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Adult and Childrens Immunization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920395/tetanus-immunity-gaps-in-children-5-14-years-and-men-%C3%A2-15-years-of-age-revealed-by-integrated-disease-serosurveillance-in-kenya-tanzania-and-mozambique
#1
Heather M Scobie, Minal Patel, Diana Martin, Harran Mkocha, Sammy M Njenga, Maurice R Odiere, Sonia Pelletreau, Jeffrey W Priest, Ricardo Thompson, Kimberly Y Won, Patrick J Lammie
Recent tetanus cases associated with male circumcision in Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) prompted an examination of tetanus immunity by age and sex using multiplex serologic data from community surveys in three ESA countries during 2012-2013. Tetanus seroprotection was lower among children 5-14 years versus 1-4 years of age in Kenya (66% versus 90%) and Tanzania (66% versus 89%), but not in Mozambique (91% versus 88%), where children receive two booster doses in school. Among males ≥ 15 years of age, tetanus seroprotection was lower than females in Kenya (45% versus 96%), Tanzania (28% versus 94%), and Mozambique (64% versus 90%)...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916412/kinetics-of-antibody-secreting-cell-and-fecal-iga-responses-after-oral-cholera-vaccination-in-different-age-groups-in-a-cholera-endemic-country
#2
Marjahan Akhtar, Firdausi Qadri, Taufiqur R Bhuiyan, Sarmin Akter, Tanzeem A Rafique, Arifuzzaman Khan, Laila N Islam, Amit Saha, Ann-Mari Svennerholm, Anna Lundgren
Immune responses to oral enteric vaccines in children and infants may be influenced by factors such as age, previous priming with related microorganisms and breast feeding. In this study, we aimed to determine optimal time points to assess immune responses to oral enteric vaccines in different clinical specimens. This was done by investigating antibody secreting cell (ASC) and fecal antibody responses on different days after vaccination using the licensed oral cholera vaccine Dukoral, containing cholera toxin B-subunit (rCTB) and inactivated Vibrio cholerae bacteria, as a model vaccine...
December 1, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916211/a-32-year-study-of-the-effect-of-pneumococcal-vaccines-on-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-disease
#3
Ronald J Stanek, Nancy B Norton, Maurice A Mufson
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly causes community-acquired pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia and otitis media. Invasive pneumococcal infection (IPD) represents the most serious presentation, occurs in approximately 1 in 4 cases and engenders case fatality rates (CFR) in pneumonia of 20-25% and meningitis of 35-40%. We investigated IPD for 32 years in an American city to assess the effect of differing pneumococcal vaccines on serotype occurrence and CFR among children and adults...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913549/second-line-therapies-in-immune-thrombocytopenia
#4
Rachael F Grace, Cindy Neunert
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a rare, acquired autoimmune condition characterized by a low platelet count and an increased risk of bleeding. Although many children and adults with ITP will not need therapy beyond historic first-line treatments of observation, steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and anti-D globulin, others will have an indication for second-line treatment. Selecting a second-line therapy depends on the reason for treatment, which can vary from bleeding to implications for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) to likelihood of remission and patient preference with regard to adverse effects, route of administration, and cost...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913502/mrd-in-aml-does-it-already-guide-therapy-decision-making
#5
Gert Ossenkoppele, Gerrit Jan Schuurhuis
Prognostic factors determined at diagnosis are predictive for outcome whereas achievement of morphological complete remission (CR) is still an important end point during treatment. Residual disease after therapy may reflect the sum of all diagnosis and postdiagnosis resistance mechanisms/factors; its measurement could hypothetically be very instrumental for guiding treatment. The possibility of defining residual disease (minimal residual disease [MRD]) far below the level of 5% blast cells is changing the landscape of risk classification...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903841/influence-of-a-moderate-intensity-exercise-program-on-early-nk-cell-immune-recovery-in-pediatric-patients-after-reduced-intensity-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#6
Carolina Chamorro-Viña, Jaime Valentín, Lucía Fernández, Marta González-Vicent, Margarita Pérez-Ruiz, Alejandro Lucía, S Nicole Culos-Reed, Miguel Ángel Díaz, Antonio Pérez-Martínez
INTRODUCTION: After allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), NK cell reconstitution, which is crucial for positive outcomes, is dominated by the CD56(bright) subset with low NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) activity. Moderate exercise has been described as a potent NK cell stimulus in adults with cancer. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of a moderate-intensity exercise program on NK cell recovery early after HSCT and the feasibility of this intervention...
