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Rapid diagnostic

Behrouz Golichenari, Rahim Nosrati, Aref Farokhi-Fard, Khalil Abnous, Farzam Vaziri, Javad Behravan
Tuberculosis is a major global health problem caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) complex. According to WHO reports, 53 million TB patients died from 2000 to 2016. Therefore, early diagnosis of the disease is of great importance for global health care programs. The restrictions of traditional methods have encouraged the development of innovative methods for rapid, reliable, and cost-effective diagnosis of tuberculosis. In recent years, aptamer-based biosensors or aptasensors have drawn great attention to sensitive and accessible detection of tuberculosis...
June 11, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Ragab M Fereig, Hanan H Abdelbaky, Fumiaki Ihara, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of diarrhea among human and calves, resulting in severe health hazards and drastic economic losses, respectively. Although C. parvum infection leads to high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients and bovine calves, this infection remains a neglected disease. Currently available diagnostic tests for C. parvum are primarily based on detection of oocysts, DNA, or secreted antigens in fecal specimens. Demonstration of specific antibodies with a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) will be advantageous not only in providing a simple, rapid, accurate, and affordable tool but also in surveillance because of the ability to recognize recent and past infections...
June 19, 2018: Acta Tropica
Sufi Zafar, Christopher D'Emic, Ashish Jagtiani, Ernst Kratschmer, Xin Miao, Yu Zhu, Renee Mo, Norma Sosa, Hendrik F Hamann, Ghavam Shahidi, Heike Riel
Silicon nanowire field effect transistor (FET) sensors have demonstrated their ability for rapid and label free detection of proteins, nucleotide sequences, and viruses at ultralow concentrations with the potential to be a transformative diagnostic technology. Their nanoscale size gives them their unique ultralow detection ability but also makes their fabrication challenging with large sensor to sensor variations, thus limiting their commercial applications. In this work, a combined approach of nanofabrication, device simulation, materials and electrical characterization is applied towards identifying and improving fabrication steps that induce sensor to sensor variations...
June 22, 2018: ACS Nano
George Vasquez-Rios, Hani Alkhankan, Boutros Peter Sawaya, Javier A Neyra
INTRODUCTION: Methanol intoxication is an infrequent cause of poisoning in the United Sates. It can present with prominent stroke-like features and acute kidney injury. Despite the life-threatening nature of this condition, it is poorly identified by clinicians. We aim to present a case of rapidly progressive mental decline and renal involvement, discuss a diagnostic work-up and provide a critical review on therapeutic strategies. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old patient presented to the emergency department with acute encephalopathy and diffuse muscular rigidity...
June 22, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Teresa Fasciana, Claudia Colomba, Adriana Cervo, Paola Di Carlo, Francesco Scarlata, Chiara Mascarella, Anna Giammanco, Antonio Cascio
Mycetoma (or "madura foot") is characterized by deformation, cutaneous lesions, infection of tissues extending from the cutaneous layer to the underlying fascia, and an indolent course. A number of fungal or bacterial agents that are introduced through traumatic inoculation can be responsible for the disease, but Actinomadura madurae is among the most common agents of mycetoma occurring worldwide. We report a case of madura foot caused by A. madurae in an immunocompetent young Somali man who was admitted with a diagnosis of skin and soft tissue infection of the left foot with osteomyelitis...
June 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Tarang Sharma, Chandresh Sharma, Anurag Sankhyan, Sanjiv Pal Bedi, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Navin Khanna, Vikas Gautam, Sunil Sethi, Sudhanshu Vrati, Ashutosh Tiwari
Typhoid fever caused by human restricted Salmonella typhi presents a considerable health burden on developing South-Asian nations like India. The suboptimal sensitivity and specificity associated with culture-based isolation of etiological agent and the extensively used surface antigen-based serological assays often lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate antimicrobial treatment. The increasing reports of the emergence of resistant strains and undefined disease burden signify the critical need for an inexpensive, reliable, easy-to-use, and highly sensitive diagnostic test for typhoid fever...
