstays of EoE therapy, but are associated with significant efficacy, treatment compliance, and safety issues such as oral or esophageal candidiasis, growth retardation, osteopenia, osteoporosis, glucose intolerance, and cataract formation...
December 12, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234503/study-protocol-for-a-phase-ii-dose-evaluation-randomized-controlled-trial-of-cholecalciferol-in-critically-ill-children-with-vitamin-d-deficiency-vitdal-picu-study
#3
Dayre McNally, Karin Amrein, Katharine O'Hearn, Dean Fergusson, Pavel Geier, Matt Henderson, Ali Khamessan, Margaret L Lawson, Lauralyn McIntyre, Stephanie Redpath, Hope A Weiler, Kusum Menon
Background: Clinical research has recently demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is highly prevalent in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and associated with worse clinical course. Multiple adult ICU trials have suggested that optimization of vitamin D status through high-dose supplementation may reduce mortality and improve other clinically relevant outcomes; however, there have been no trials of rapid normalization in the PICU setting. The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of an enteral weight-based cholecalciferol loading dose regimen in critically ill children with VDD...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232664/vaccination-practices-in-pediatric-dialysis-patients-across-europe-a-european-pediatric-dialysis-working-group-and-european-society-for-pediatric-nephrology-dialysis-working-group-study
#4
Sevcan A Bakkaloğlu, Yesim Özdemir Atikel, Fabio Paglialonga, Constantinos J Stefanidis, Varvara Askiti, Enrico Vidal, Gema Ariceta, Engin Melek, Enrico Verrina, Nikoleta Printza, Karel Vondrak, Aleksandra Zurowska, Ilona Zagozdzon, Mesiha Ekim, Elif Nursel Özmert, Stephanie Dufek, Augustina Jankauskiene, Claus Peter Schmitt, Eszter Lévai, Johan Vande Walle, Nur Canpolat, Tuula Holtta, Michel Fischbach, Guenter Klaus, Christoph Aufricht, Rukshana Shroff, Alberto Edefonti
BACKGROUND: Data on the immunization practices in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current vaccination practices for children on dialysis across European pediatric nephrology centers. METHODS: A total of 18 tertiary pediatric nephrology centers from 12 European countries were included in the study. The data on universal national immunization programs and immunization practices for children with chronic disease or risk were recorded from European Center for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Health Organization...
December 12, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232457/imported-malaria-in-northern-italy-epidemiology-and-clinical-features-observed-over-18-years-in-the-teaching-hospital-of-brescia
#5
Paola Zanotti, Silvia Odolini, Lina Rachele Tomasoni, Cecilia Grecchi, Silvio Caligaris, Maurizio Gulletta, Alberto Matteelli, Veronica Cappa, Francesco Castelli
Background: Even though malaria incidence is decreasing worldwide, travel-related cases reported in Europe have remained stable in recent years. In Italy, incidence had increased in the 1990s, reaching a peak in 1999; a slow decline was then reported over the subsequent decade. To our knowledge, few published data are available on imported malaria in Italy since 2010. In this article we aimed to analyse trends in imported malaria in the teaching hospital of Brescia, northern Italy, over the last 18 years...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229171/special-considerations-in-pediatric-kidney-transplantation
#6
REVIEW
Sean A Hebert, Rita D Swinford, David R Hall, Jason K Au, John S Bynon
Universally accepted as the treatment of choice for children needing renal replacement therapy, kidney transplantation affords children the opportunity for an improved quality of life over dialysis therapy. Immunologic and surgical advances over the last 15 years have improved the pediatric patient and kidney graft survival. Unique to pediatrics, congenital genitourinary anomalies are the most common primary diseases leading to kidney failure, many with urological issues. Early urological evaluation for post-transplant bladder dysfunction and emphasis on immunization adherence are the mainstays of pediatric pretransplant and post-transplant evaluations...
November 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229167/glomerular-diseases-in-children
#7
REVIEW
Scott E Wenderfer, Joseph P Gaut
Unique challenges exist in the diagnosis and treatment of glomerular diseases with their onset during childhood. Mounting evidence supports the notion that earlier onset cases occur due to larger numbers of genetic risk alleles. Nearly all causes of adult-onset glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and thrombotic microangiopathy have also been described in children, although the prevalence of specific causes differs. Postinfectious glomerulonephritis, Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis, and minimal change disease remain the most common causes of glomerular disease in younger children in the United States and can be diagnosed clinically without need for biopsy...
