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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031082/quantum-associative-memory-with-linear-and-non-linear-algorithms-for-the-diagnosis-of-some-tropical-diseases
#1
J-P Tchapet Njafa, S G Nana Engo
This paper presents the QAMDiagnos, a model of Quantum Associative Memory (QAM) that can be a helpful tool for medical staff without experience or laboratory facilities, for the diagnosis of four tropical diseases (malaria, typhoid fever, yellow fever and dengue) which have several similar signs and symptoms. The memory can distinguish a single infection from a polyinfection. Our model is a combination of the improved versions of the original linear quantum retrieving algorithm proposed by Ventura and the non-linear quantum search algorithm of Abrams and Lloyd...
September 21, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029146/a-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-separation-of-autographa-gamma-noctuidae-plusiinae-from-morphologically-similar-species-in-north-america
#2
Luke R Tembrock, Roxanne E Farris, Lisa Ledezma, Norman B Barr, Todd M Gilligan
The silver Y moth, Autographa gamma L. (Noctuidae: Plusiinae), is a pest of major economic importance in its native range of Europe, Asia, and North Africa. Although not present in North America, larvae of A. gamma are commonly intercepted in commodity shipments at U.S. ports, and adult surveys are conducted each year in more than 20 states. Because of the similarity of A. gamma to several native North American species that are attracted to the same pheromone lure, morphological identification of adults is difficult and requires dissection...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029133/rapid-determination-of-ebolavirus-infectivity-in-clinical-samples-using-a-novel-reporter-cell-line
#3
Markus H Kainulainen, Stuart T Nichol, César G Albariño, Christina F Spiropoulou
Modern ebolavirus diagnostics rely primarily on qRT-PCR, a sensitive method to detect viral genetic material in the acute phase of the disease. However, qRT-PCR does not confirm presence of infectious virus, presenting limitations in patient and outbreak management. Attempts to isolate infectious virus rely on in vivo or basic cell culture approaches, which prohibit rapid results and screening. Here we present a novel reporter cell line capable of detecting live ebolaviruses. These cells permit sensitive large-scale screening and titration of infectious virus in experimental and clinical samples, independent of ebolavirus species and variant...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028804/a-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-crimean-congo-haemorrhagic-fever-virus-infection
#4
Laura C Bonney, Robert J Watson, Babak Afrough, Manija Mullojonova, Viktoriya Dzhuraeva, Farida Tishkova, Roger Hewson
BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever Virus (CCHFV) is a rapidly emerging vector-borne pathogen and the cause of a virulent haemorrhagic fever affecting large parts of Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: An isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay was successfully developed for molecular detection of CCHFV. The assay showed rapid (under 10 minutes) detection of viral extracts/synthetic virus RNA of all 7 S-segment clades of CCHFV, with high target specificity...
October 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028662/stool-xpert-mtb-rif-and-urine-lipoarabinomannan-lam-for-diagnosing-tuberculosis-in-hospitalized-hiv-infected-children
#5
Sylvia M Lacourse, Patricia B Pavlinac, Lisa M Cranmer, Irene N Njuguna, Cyrus Mugo, John Gatimu, Joshua Stern, Judd L Walson, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Julius Oyugi, Dalton Wamalwa, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB ) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. Sample collection and paucibacillary nature of TB in children makes diagnosis challenging. Rapid diagnostic tools using easily obtained specimens are urgently needed. METHODS: Hospitalized, HIV-infected children ≤12 years enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (NCT02063880) comparing urgent to poststabilization ART initiation in Kenya underwent TB evaluation...
October 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028571/identifying-ovarian-tissue-in-the-bitch-using-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-amh-or-luteinizing-hormone-lh
#6
Helene Alm, Bodil S Holst
Reliable methods for determining whether or not a bitch has ovarian tissue present are needed for cases with unknown neutering status. Vaginal cytology consistent with heat is indicative of functional ovarian tissue. Other methods are required when the bitch is not presented in suspected heat. Progesterone can be analyzed during 2 months after suspected heat. During other stages, assays for the analyses of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) have been used. The AMH assay is expected to give detectable concentrations (positive) in bitches with ovarian tissue, and the LH assay should give negative results in intact bitches, except during the pre-ovulatory LH peak...