June 21, 2018: Immunologic Research
Vinay Khanna, Siddharth Sagar, Ruchee Khanna, Kiran Chawla
Background: Stool microscopy and concentration techniques are the two most important and necessary aspects of diagnostic parasitology. In an era when there is increased disease burden due to intestinal parasites, an early and appropriate diagnosis is warranted. Direct microscopy is usually labor intensive and tedious. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two fresh fecal specimens from patients presenting with eosinophilia and/or anemia (hemoglobin levels <10 g%), HIV-positive patients, and in patients clinically suspected of harboring parasites, were collected for the study...
January 2018: Tropical Parasitology
Pierre Raeven, Johannes Zipperle, Susanne Drechsler
Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. It remains a highly lethal condition in which current tools for early diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making are far from ideal. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), 30 nm to several micrometers in size, are released from cells upon activation and apoptosis and express membrane epitopes specific for their parental cells. Since their discovery two decades ago, their role as biomarkers and mediators in various diseases has been intensively studied...
2018: Theranostics
Bart Vandenberghe
Dental imaging has seen a rapid technological advance over the last several years. Not only has most x-ray based diagnostic technology been digitized, with the possibility of low dose 3D computed tomography imaging, but many novel optical imaging techniques have now also been adopted in a more therapeutic imaging of the dental patient. When combining and manipulating such different digital image data, clinicians can now easily plan and simulate treatments on-screen, use 3D printed models and aids to assist in accurate transfer of the virtual planning or even follow-up their treatments over time...
July 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Gisela Henriques, Koukeo Phommasone, Rupam Tripura, Thomas J Peto, Shristi Raut, Coco Snethlage, Im Sambo, Nou Sanann, Chea Nguon, Bipin Adhikari, Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Mallika Imwong, Lorenz von Seidlein, Nicholas P Day, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp, Paul Newton, Benedikt Ley, Mayfong Mayxay
BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzymopathy worldwide. Primaquine is the only licensed drug that effectively removes Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites from the human host and prevents relapse. While well tolerated by most recipients, primaquine can cause haemolysis in G6PD deficient individuals and is, therefore, underused. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) could permit ascertainment of G6PD status outside of laboratory settings and hence safe treatment in remote areas...
June 22, 2018: Malaria Journal
Anna W Waller, Jennifer L Lotton, Shashank Gaur, Jeanette M Andrade, Juan E Andrade
In resource-limited settings, mass food fortification is a common strategy to ensure the population consumes appropriate quantities of essential micronutrients. Food and government organizations in these settings, however, lack tools to monitor the quality and compliance of fortified products and their efficacy to enhance nutrient status. The World Health Organization has developed general guidelines known as ASSURED (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User-friendly, Rapid and Robust, Equipment-free, and Deliverable to end-users) to aid the development of useful diagnostic tools for these settings...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Gabrielius Jakutis, Vytautas Juknevičius, Juratė Barysienė, Dalia Matačiūnienė, Birutė Petrauskienė, Žaneta Petrulionienė, Aleksandras Laucevičius
Introduction: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-related bradyarrhythmia syndrome is characterized by pathological asystoles during the REM sleep phase. It is a rare rhythm disorder, being reported only few times in the literature. Due to non-specific symptoms, REM sleep-related bradyarrhythmia might be often underdiagnosed. Other cardiac diseases associated with pathological sinus arrests must be excluded to establish the correct diagnosis of and appropriate therapy for REM sleep-related bradyarrhythmia...
2018: Acta Medica Lituanica
Eva Elina Buschmann, Lulu Li, Michèle Brix, Andreas Zietzer, Philipp Hillmeister, Andreas Busjahn, Peter Bramlage, Ivo Buschmann
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an important manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis, with diabetes being one of its most significant risk factors. Owing to medial arterial calcification (MAC), the ankle-brachial index (ABI) is not always a reliable tool for detecting PAD. Arterial Doppler flow parameters, such as systolic maximal acceleration (ACCmax) and relative pulse slope index (RPSI), may serve as effective surrogates to detect stenosis-induced flow alteration. In the present study, ACCmax and RPSI were prospectively evaluated in 166 patients (304 arteries) with clinical suspicion of PAD, including 76 patients with and 90 patients without diabetes...
