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Adult and Childrens Immunization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537785/a-practical-guide-to-the-use-of-eltrombopag-in-children-with-chronic-immune-thrombocytopenia
#1
John D Grainger, Sharon Thind
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) may be associated with significant burden on children and their parents/caregivers. Thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonists (RAs) have been used to treat adult patients with chronic ITP (cITP) for nearly a decade and following pediatric studies Eltrombopag has been recently approved for pediatric cITP in the United States and Europe. TPO-RA s may help reduce the risk of bleeding and the need for conventional ITP therapies. REVIEW: In this review, the clinical data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of TPO-RAs in pediatric ITP are evaluated, key recommendations regarding safe administration of eltrombopag are provided, and potential future directions in management of pediatric ITP are discussed...
May 24, 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533125/markers-of-immune-mediated-inflammation-in-the-brains-of-young-adults-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-and-fatal-diabetic-ketoacidosis-is-there-a-difference
#2
William H Hoffman, Carol M Artlett, Dallas Boodhoo, Mary G F Gilliland, Luis Ortiz, Dries Mulder, David H T Tjan, Alvaro Martin, Alexandru Tatomir, Horea Rus
Due to the limited data on diabetic ketoacidosis and brain edema (DKA/BE) in children/adolescents and the lack of recent data on adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D), we addressed the question of whether neuroinflammation was present in the fatal DKA of adults. We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies on the brains of two young adults with T1D and fatal DKA and compared them with two teenagers with poorly controlled diabetes and fatal DKA. C5b-9, the membrane attack complex (MAC) had significantly greater deposits in the grey and white matter of the teenagers than the young adults (p=0...
May 19, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530053/-alopecia-areata
#3
REVIEW
Yaron Zafrir, Sharon Baum, Shoshi Greenberger, Anna Lyakhovitsky, Aviv Barzilai
Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ specific autoimmune disease. Similar to other autoimmune diseases, its pathogenesis is believed to be an interaction of genetic, environmental and immune factors. Studies have shown that autoreactive lymphocytes affect anagen hair follicles leading to subsequent shedding of hairs and alopecia. Clinically, the disease is characterized by sudden nonscarring hair loss that usually involves the scalp, but may also affect the face and other body areas, and indeed the entire body hair...
October 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525961/passive-and-active-immunization-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-for-the-young-and-old
#4
Tonya Villafana, Judith Falloon, M Pamela Griffin, Qing Zhu, Mark T Esser
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants worldwide and also causes significant disease in the elderly. Despite 60 years of RSV research and vaccine development, there is only one approved medicine to prevent RSV infections. Palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the RSV fusion (F) protein, is indicated for preterm infants and children at high-risk for RSV infections. It is an active time in RSV vaccine and mAb development with 14 vaccines and 2 mAbs currently being tested in clinical trials as of 13 February 2017...
May 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525829/epidemiology-and-management-of-primary-immune-thrombocytopenia-a-nationwide-population-based-study-in-korea
#5
Ji Yun Lee, Ju-Hyun Lee, Heeyoung Lee, Beodeul Kang, Ji-Won Kim, Se Hyun Kim, Jeong-Ok Lee, Jin Won Kim, Yu Jung Kim, Keun-Wook Lee, Jee Hyun Kim, Hyoung Soo Choi, Jong Seok Lee, Soo-Mee Bang
INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is not well characterized in an Asian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From July 2010 to June 2014, ITP patients were identified using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of ITP was 5.3 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: 5.1-5.5). The overall incidence rate ratios of children under 15years old to adults and females to males were 3...
