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Adult and Childrens Immunization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644994/autoimmune-hepatitis
#1
REVIEW
Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Diego Vergani, Albert J Czaja, Michael P Manns, Edward L Krawitt, John M Vierling, Ansgar W Lohse, Aldo J Montano-Loza
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a severe liver disease that affects children and adults worldwide. The diagnosis of AIH relies on increased serum transaminase and immunoglobulin G levels, presence of autoantibodies and interface hepatitis on liver histology. AIH arises in genetically predisposed individuals when a trigger, such as exposure to a virus, leads to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed against liver autoantigens; this immune response is permitted by inadequate regulatory immune control leading to a loss of tolerance...
April 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619598/pcr-array-profiling-of-antiviral-genes-in-human-embryonic-kidney-cells-expressing-human-coronavirus-oc43-structural-and-accessory-proteins
#2
Meshal Beidas, Wassim Chehadeh
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is a respiratory virus that usually causes a common cold. However, it has the potential to cause severe infection in young children and immunocompromised adults. Both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV were shown to express proteins with the potential to evade early innate immune responses. However, the ability of HCoV-OC43 to antagonise the intracellular antiviral defences has not yet been investigated. The potential role of the HCoV-OC43 structural (M and N) and accessory proteins (ns2a and ns5a) in the alteration of antiviral gene expression was investigated in this study...
April 4, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618414/systematic-review-of-economic-evaluations-of-the-23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-ppv23-in-individuals-60-years-of-age-or-older
#3
REVIEW
Alvaro Mitsunori Nishikawa, Ana Marli Christovam Sartori, Giulia Marcelino Mainardi, Angela Carvalho Freitas, Alexander Itria, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh Novaes, Patrícia Coelho de Soárez
OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the economic evaluations of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) in adults aged ≥60 years to inform the development of local studies through the discussion of parameters and assumptions that influence the results of the analyses. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica, Cochrane Library, Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Brazilian Regional Library of Medicine, National Health Service Economic Evaluation, and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination-as well as the Scopus citation index and the Web of Science for full economic evaluations of PPV23 published up to March 2016...
April 2, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617744/natural-history-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-a-systematic-review-of-epidemiology-and-disease-course
#4
N J Shaheen, V Mukkada, C S Eichinger, H Schofield, L Todorova, G W Falk
Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immune-mediated esophageal disorder. For its timely diagnosis, clinicians must recognize common symptoms, and understand differences in symptoms across patient groups. The aim of this study is to systematically review the epidemiology and natural history of eosinophilic esophagitis. The MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched from 1974 to February 2017 for studies describing the epidemiology and natural history of eosinophilic esophagitis. Congress abstracts from 2014 to 2016 were also searched...
March 31, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616025/differences-between-pediatric-and-adult-t-cell-responses-to-in-vitro-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-stimulation
#5
Mark E Rudolph, Monica A McArthur, Robin S Barnes, Laurence S Magder, Wilbur H Chen, Marcelo B Sztein
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is capable of inducing life-threatening fever, rash, and systemic organ failure, though the specific mechanisms behind these symptoms remain poorly understood. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and other superantigens have shown to be important factors in TSS, capable of promoting cross-linking between T cell receptors and major histocompatibility complexes which results in overwhelming T cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production. The resulting proinflammatory cytokine cascade, often referred to as the "cytokine storm," seems to be critical to the development of disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605790/fatal-varicella-in-immigrants-from-tropical-countries-case-reports-and-forensic-perspectives
#6
Gianni Guadagnini, Simone Lo Baido, Francesca Poli, Annamaria Govi, Sveva Borin, Paolo Fais, Susi Pelotti
The primary Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) infection results in varicella, a generally benign, self-limiting disease in immunocompetent children. Despite the usual course a possible fatal evolution of the primary infection is observed predominantly in immunocompromised subjects and in adults, especially emigrating from tropical regions. Two cases of fatal varicella have been investigated and discussed. Death occurred in two patients over 40 years of age, coming from South Asia and receiving chronic immunosuppressive therapy...
March 24, 2018: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604537/chronic-exposure-to-low-environmental-concentrations-and-legal-aquaculture-doses-of-antibiotics-cause-systemic-adverse-effects-in-nile-tilapia-and-provoke-differential-human-health-risk
#7
Samwel M Limbu, Li Zhou, Sheng-Xiang Sun, Mei-Ling Zhang, Zhen-Yu Du
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics used globally to treat human and animal diseases exist ubiquitously in the environment at low doses because of misuse, overdose and poor absorption after ingestion, coupled with their high-water solubility and degradation resistance. However, the systemic chronic effects of exposure to low environmental concentrations of antibiotics (LECAs) and legal aquaculture doses of antibiotics (LADAs) in fish and their human health risk are currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the in vivo chronic effects of exposure to LECAs and LADAs using oxytetracycline (OTC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and their human health risk...