2018: PloS One
Karolina Okla, Iwona Wertel, Anna Wawruszak, Marcin Bobiński, Jan Kotarski
Progress in cancer treatment made by the beginning of the 21st century has shifted the paradigm from one-size-fits-all to tailor-made treatment. The popular vision, to study solid tumors through the relatively noninvasive sampling of blood, is one of the most thrilling and rapidly advancing fields in global cancer diagnostics. From this perspective, immune-cell analysis in cancer could play a pivotal role in oncology practice. This approach is driven both by rapid technological developments, including the analysis of circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (cMDSCs), and by the increasing application of (immune) therapies, the success or failure of which may depend on effective and timely measurements of relevant biomarkers...
June 21, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Mohamed Khalid, Tanujjal Bora, Ahmed Al Ghaithi, Sharanjit Thukral, Joydeep Dutta
Diagnosis of osteomyelitis presents a formidable challenge. Lack of pathognomonic clinical sign(s) and diagnostic tests that can diagnose osteomyelitis at an early stage contribute to this difficulty. If the diagnosis is not made early, the disease becomes very difficult to eradicate and can lead to limb threatening and potentially life-threatening complications. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism causing osteomyelitis. Raman Spectroscopy provides information about molecular vibration that could potentially be harnessed as a spectral signature for cellular changes in specific pathologic conditions...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marlena Maziarz, Hadijah Nabalende, Isaac Otim, Ismail D Legason, Tobias Kinyera, Martin D Ogwang, Ambrose O Talisuna, Steven J Reynolds, Patrick Kerchan, Kishor Bhatia, Robert J Biggar, James J Goedert, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Sam M Mbulaiteye
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria is an important cause of morbidity in northern Uganda. This study was undertaken to assess village-, household-, and individual-level risk factors of asymptomatic falciparum malaria in children in 12 villages in northern Uganda. METHODS: Between 10/2011 and 02/2014, 1006 apparently healthy children under 16 years old were enrolled in 12 villages using a stratified, multi-stage, cluster survey design and assessed for P. falciparum malaria infection using the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and thick film microscopy (TFM), and structured interviewer-administered questionnaires...
June 20, 2018: Malaria Journal
Eric A Miller, Yara Jabbour Al Maalouf, Hadley D Sikes
In this work, we characterize the impact of large-volume processing upon the analytical sensitivity of flow-through paper-based immunoassays. Larger sample volumes feature greater molar quantities of available analyte, but the assay design principles which would enable the rapid collection of this dilute target are ill-defined. We developed a finite-element model to explore the operat-ing conditions under which processing large sample volumes via pressure-driven convective flow would yield improved binding signal...
June 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jyoti S Kumar, Divyasha Saxena, Manmohan Parida, Sivakumar Rathinam
Background & objectives: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus. The disease can be diagnosed by isolation followed by fluorescent antibody tests, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. These diagnostic methods are laborious and time-consuming. The present study was aimed to evaluate the real-time reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method for rapid, early and accurate diagnosis of WNV. Methods: A one-step single tube accelerated quantitative RT-LAMP assay was evaluated by targeting the Env gene of WNV...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Stéphane Mathis, Laurent Magy, Gwendal Le Masson, Laurence Richard, Antoine Soulages, Guilhem Solé, Fanny Duval, Karima Ghorab, Jean-Michel Vallat, Mathilde Duchesne
Peripheral neuropathy is a common symptom throughout the population, with numerous possible etiologies. The diagnosis of peripheral neuropathies (and their causes) is mainly based on clinical, electrophysiological, biological and imaging features. Areas covered: This paper reviews the main causes of neuropathy and discuss the usefulness of nerve biopsy (NB) in such cases. Expert Commentary: In most cases, NB is not mandatory in the diagnostic work-up of a peripheral neuropathy. However, NB is clearly an indication in cases of vasculitis...
June 20, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Shyam Sundar, Om Prakash Singh
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a deadly parasitic disease, is a major public health concern globally. Countries affected by VL have signed the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases and committed to eliminate VL as a public health problem by 2020. To achieve and sustain VL elimination, it will become progressively important not to miss any remaining cases in the community who can maintain transmission. This requires accurate identification of symptomatic and asymptomatic carriers using highly sensitive diagnostic tools at the primary health service setting...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
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