November 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227476/the-molecular-landscape-of-pediatric-acute-myeloid-leukemia-reveals-recurrent-structural-alterations-and-age-specific-mutational-interactions
#8
Hamid Bolouri, Jason E Farrar, Timothy Triche, Rhonda E Ries, Emilia L Lim, Todd A Alonzo, Yussanne Ma, Richard Moore, Andrew J Mungall, Marco A Marra, Jinghui Zhang, Xiaotu Ma, Yu Liu, Yanling Liu, Jaime M Guidry Auvil, Tanja M Davidsen, Patee Gesuwan, Leandro C Hermida, Bodour Salhia, Stephen Capone, Giridharan Ramsingh, Christian Michel Zwaan, Sanne Noort, Stephen R Piccolo, E Anders Kolb, Alan S Gamis, Malcolm A Smith, Daniela S Gerhard, Soheil Meshinchi
We present the molecular landscape of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and characterize nearly 1,000 participants in Children's Oncology Group (COG) AML trials. The COG-National Cancer Institute (NCI) TARGET AML initiative assessed cases by whole-genome, targeted DNA, mRNA and microRNA sequencing and CpG methylation profiling. Validated DNA variants corresponded to diverse, infrequent mutations, with fewer than 40 genes mutated in >2% of cases. In contrast, somatic structural variants, including new gene fusions and focal deletions of MBNL1, ZEB2 and ELF1, were disproportionately prevalent in young individuals as compared to adults...
December 11, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225605/the-state-of-cellular-adoptive-immunotherapy-for-neuroblastoma-and-other-pediatric-solid-tumors
#9
Thanh-Phuong Le, To-Ha Thai
Research on adult cancer immunotherapy is proceeding at a rapid pace resulting in an impressive success rate exemplified by a few high profile cases. However, this momentum is not readily extended to pediatric immunotherapy, and it is not for lack of trying. Though reasons for the slower advance are not apparent, some issues can be raised. Pediatric cancer patients represent a distinct demographic group whose immune system is inherently different from that of mature adults. Treating pediatric patients with immunotherapy designed for adults may not yield objective clinical responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224962/incidence-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-before-and-during-an-era-of-use-of-three-different-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-in-quebec
#10
Philippe De Wals, Brigitte Lefebvre, Geneviève Deceuninck, Jean Longtin
BACKGROUND: In Quebec, 7-valent (PCV7), 10-valent (PCV10) and 13-valent (PCV13) pneumococcal conjugate vaccines were successively used for the immunization of children according to a 2+1 doses schedule. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the impact of this program on the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children and adults. METHODS: Notification and laboratory surveillance data were analyzed and the immunization status of IPD cases in children was checked...
December 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224923/allele-specific-methylation-of-type-1-diabetes-susceptibility-genes
#11
Alida S D Kindt, Rainer W Fuerst, Jan Knoop, Michael Laimighofer, Tanja Telieps, Markus Hippich, Maria A Woerheide, Simone Wahl, Rory Wilson, Eva-Maria Sedlmeier, Angela Hommel, John A Todd, Jan Krumsiek, Anette-G Ziegler, Ezio Bonifacio
The susceptibility to autoimmune diseases is influenced by genes encoding major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. By examining the epigenetic methylation maps of cord blood samples, we found marked differences in the methylation status of CpG sites within the MHC genes (cis-metQTLs) between carriers of the type 1 diabetes risk haplotypes HLA-DRB1*03-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 (DR3-DQ2) and HLA-DRB1*04-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 (DR4-DQ8). These differences were found in children and adults, and were accompanied by reduced HLA-DR protein expression in immune cells with the HLA-DR3-DQ2 haplotype...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218577/street-foods-exacerbate-effects-of-the-environmental-burden-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-nigeria
#12
Osazuwa Clinton Ekhator, Nnaemeka Arinze Udowelle, Sorbari Igbiri, Rose Ngozi Asomugha, Chiara Frazzoli, Orish Ebere Orisakwe
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of well-known toxicants with carcinogenic potential and other health effects including on the immune system. The high health risks of non-communicable diseases and relevant comorbidities in Africa, particularly in contaminated areas like e-waste and crude oil and gas exploration areas and for high consumers of food commodity groupings which are most critical for PAH exposure, are exacerbated by dietary exposure due to unsafe practices in commonly consumed foods, like those street vended...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217660/chimeric-pneumoviridae-fusion-proteins-as-immunogens-to-induce-cross-neutralizing-antibody-responses
#13
Eduardo Olmedillas, Olga Cano, Isidoro Martínez, Daniel Luque, María C Terrón, Jason S McLellan, José A Melero, Vicente Más
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV), two members of the Pneumoviridae family, account for the majority of severe lower respiratory tract infections worldwide in very young children. They are also a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly and immunocompromised adults. High levels of neutralizing antibodies, mostly directed against the viral fusion (F) glycoprotein, correlate with protection against either hRSV or hMPV However, no cross-neutralization is observed in polyclonal antibody responses raised after virus infection or immunization with purified F proteins...
December 7, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217370/a-quality-improvement-initiative-to-increase-tdap-tetanus-diphtheria-acellular-pertussis-vaccination-coverage-among-direct-health-care-providers-at-a-children-s-hospital
#14
Changhong Jiang, LaQuita Whitmore-Sisco, Aditya H Gaur, Elisabeth E Adderson
OBJECTIVES: Health care providers (HCP) are at high risk of acquiring and transmitting pertussis to susceptible family members, co-workers, and patients. Public health authorities recommend administering a single dose of Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis) vaccine to all adults, including HCP, to increase adult immunity to pertussis. We set a quality improvement goal to increase Tdap vaccination coverage among HCP who provided direct patient care at a children's hospital from 58% to 90% over 18 months...