March 27, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603797/reductions-in-otitis-and-other-respiratory-tract-infections-following-childhood-pneumococcal-vaccination
#8
Urban Johansson Kostenniemi, Jessica Palm, Sven-Arne Silfverdal
AIM: Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly causes respiratory tract infections including acute otitis media and pneumonia. In this study, we evaluated the impact of general infant pneumococcal vaccination, introduced in Sweden in 2009, on respiratory tract infections. METHODS: We studied the incidence of respiratory tract infections and antibiotic consumption in Västerbotten County, Sweden, during 2005-2014 by using the County Council's diagnosis register. RESULTS: Comparing the pre-vaccination period of 2005-2008 to 2014, the incidences of all-cause acute otitis media decreased significantly in children aged 0-4 and 5-17 years, by 41...
March 30, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599088/a-single-vaccination-with-non-replicating-mva-at-birth-induces-both-immediate-and-long-term-protective-immune-responses
#9
Cédric Cheminay, Jana Körner, Constanze Bernig, Michael Brückel, Markus Feigl, Martin Schletz, Mark Suter, Paul Chaplin, Ariane Volkmann
Newborns are considered difficult to protect against infections shortly after birth, due to their ineffective immune system that shows quantitative and qualitative differences compared to adults. However, here we show that a single vaccination of mice at birth with a replication-deficient live vaccine Modified Vaccinia Ankara [MVA] efficiently induces antigen-specific B- and T-cells that fully protect against a lethal Ectromelia virus challenge. Protection was induced within 2 weeks and using genetically modified mice we show that this protection was mainly T-cell dependent...
March 27, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599087/a-novel-method-for-strict-intranasal-delivery-of-non-replicating-rsv-vaccines-in-cotton-rats-and-non-human-primates
#10
Michael P Citron, Manishkumar Patel, Mona Purcell, Shu-An Lin, Daniel J Rubins, Paul McQuade, Cheryl Callahan, Alexa Gleason, Ioan Petrescu, Walter Knapp, Chinedu Orekie, Sai Chamarthy, Zhiyun Wen, Sinoeun Touch, Matthew Pine, Jane Fontenot, Cameron Douglas, Xiaoping Liang, Amy S Espeseth
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children twelve months of age or younger and a significant cause of lower respiratory disease in older adults. As various clinical and preclinical candidates advance, cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) and non-human primates (NHP) continue to play a valuable role in RSV vaccine development, since both animals are semi-permissive to human RSV (HRSV). However, appropriate utilization of the models is critical to avoid mis-interpretation of the preclinical findings...
March 26, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596472/evaluation-of-nationwide-supplementary-immunization-in-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-population-based-seroprevalence-survey-of-anti-measles-and-anti-rubella-igg-in-children-and-adults-mathematical-modelling-and-a-stability-testing-of-the-vaccine
#11
Masahiko Hachiya, Shinsuke Miyano, Yoshio Mori, Emilia Vynnycky, Phath Keungsaneth, Phengta Vongphrachanh, Anonh Xeuatvongsa, Thongchanh Sisouk, Vilasak Som-Oulay, Bouaphan Khamphaphongphane, Bounthanom Sengkeopaseuth, Chansay Pathammavong, Kongxay Phounphenghak, Tomomi Kitamura, Makoto Takeda, Katsuhiro Komase
BACKGROUND: Measles outbreaks have occurred in some countries despite supplementary immunization activities (SIA) using measles-containing vaccine with high vaccination coverage. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence survey to estimate population immunity in Lao People's Democratic Republic where repeated mass immunization has failed to eliminate measles. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this nationwide multistage cluster sampling survey conducted in 2014 based on probability proportionate to size sampling, blood samples were collected from 2,135 children and adults living in 52 randomly selected villages...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594041/dnx-2401-an-oncolytic-virus-for-the-treatment-of-newly-diagnosed-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-gliomas-a-case-report
#12
Sonia Tejada, Ricardo Díez-Valle, Pablo D Domínguez, Ana Patiño-García, Marisol González-Huarriz, Juan Fueyo, Cande Gomez-Manzano, Miguel Angel Idoate, Joanna Peterkin, Marta M Alonso
Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are aggressive glial brain tumors that primarily affect children, for which there is no curative treatment. Median overall survival is only one year. Currently, the scientific focus is on expanding the knowledge base of the molecular biology of DIPG, and identifying effective therapies. Oncolytic adenovirus DNX-2401 is a replication-competent, genetically modified virus capable of infecting and killing glioma cells, and stimulating an anti-tumor immune response. Clinical trials evaluating intratumoral DNX-2401 in adults with recurrent glioblastoma have demonstrated that the virus has a favorable safety profile and can prolong survival...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590206/worldwide-increased-prevalence-of-human-adenovirus-type-3-hadv-3-respiratory-infections-is-well-correlated-with-heterogeneous-hypervariable-regions-hvrs-of-hexon
#13
Ezazul Haque, Urmila Banik, Tahmina Monwar, Leela Anthony, Arun Kumar Adhikary
Human adenovirus type 3 (HAdV-3) respiratory infections occurs worldwide in both children and adults, leading to severe morbidity and mortality, particularly in the paediatric age group and especially in neonates. During HAdV infection, neutralizing antibodies are formed against the epitopes located in the hyper variable regions (HVRs) of the hexon protein. These neutralizing antibodies provide protection against reinfection by viruses of the same type. Therefore it is reasonable to speculate that variations of HAdV-3 in the HVRs could impair the immunity acquired by previous infection with a different strain with variation in its HVRs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589486/advances-in-chemical-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-pediatric-immune-thrombocytopenia
#14
Thomas Kühne
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder of heterogeneous pathophysiological mechanisms. Treatment endpoints include elevation of platelets and reduction of bleeding risk, elevation of quality of life, reduction of concomitant therapies and prevention from bleeding. Persistent and chronic ITP is more common in adults but occurs in children. Standard therapies include corticosteroids and immunoglobulins, both associated with side effects. There are new treatments, such as thrombopoietin-receptor agonists and promising investigational drugs...