November 30, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902386/establishment-of-memory-cd8-t-cells-with-live-attenuated-influenza-virus-laiv-across-different-vaccination-doses
#7
Zhongfang Wang, Lukasz Kedzierska, Simone Nuessing, Brendon Chua, Sergio M Quiñones-Parra, Victor C Huber, David Jackson, Paul G Thomas, Katherine Kedzierska
FluMist has been used in children and adults for more than ten years. As pre-existing CD8+ T-cell memory pools can provide heterologous immunity against distinct influenza viruses, it is important to understand influenza-specific CD8+ T-cell responses elicited by different LAIV regimens. In this study, we immunized mice intranasally (i.n.) with two different doses of live-attenuated PR8 virus (PR8 ts, H1N1), low and high, and then assessed protective efficacy by challenging animals with heterosubtypic X31-H3N2 virus at 6 weeks post-vaccination...
November 2, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901290/early-life-trauma-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-allostatic-load-in-a-sample-of-american-indian-adults
#8
Zaneta Thayer, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Michael McDonell, Lonnie Nelson, Dedra Buchwald, Spero Manson
OBJECTIVES: Among American Indians, prior research has found associations between early life trauma and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Given the physiological changes associated with PTSD, early life trauma could indirectly contribute to chronic disease risk. However, the impact of early life trauma on adult physical health in this population has not been previously investigated. METHODS: We evaluated associations among early life trauma, PTSD, and 13 physiological biomarkers that index cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine, anthropometric, and immune function in adulthood by conducting correlation and structural equation modeling path analyses (N = 197)...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879258/nucleophosmin-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-npm-alk-the-ultimate-oncogene-and-therapeutic-target
#9
Michael T Werner, Chen Zhao, Qian Zhang, Mariusz A Wasik
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase physiologically expressed by fetal neural cells. However, aberrantly expressed ALK is involved in the pathogenesis of diverse malignancies including distinct types of lymphoma, lung carcinoma, and neuroblastoma. The aberrant ALK expression in non-neural cells results from chromosomal translocations that create novel fusion proteins. These protein hybrids are comprised of the proximal part of a partner gene including its promoter region and the distal part of ALK including coding sequence for the entire kinase domain...
November 22, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869387/-trends-in-pertussis-mortality-and-morbidity-in-colombia-2002-2012
#10
Doris Cardona, María Osley Garzón, Mateo Calle, Maite Catalina Agudelo, Ángela Segura
Whooping cough is a public health problem that mainly affects children under one year of age with highly lethal outcomes. It is a re-emerging disease, which is preventable by immunization. Objective: To analyze mortality and morbidity trends of whooping cough in Colombia between 2002 and 2012. Materials and methods: We conducted a quantitative descriptive study of deaths by pertussis between 2002 and 2012 using data from death certificates registered by the Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, and cases reported to the Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia en Salud Pública, 2005-2012...