December 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213258/the-complexity-of-antibody-responses-elicited-against-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-glycoproteins-in-hospitalized-children-younger-than-2-years
#15
Alfonsina Trento, Rosa Rodríguez-Fernández, María I González-Sánchez, Felipe González-Martínez, Vicente Mas, Mónica Vázquez, Concepción Palomo, José A Melero
The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the antibody responses to human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) glycoproteins in very young children has been a matter of controversy. Both, immaturity of the immune system at very early age and suppression of the host immune response by high level of maternal antibodies have been claimed to limit the host antibody response to virus infection and to jeopardize the use of hRSV vaccines under development in that age group. Hence, the antibody responses to the two major hRSV glycoproteins (F and G) were evaluated in children younger than 2 years, hospitalized with laboratory confirmed hRSV bronchiolitis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208744/severity-of-acute-infectious-mononucleosis-correlates-with-cross-reactive-influenza-cd8-t-cell-receptor-repertoires
#16
Nuray Aslan, Levi B Watkin, Anna Gil, Rabinarayan Mishra, Fransenio G Clark, Raymond M Welsh, Dario Ghersi, Katherine Luzuriaga, Liisa K Selin
Fifty years after the discovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), it remains unclear how primary infection with this virus leads to massive CD8 T-cell expansion and acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) in young adults. AIM can vary greatly in severity, from a mild transient influenza-like illness to a prolonged severe syndrome. We questioned whether expansion of a unique HLA-A2.01-restricted, cross-reactive CD8 T-cell response between influenza virus A-M158 (IAV-M1) and EBV BMLF1280 (EBV-BM) could modulate the immune response to EBV and play a role in determining the severity of AIM in 32 college students...
December 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207763/carbamazepine-induced-thrombocytopenia
#17
Ruhi Kumar, Sridhar Chivukula, Goutham Reddy Katukuri, U K Chandrasekhar, K N Shivashankar
Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) are commonly associated with haematological disorders, including anaemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and even bone marrow failure. Fatal disorders like aplastic anaemia are uncommon. On exploring through the literature, older AEDs are more associated with haematological alterations than newer AEDs, and careful monitoring is warranted especially with phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate. The exact cause of these alterations is not established, though immune mechanisms and pharmacology of individual drugs are the proposed mechanisms, a further research along this path is underway...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203544/mapping-protective-regions-on-a-three-dimensional-model-of-the-moraxella-catarrhalis-vaccine-antigen-oligopeptide-permease-a
#18
Antonia C Perez, Antoinette Johnson, Ziqiang Chen, Gregory E Wilding, Michael G Malkowski, Timothy F Murphy
A vaccine against Moraxella catarrhalis will reduce tremendous morbidity, mortality, and financial burden by preventing otitis media in children and exacerbations of COPD in adults. Oligopeptide permease A (OppA) is a candidate vaccine antigen that is 1) a nutritional virulence factor expressed on the bacterial cell surface during infection, 2) widely conserved among strains, 3) highly immunogenic, and 4) a protective antigen based on its capacity to induce protective responses in immunized animals. In the present study, we show that the antibodies to OppA following vaccination mediate accelerated clearance in animals following pulmonary challenge...
December 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198916/anxiety-related-adverse-events-following-immunization-aefi-a-systematic-review-of-published-clusters-of-illness
#19
Anagha Loharikar, Tiffany A Suragh, Noni E MacDonald, Madhava R Balakrishnan, Oleg Benes, Smaragda Lamprianou, Terri B Hyde, Michael M McNeil
BACKGROUND: Clusters of anxiety-related adverse events following immunization (AEFI) have been observed in several countries and have disrupted country immunization programs. We conducted a systematic literature review to characterize these clusters, to generate prevention and management guidance for countries. METHODS: We searched seven peer-reviewed databases for English language reports of anxiety-related AEFI clusters (≥2 persons) with pre-specified keywords across 4 categories: symptom term, cluster term, vaccine term, and cluster AEFI phenomenon term/phrase...
November 29, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198208/association-between-childhood-infection-serum-inflammatory-markers-and-intelligence-findings-from-a-population-based-prospective-birth-cohort-study
#20
N Mackinnon, S Zammit, G Lewis, P B Jones, G M Khandaker
A link between infection, inflammation, neurodevelopment and adult illnesses has been proposed. The objective of this study was to examine the association between infection burden during childhood - a critical period of development for the immune and nervous systems - and subsequent systemic inflammatory markers and general intelligence. In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective birth cohort in England, we examined the association of exposure to infections during childhood, assessed at seven follow-ups between age 1·5 and 7·5 years, with subsequent: (1) serum interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels at age 9; (2) intelligence quotient (IQ) at age 8...
December 4, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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