September 27, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027789/integrated-bacterial-identification-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-using-pcr-and-high-resolution-melt
#7
Pornpat Athamanolap, Kuangwen Hsieh, Liben Chen, Samuel Yang, Tza-Huei Wang
Accurate and timely diagnostics are critical for managing bacterial infections. The current gold standard, culture-based diagnostics can provide clinicians with comprehensive diagnostic information including bacterial identity and antimicrobial susceptibility, but they often require several days of turnaround time, which leads to compromised clinical outcome and promotes the spread of antibiotic resistance. Nucleic acid amplification tests such as PCR have significantly accelerated the detection of specific bacteria, but generally lack the capacities for broad-based bacterial identification or antimicrobial susceptibility testing...
October 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027723/the-diagnostic-yield-of-chromosomal-microarray-analysis-in-fetuses-with-increased-nuchal-translucency-a-french-multicentre-retrospective-study
#8
Matthieu Egloff, Bérénice Hervé, Thibaud Quibel, Sylvie Jaillard, Gwenaelle Le Bouar, Kevin Uguen, Anne-Hélène Saliou, Mylène Valduga, Estelle Perdriolle, Charles Coutton, Anne-Laure Coston, Aurélie Coussement, Olivia Anselem, Chantal Missirian, Florence Bretelle, Fabienne Prieur, Cécile Fanget, Christine Muti, Marie-Christine Jacquemot, Claire Beneteau, Claudine Le Vaillant, Michel Vekemans, Laurant J Salomon, François Vialard, Valerie Malan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine the frequency and nature of Copy Number Variants (CNVs) identified by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in a large cohort of fetuses with a strictly isolated, increased nuchal translucency (NT) above or equal to 3.5 mm. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multicentre study including eleven French hospitals over a period between April 2012 and December 2015 in which 720 fetuses were analysed by rapid aneuploidy test and CMA...
October 13, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027235/low-dose-ct-for-the-detection-and-classification-of-metastatic-liver-lesions-results-of-the-2016-low-dose-ct-grand-challenge
#9
Cynthia H McCollough, Adam C Bartley, Rickey E Carter, Baiyu Chen, Tammy A Drees, Phillip Edwards, David R Holmes, Alice E Huang, Farhana Khan, Shuai Leng, Kyle L McMillan, Gregory J Michalak, Kristina M Nunez, Lifeng Yu, Joel G Fletcher
PURPOSE: Using common datasets, to estimate and compare the diagnostic performance of image-based denoising techniques or iterative reconstruction algorithms for the task of detecting hepatic metastases. METHODS: Datasets from contrast-enhanced CT scans of the liver were provided to participants in an NIH-, AAPM- and Mayo Clinic-sponsored Low Dose CT Grand Challenge. Training data included full-dose and quarter-dose scans of the ACR CT accreditation phantom and 10 patient examinations; both images and projections were provided in the training data...
October 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027145/novel-biocompatible-au-nanostars-peg-nanoparticles-for-in-vivo-ct-imaging-and-renal-clearance-properties
#10
Daiyuan Tang, Wei Gao, Yajiang Yuan, Lingling Guo, Xifan Mei
Nanoprobes are rapidly becoming potentially transformative tools on disease diagnostics for a wide range of in vivo computed tomography (CT) imaging. Compared with conventional molecular-scale contrast agents, nanoparticles (NPs) promise improved abilities for in vivo detection. In this study, novel polyethylene glycol (PEG)-functionalized Au nanoparticles with star shape (AuNS@PEG) with strong X-ray mass absorption coefficient were synthesized as CT imaging contrast agents. Experimental results revealed that AuNS@PEG nanoparticles are well constructed with ultrasmall sizes, effective metabolisability, high computed tomography value, and outstanding biocompatibility...