May 11, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522352/immune-plasma-for-the-treatment-of-severe-influenza-an-open-label-multicentre-phase-2-randomised-study
#6
John H Beigel, Pablo Tebas, Marie-Carmelle Elie-Turenne, Ednan Bajwa, Todd E Bell, Charles B Cairns, Shmuel Shoham, Jaime G Deville, Eric Feucht, Judith Feinberg, Thomas Luke, Kanakatte Raviprakash, Janine Danko, Dorothy O'Neil, Julia A Metcalf, Karen King, Timothy H Burgess, Evgenia Aga, H Clifford Lane, Michael D Hughes, Richard T Davey
BACKGROUND: Influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality despite available treatments. Anecdotal reports suggest that plasma with high antibody titres to influenza might be of benefit in the treatment of severe influenza. METHODS: In this randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial, 29 academic medical centres in the USA assessed the safety and efficacy of anti-influenza plasma with haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres of 1:80 or more to the infecting strain...
May 15, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521810/estimation-of-the-burden-of-varicella-in-europe-before-the-introduction-of-universal-childhood-immunization
#7
Margarita Riera-Montes, Kaatje Bollaerts, Ulrich Heininger, Niel Hens, Giovanni Gabutti, Angel Gil, Bayad Nozad, Grazina Mirinaviciute, Elmira Flem, Audrey Souverain, Thomas Verstraeten, Susanne Hartwig
BACKGROUND: Varicella is generally considered a mild disease. Disease burden is not well known and country-level estimation is challenging. As varicella disease is not notifiable, notification criteria and rates vary between countries. In general, existing surveillance systems do not capture cases that do not seek medical care, and most are affected by underreporting and underascertainment. We aimed to estimate the overall varicella disease burden in Europe to provide critical information to support decision-making regarding varicella vaccination...
May 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508417/score-of-toxic-epidermal-necrosis-predicts-the-outcomes-of-pediatric-epidermal-necrolysis
#8
Jennifer Sorrell, Lisa Anthony, Alfred Rademaker, Steven M Belknap, Shields Callahan, Dennis P West, Amy S Paller
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Epidermal necrolysis (Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis) includes immune-mediated, life-threatening inflammatory blistering disorders that can affect children. The Score of Toxic Epidermal Necrosis (SCORTEN) tool has accurately predicted the outcome of these disorders in adults but has not been tested in children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review to compare the accuracy of the adult SCORTEN tool with that of two modifications tailored to children in predicting disease outcome...
May 16, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508087/the-vitamin-d-for-enhancing-the-immune-system-in-cystic-fibrosis-disc-trial-rationale-and-design-of-a-multi-center-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-high-dose-bolus-administration-of-vitamin-d3-during-acute-pulmonary-exacerbation-of-cystic-fibrosis
#9
Vin Tangpricha, Ellen M Smith, Jose Binongo, Suzanne E Judd, Thomas R Ziegler, Seth Walker, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, Susu M Zughaier, Moon Jeong Lee, Supavit Chesdachai, Wendy A Hermes, James F Chmiel, Amit Gaggar, Ruth E Grossmann, Patricia M Joseph, Jessica A Alvarez
Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in children and adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Recent studies have found an association between vitamin D status and risk of pulmonary exacerbations in children and adults with CF. The ongoing Vitamin D for enhancing the Immune System in Cystic fibrosis (DISC) study is a multi-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that will test the hypothesis of whether high dose vitamin D given as a single oral bolus of 250,000 IU to adults with CF during a pulmonary exacerbation followed by a maintenance dose of vitamin D will improve time to next pulmonary exacerbation and re-hospitalization, improve survival and lung function compared to placebo and reduce the rates of pulmonary exacerbation,...
June 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503116/melatonin-pharmacology-functions-and-therapeutic-benefits
#10
REVIEW
Sylvie Tordjman, Sylvie Chokron, Richard Delorme, Annaëlle Charrier, Eric Bellissant, Nemat Jaafari, Claire Fougerou
BACKGROUND: Melatonin synchronizes central but also peripheral oscillators (fetal adrenal gland, pancreas, liver, kidney, heart, lung, fat, gut, etc.), allowing temporal organization of biological functions through circadian rhythms (24-hour cycles) in relation to periodic environmental changes and therefore adaptation of the individual to his/her internal and external environment. Measures of melatonin are considered the best peripheral indices of human circadian timing based on an internal 24-hour clock...