September 1, 2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864522/comorbidity-between-central-disorders-of-hypersomnolence-and-immune-based-disorders
#11
Lucie Barateau, Régis Lopez, Isabelle Arnulf, Michel Lecendreux, Patricia Franco, Xavier Drouot, Smaranda Leu-Semenescu, Isabelle Jaussent, Yves Dauvilliers
OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the frequencies of personal and family history of autoimmune diseases (AID), autoinflammatory disorders (ID), and allergies in a population of patients, adults and children, with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH), 3 central hypersomnia disorders, and healthy controls. METHODS: Personal and family history of AID, ID, and allergies were assessed by questionnaire and medical interview in a large cohort of 450 consecutive adult patients (206 NT1, 106 NT2, 138 IH) and 95 pediatric patients (80 NT1) diagnosed according to the third International Classification of Sleep Disorders criteria in national reference centers for narcolepsy in France and 751 controls (700 adults, 51 children) from the general population...
November 18, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863513/epidemiology-of-rubella-virus-cases-in-the-pre-vaccination-era-of-ethiopia-2009-2015
#12
Mekonen Getahun, Berhane Beyene, Kathleen Gallagher, Ayesheshem Ademe, Birke Teshome, Mesfin Tefera, Anjelo Asha, Aklog Afework, Esete Assefa, Yoseph HaileMariam, Yonas HaileGiorgis, Hiwot Ketema, Dejenie Shiferaw, Ayenachew Bekele, Daddi Jima, Amha Kebede
BACKGROUND: Rubella is a common mild rash illness caused by rubella virus. The majority of infections occur in children and young adults. The infection is the cause of a serious birth defect known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) when a woman acquires infection early in pregnancy. Ethiopia has not yet established rubella virus surveillance and has not yet introduced rubella vaccine into the routine immunization program. We characterize the epidemiology of laboratory confirmed rubella virus cases collected through measles surveillance from 2009 to 2015 to better understand the burden of the disease in the country...
November 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859847/the-association-of-low-birth-weight-with-serum-c-reactive-protein-in-3-year-old-children-living-in-cuba-a-population-based-prospective-study
#13
Silvia Josefina Venero-Fernández, Hermes Fundora-Hernández, Lourdes Batista-Gutierrez, Ramón Suárez-Medina, Esperanza de la C Mora-Faife, Gladys García-García, Ileana Del Valle-Infante, Liem Gómez-Marrero, John Britton, Andrew W Fogarty
OBJECTIVE: Low birthweight is associated with a decreased risk of childhood leukemia and an increased risk of both cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in adult life. Possible biological mediators include systemic innate immunity and inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that birthweight was inversely associated with serum high sensitivity C reactive protein assay (hsCRP), a measure of both innate immunity and systemic inflammation. METHODS: Data on birthweight and current anthropometric measures along with a range of exposures were collected at 1 and 3 years of age in a population-based cohort study of young children living in Havana, Cuba...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854286/-english-disease-historical-notes-on-rickets-the-bone-lung-link-and-child-neglect-issues
#14
REVIEW
Mingyong Zhang, Fan Shen, Anna Petryk, Jingfeng Tang, Xingzhen Chen, Consolato Sergi
Nutritional or classical rickets (here labeled as "rickets") is a worldwide disease involving mostly infants and young children having inadequate sunlight exposure, often associated with a low dietary intake of Vitamin D. Rickets targets all layers of society independently of economic status with historical information spanning more than two millennia. Vitamin D is critical for the absorption of calcium and prevention of rickets in children as well as osteomalacia in adults. The initial and misleading paradigm of the 19th and 20th centuries that rickets may have been the consequence of infection has been, indeed, reversed following the identification of the Vitamin D molecule's important role in the function of the immune system...