March 28, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579637/interactions-between-the-growth-hormone-and-cytokines-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Mieczysław Szalecki, Anna Malinowska, Monika Prokop-Piotrkowska, Roman Janas
Numerous reports on the interactions between the immune and endocrine systems, especially growth hormone axis, can be found in the literature. Growth hormone acts mainly indirectly through insulin-like growth factor-1, which stimulates the growth and development processes, metabolism of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates, and it also has a modulating effect on the cells of the immune system. Several studies have been conducted on the influence of growth hormone therapy on the immunological parameters in children and adults with and without growth hormone deficiency...
March 23, 2018: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579044/suppressed-plasmablast-responses-in-febrile-infants-including-children-with-kawasaki-disease
#16
Meghan Martin, Brian H Wrotniak, Mark Hicar
BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD), the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children, primarily affects infants and toddlers. Investigations on immune responses during KD are hampered by a limited understanding of normal immune responses in these ages. It's well known that Infants have poorer vaccine responses and difficulty with maintaining prolonged serum immunity, but there are few studies on human infants detailing immune deficiencies. Limited studies propose an inability to maintain life-long bone marrow plasma cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575797/airway-cells-from-protracted-bacterial-bronchitis-and-bronchiectasis-share-similar-gene-expression-profiles
#17
Alice C-H Chen, Olga M Pena, Hendrik J Nel, Stephanie T Yerkovich, Anne B Chang, Katherine J Baines, Peter G Gibson, Helen L Petsky, Susan J Pizzutto, Sandra Hodge, Ian B Masters, Helen L Buntain, John W Upham
AIM: Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is a common cause of prolonged cough in young children, and may be a precursor of bronchiectasis. Bacteria are often present in the lower airways in both PBB and bronchiectasis and may cause persistent infections. However, there is a paucity of information available on the pathogenesis of PBB and the factors associated with persistent bacterial infection and progression to bronchiectasis. This study hypothesised that lung immune cells in recurrent PBB and bronchiectasis differentially express genes related to immune cell dysfunction compared to lung immune cells from control subjects...
March 24, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571923/prevalence-and-long-term-monitoring-of-humoral-immunity-against-adeno-associated-virus-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-patients
#18
Christian Leborgne, Virginie Latournerie, Sylvie Boutin, Diana Desgue, Aliénor Quéré, Elodie Pignot, Fanny Collaud, Séverine Charles, Marcelo Simon Sola, Elisa Masat, Fabienne Jouen, Olivier Boyer, Carole Masurier, Federico Mingozzi, Philippe Veron
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are promising candidates for gene therapy and have been explored as gene delivery vehicles in the treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Recent studies showed compelling evidence of therapeutic efficacy in large animal models following the intravenous delivery of AAV vectors expressing truncated forms of dystrophin. However, to translate these results to humans, careful assessment of the prevalence of anti-AAV neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is needed, as presence of preexisting NABs to AAV in serum have been associated with a drastic diminution of vector transduction...
March 16, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569498/educating-children-and-adolescents-about-vaccines-a-review-of-current-literature
#19
Alexander R Maisonneuve, Kumanan Wilson, Holly Witteman, Jamie Brehaut, Ève Dubé
Until recently, research on vaccine hesitancy has focused primarily on parent populations. Although adolescent knowledge and views are gaining momentum within the literature, particularly as they pertain to the Human Papillomavirus and influenza, children remain a virtually unstudied population with regards to vaccine hesitancy. Areas Covered: This review focuses on the lack of literature in this area and argues for more vaccine hesitancy research involving child and adolescent populations. It also outlines special issues to consider when framing health promotion messages for children and adolescents...
March 23, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563321/vaccine-waning-and-mumps-re-emergence-in-the-united-states
#20
Joseph A Lewnard, Yonatan H Grad
After decades of declining mumps incidence amid widespread vaccination, the United States and other developed countries have experienced a resurgence in mumps cases over the last decade. Outbreaks affecting vaccinated individuals and communities with high vaccine coverage have prompted concerns about the effectiveness of the live attenuated vaccine currently in use. It is unclear whether immune protection wanes or whether the vaccine protects inadequately against currently circulating mumps virus lineages. Synthesizing data from six studies of mumps vaccine effectiveness, we estimated that vaccine-derived immune protection against mumps wanes on average 27 years (95% confidence interval, 16 to 51 years) after vaccination...
March 21, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
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