October 12, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027114/trends-in-the-clinical-stage-distribution-of-breast-cancer-in-osaka-japan
#11
Yasuhiro Toyoda, Takahiro Tabuchi, Tomio Nakayama, Shigeyuki Hojo, Setsuko Yoshioka, Yukiko Wakabayashi, Yoshiichi Maeura
We examined the proportion of screen-detected breast cancer cases and clinical stage distribution by age group among female breast cancer cases in Osaka, Japan using population-based cancer registry from the period 1980 to 2012. The proportion of local cases increased and that of regional cases decreased gradually during the study period. The proportion of distant cases leveled off. The proportion of in situ cases increased rapidly after 2003. This increase was noticeable for women aged 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years...
October 12, 2017: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027049/acute-phase-dynamics-of-circulating-tumor-cells-after-paclitaxel-and-doxorubicin-chemotherapy-in-breast-cancer-mouse-models
#12
Yayoi Adachi, Mayumi Yoshimura, Keiko Nishida, Hisanobu Usuki, Keiko Shibata, Masaya Hattori, Naoto Kondo, Yasushi Yatabe, Hiroji Iwata, Toyone Kikumori, Yasuhiro Kodera, Hayao Nakanishi
PURPOSE: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can provide a potentially minimal invasive source for monitoring chemotherapeutic effects. However, detailed in vivo dynamics of CTC after chemotherapy remain largely unknown. METHODS: We monitored CTC number and morphology early after chemotherapy using a newly developed cytology-based CTC detection device and triple-negative breast cancer mouse CTC models with spontaneous lung metastatic potential. RESULTS: Paclitaxel inhibited cell growth of breast cancer cells by mainly G2/M cell cycle arrest and partly apoptosis, whereas doxorubicin inhibited cell growth mainly by apoptosis and partly G2 cell cycle arrest in vitro...
October 12, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026323/diagnostic-accuracy-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-musculoskeletal-tuberculosis-a-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Hai Wen, Pengzhi Li, Hong Ma, Guohua Lv
OBJECTIVES: Xpert MTB/RIF assay, a rapid and automated real-time nucleic acid amplification test, has been reported for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal tuberculosis (TB) in current years. This meta-analysis aims to determine the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert for the detection of musculoskeletal TB and rifampicin (RIF) resistance. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang for original articles published up to 1st June 2017 to identify studies in which the Xpert assay was applied to diagnose musculoskeletal TB...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025200/novel-genetic-cause-of-idiopathic-short-stature
#14
REVIEW
Min Jae Kang
Traditionally, the growth hormone - insulin-like growth factor I (GH - IGF-I) axis is the most important signaling pathway in linear growth, and defects in this axis present as growth hormone deficiencies or IGF-I deficiencies. However, subtle changes in serum levels of GH or IGF-I, caused by gene mutations involved in the GH - IGF-I axis, can present as idiopathic short stature (ISS). This paper briefly discusses GHR and IGFALS. In addition, recent studies have shown that many factors, including paracrine signals, extracellular matrix, and intracellular mechanisms of chondrocytes, regulate the growth plate independent of the GH - IGF-I system...
September 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025172/-anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies-in-paediatric-patients-with-optic-neuritis
#15
Helmut Tegetmeyer, Andreas Merkenschlager
Background Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is located on the surface of oligodendrocytes and myelin in the central nervous system. MOG-IgG is associated with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), relapsing and bilateral optic neuritis (NNO), and transverse myelitis (TM) in both paediatric and adult patients. The combination of NNO and TM or other inflammatory brain lesions is a typical feature of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) which are associated with specific pathogenic autoantibodies against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG)...