November 15, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851884/pertussis-in-poland-in-2014
#15
Iwona Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Jolanta Rudowska
INTRODUCTION: In Poland, they are still recorded high number of cases whooping cough - five-year median for 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 are similar and amount to 5.2 and 5.5 per 100 000 population. The trend of the incidence of pertussis in a high percentage of adults that was observed in years between 2009-2011 (the results of the National Research Epidemiology of Pertussis), in subsequent years, ie. 2012-2014 was halted. Still the most effective strategy to prevent illness is the vaccination according to the current vaccination calendar...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847366/comparisons-of-the-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-induced-by-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-laiv-and-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-iiv-in-adults
#16
Daniel F Hoft, Kathleen R Lottenbach, Azra Blazevic, Aldin Turan, Tamara P Blevins, Thomas P Pacatte, Yinyi Yu, Michelle C Mitchell, Stella G Hoft, Robert B Belshe
Both live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) induce protective immunity against influenza. There is evidence that LAIV induces superior protection in children, whereas IIV may induce superior protection in adults. The immune mechanisms responsible for these differences have not been identified. We previously compared LAIV and IIV in young children 6-36 months of age, and demonstrated that while both induced similar hemagglutination-inhibiting (HAI) antibody responses, only LAIV induced significant increases in T cell responses...
November 9, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846809/predictors-of-poor-retention-on-antiretroviral-therapy-as-a-major-hiv-drug-resistance-early-warning-indicator-in-cameroon-results-from-a-nationwide-systematic-random-sampling
#17
Serge Clotaire Billong, Joseph Fokam, Calixte Ida Penda, Salmon Amadou, David Same Kob, Edson-Joan Billong, Vittorio Colizzi, Alexis Ndjolo, Anne-Cecile Zoung-Kani Bisseck, Jean-Bosco Nfetam Elat
BACKGROUND: Retention on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential in sustaining treatment success while preventing HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), especially in resource-limited settings (RLS). In an era of rising numbers of patients on ART, mastering patients in care is becoming more strategic for programmatic interventions. Due to lapses and uncertainty with the current WHO sampling approach in Cameroon, we thus aimed to ascertain the national performance of, and determinants in, retention on ART at 12 months...
November 15, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846627/targeting-the-t-helper-2-inflammatory-axis-in-atopic-dermatitis
#18
Adriana S Moreno, Roderick McPhee, Luisa Karla Arruda, Michael D Howell
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects up to 25% of children and 10% of adults. The skin of patients with moderate to severe AD is characterized by significant barrier disruption and T helper 2 (Th2)-driven inflammation, which are thought to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of AD. Current management of AD is aimed at suppressing the inflammatory response and restoring the barrier function of the skin, reducing exacerbations, and preventing secondary skin infections...
November 16, 2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837017/differing-rates-of-antibody-acquisition-to-merozoite-antigens-in-malaria-implications-for-immunity-and-surveillance
#19
Fiona J McCallum, Kristina M Persson, Freya J I Fowkes, Linda Reiling, Cleopatra K Mugyenyi, Jack S Richards, Julie A Simpson, Thomas N Williams, Paul R Gilson, Anthony N Hodder, Paul R Sanders, Robin F Anders, David L Narum, Chetan Chitnis, Brendan S Crabb, Kevin Marsh, James G Beeson
Antibodies play a key role in acquired human immunity to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria and target merozoites to reduce or prevent blood-stage replication and the development of disease. Merozoites present a complex array of antigens to the immune system, and currently, there is only a partial understanding of the targets of protective antibodies and how responses to different antigens are acquired and boosted. We hypothesized that there would be differences in the rate of acquisition of antibodies to different antigens and how well they are boosted by infection, which impacts the acquisition of immunity...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836863/checkpoint-proteins-in-pediatric-brain-and-extracranial-solid-tumors-opportunities-for-immunotherapy
#20
Eric K Ring, James M Markert, G Yancey Gillespie, Gregory K Friedman
Pediatric brain and extracranial solid tumors are a diverse group of malignancies that represent almost half of pediatric cancers. Standard therapy includes various combinations of surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation, which can be very harmful to a developing child, and survivors carry a substantial burden of long term morbidities. While these therapies have improved survival rates for children with solid tumors, outcomes still remain extremely poor for subsets of patients. Recently, immunosuppressive checkpoint molecules that negatively regulate immune cell function have been described...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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