April 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497124/parv4-prevalence-phylogeny-immunology-and-coinfection-with-hiv-hbv-and-hcv-in-a-multicentre-african-cohort
#11
Colin P Sharp, William F Gregory, Louise Hattingh, Amna Malik, Emily Adland, Samantha Daniels, Anriette van Zyl, Jonathan M Carlson, Susan Wareing, Anthony Ogwu, Roger Shapiro, Lynn Riddell, Fabian Chen, Thumbi Ndung'u, Philip J R Goulder, Paul Klenerman, Peter Simmonds, Pieter Jooste, Philippa C Matthews
Background: The seroprevalence of human parvovirus-4 (PARV4) varies considerably by region. In sub-Saharan Africa, seroprevalence is high in the general population, but little is known about the transmission routes or the prevalence of coinfection with blood-borne viruses, HBV, HCV and HIV.  Methods: To further explore the characteristics of PARV4 in this setting, with a particular focus on the prevalence and significance of coinfection, we screened a cohort of 695 individuals recruited from Durban and Kimberley (South Africa) and Gaborone (Botswana) for PARV4 IgG and DNA, as well as documenting HIV, HBV and HCV status...
April 7, 2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495911/intratumoral-injection-of-hsv1716-an-oncolytic-herpes-virus-is-safe-and-shows-evidence-of-immune-response-and-viral-replication-in-young-cancer-patients
#12
Keri A Streby, James I Geller, Mark A Currier, Patrick S Warren, John M Racadio, Alexander J Towbin, Michele R Vaughan, Melinda Triplet, Kristy Ott-Napier, Devon J Dishman, Lori R Backus, Beth Stockman, Marianne Brunner, Kathleen Simpson, Robert Spavin, Joe Conner, Timothy P Cripe
Purpose: HSV1716 is an oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) studied in adults via injection into the brain and superficial tumors. To determine the safety of administering HSV1716 to pediatric patients with cancer, we conducted a phase I trial of image-guided injection in young patients with relapsed or refractory extracranial cancers.Experimental Design: We delivered a single dose of 10(5) to 10(7) infectious units of HSV1716 via computed tomography-guided intratumoral injection and measured tumor responses by imaging...
May 11, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494805/relative-incidence-and-individual-level-severity-of-seasonal-influenza-a-h3n2-compared-with-2009-pandemic-h1n1
#13
Kin On Kwok, Steven Riley, Ranawaka A P M Perera, Vivian W I Wei, Peng Wu, Lan Wei, Daniel K W Chu, Ian G Barr, J S Malik Peiris, Benjamin J Cowling
BACKGROUND: Two subtypes of influenza A currently circulate in humans: seasonal H3N2 (sH3N2, emerged in 1968) and pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1, emerged in 2009). While the epidemiological characteristics of the initial wave of pH1N1 have been studied in detail, less is known about its infection dynamics during subsequent waves or its severity relative to sH3N2. Even prior to 2009, few data was available to estimate the risk of severe outcomes following infection with one circulating influenza strain relative to another...
May 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494193/long-term-trends-in-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-manitoba-canada
#14
Salaheddin M Mahmud, Hasantha Sinnock, Luiz C Mostaço-Guidolin, Gurpreet Pabla, Aleksandra K Wierzbowski, Songul Bozat-Emre
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) remains a significant public health problem in Manitoba, Canada although publically-funded pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7 and PCV13) and polysaccharide (PPV23) vaccination programs exist. We analyzed routine surveillance and administrative health data to examine trends in IPD rates as these vaccines were introduced. Data on all individuals with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of IPD between 2001 and 2014 were obtained from the provincial Communicable Diseases Surveillance database and linked with Manitoba's provincial immunization registry and physician and hospital databases...