October 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024751/phylogenomics-reveals-habitat-associated-body-shape-divergence-in-oryzias-woworae-species-group-teleostei-adrianichthyidae
#16
Daniel F Mokodongan, Javier Montenegro, Koji Mochida, Shingo Fujimoto, Asano Ishikawa, Ryo Kakioka, Lengxob Yong, Mulis, Renny K Hadiaty, Ixchel F Mandagi, Kawilarang W A Masengi, Nakatada Wachi, Yasuyuki Hashiguchi, Jun Kitano, Kazunori Yamahira
The Oryzias woworae species group, composed of O. asinua, O. wolasi, and O. woworae, is widely distributed in southeastern Sulawesi, an island in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Deep-elongated body shape divergence is evident among these three species to the extent that it is used as a species-diagnostic character. These fishes inhabit a variety of habitats, ranging from upper streams to ponds, suggesting that the body shape divergence among the three species may reflect adaptation to local environments. First, our geometric morphometrics among eight local populations of this species group revealed that the three species cannot be separated by body shape and that riverine populations had more elongated bodies and longer caudal parts than lacustrine populations...
October 9, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024445/a-rapid-bio-optical-sensor-for-diagnosing-q-fever-in-clinical-specimens
#17
Bonhan Koo, Choong Eun Jin, Se Yoon Park, Tae Yoon Lee, Jeonghun Nam, Young-Rock Jang, Sun Mi Kim, Ji Yeun Kim, Sung-Han Kim, Yong Shin
Recent zoonotic outbreaks, such as Zika, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, and Ebola, have highlighted the need for rapid and accurate diagnostic assays that can be used to aid pathogen control. Q-fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the transmission of Coxiella burnetii that can cause serious illness in humans via aerosols and is considered a potential bioterrorism agent. However the existing assays are not suitable for the detection of this pathogen due to its low levels in real samples. We here describe a rapid bio-optical sensor for the accurate detection of Q fever and validate its clinical utility...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024067/evaluation-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-for-identifying-dermatophytes-in-clinical-samples-a-multicentre-study
#18
Shany Sherman, Maya Goshen, Orit Treigerman, Keren Ben-Zion, Marie-Jeanne Carp, Noam Maisler, Inbal Binsky Ehrenreich, Aviva Kimchi, Sara Lifshitz, Gill Smollan, Batya Davidovici, Michael David, Emmilia Hodak, Rina Segal
BACKGROUND: The gold-standard method for dermatophyte identification involves direct microscopy and culture, which have inherent shortcomings. Only few molecular methods have been standardised for routine clinical work. OBJECTIVES: To develop and test a platform for identifying the most common dermatophytes in Israel using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). METHODS: Specific primers were designed for the multiplex system (LightCycler 480) according to known cultures and validated by reference isolates...
October 12, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023573/enhanced-passive-screening-and-diagnosis-for-gambiense-human-african-trypanosomiasis-in-north-western-uganda-moving-towards-elimination
#19
Charles Wamboga, Enock Matovu, Paul Richard Bessell, Albert Picado, Sylvain Biéler, Joseph Mathu Ndung'u
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (gHAT) in Uganda has been declining, from 198 cases in 2008, to only 20 in 2012. Interruption of transmission of the disease by early diagnosis and treatment is core to the control and eventual elimination of gHAT. Until recently, the format of available screening tests had restricted screening and diagnosis to central health facilities (passive screening). We describe a novel strategy that is contributing to elimination of gHAT in Uganda through expansion of passive screening to the entire population at risk...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023446/towards-elimination-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-the-indian-subcontinent-translating-research-to-practice-to-public-health
#20
REVIEW
Siddhivinayak Hirve, Axel Kroeger, Greg Matlashewski, Dinesh Mondal, Megha Raj Banjara, Pradeep Das, Ahmed Be-Nazir, Byron Arana, Piero Olliaro
BACKGROUND: The decade following the Regional Strategic Framework for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination in 2005 has shown compelling progress in the reduction of VL burden in the Indian subcontinent. The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), hosted by the World Health Organization (WHO) and other stakeholders, has coordinated and financed research for the development of new innovative tools and strategies to support the regional VL elimination initiative...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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