May 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487695/regulatory-t-cells-and-pro-inflammatory-responses-predominate-in-children-with-tuberculosis
#15
Elizabeth Whittaker, Mark Nicol, Heather J Zar, Beate Kampmann
BACKGROUND: Following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), children are more susceptible to develop disease particularly extrapulmonary disease than adults. The exact mechanisms required for containment of M.tb are not known, but would be important to identify correlates of protection. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively analyze key immune responses to mycobacteria between HIV-negative children with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) compared to children with pulmonary TB (PTB) or healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487177/predicted-vs-observed-effectiveness-of-outer-membrane-vesicle-omv-vaccines-against-meningococcal-serogroup-b-disease-systematic-review
#16
Thomas Harder, Judith Koch, Ole Wichmann, Wiebke Hellenbrand
IMPORTANCE: Human serum bactericidal antibody levels (hSBA) are commonly used as an immune correlate of protection after vaccination against meningococcal disease. We performed a systematic review of how well this marker correlates with protection induced by outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines against meningococcal B (MenB) disease. OBJECTIVE: To compare vaccine effectiveness (VE) of OMV vaccines against MenB predicted by hSBA (predicted protection) to VE from clinical studies (observed protection)...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482004/imputing-direct-and-indirect-vaccine-effectiveness-of-childhood-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-against-invasive-disease-by-surveying-temporal-changes-in-nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-colonization
#17
Susan A Nzenze, Shabir A Madhi, Tinevimbo Shiri, Keith P Klugman, Linda de Gouveia, David P Moore, Alan S Karstaedt, Stefano Tempia, Marta C Nunes, Anne von Gottberg
The limited capabilities in most low-middle income countries to study the bebfit of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), calls for alternate strategies to assess this. We used a mathematical model, to predict the direct and indirect effectiveness of PCV by analyzing serotype specific colonization prevalence and IPD incidence prior to and following childhood PCV immunization in South Africa. We analyzed IPD incidence from 2005-2012 and colonization studies undertaken in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected child-mother dyads from 2007-2009 (pre-PCV era), in 2010 (7-valent PCV era) and 2012 (13-valent PCV era)...
May 6, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481680/modeling-the-hepatitis-a-epidemiological-transition-in-brazil-and-mexico
#18
Thierry Van Effelterre, Adrienne Guignard, Cinzia Marano, Rosalba Rojas, Kathryn H Jacobsen
BACKGROUND: Many low- to middle-income countries have completed or are in the process of transitioning from high or intermediate to low endemicity for hepatitis A virus (HAV). Because the risk of severe hepatitis A disease increases with age at infection, decreased incidence that leaves older children and adults susceptible to HAV infection may actually increase the population-level burden of disease from HAV. Mathematical models can be helpful for projecting future epidemiological profiles for HAV...
May 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475442/investigating-histological-aspects-of-scars-in-children
#19
I Westra, P D H M Verhaegen, H Ibrahim Korkmaz, K I Braam, G J L Kaspers, H W M Niessen, F B Niessen
OBJECTIVE: Very little is known about histological aspects of paediatric scars and the possible role of the immune system during their formation. In this study, the histology thoracic scars caused by the placement of an implantable central venous access device in children who underwent treatment for cancer was assessed. METHOD: The amount and type of collagen, the collagen orientation, the type of elastic fibres, the vascularsation, and the count of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes were analysed...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472614/serotype-changes-and-antimicrobial-nonsusceptibility-rates-of-invasive-and-non-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-after-implementation-of-10-valent-pneumococcal-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-protein-d-conjugate-vaccine-phid-cv-in-bulgaria
#20
Lena Setchanova, Marianna Murdjeva, Iglika Stancheva, Alexandra Alexandrova, Maria Sredkova, Temenuga Stoicheva, Magda Yoneva, Anna Kurchatova, Ivan Mitov
The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) has been included in Bulgarian Childhood Immunization Program since 2010. This study aimed to assess serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of 198 invasive and non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae strains that had been isolated in Bulgaria during 2011-2016 from patients with invasive (IPD) and non-invasive (NIPD) pneumococcal diseases. The most common invasive serotypes were 3 (10.1%), 19F (4.0%), and 7F (3.0%). A significant decrease in the proportion of invasive vaccine types (VTs) from 64...
May 1, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
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