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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821598/quality-standards-in-upper-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-a-position-statement-of-the-british-society-of-gastroenterology-bsg-and-association-of-upper-gastrointestinal-surgeons-of-great-britain-and-ireland-augis
#1
Sabina Beg, Krish Ragunath, Andrew Wyman, Matthew Banks, Nigel Trudgill, D Mark Pritchard, Stuart Riley, John Anderson, Helen Griffiths, Pradeep Bhandari, Phillip Kaye, Andrew Veitch
This document represents the first position statement produced by the British Society of Gastroenterology and Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland, setting out the minimum expected standards in diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The need for this statement has arisen from the recognition that while technical competence can be rapidly acquired, in practice the performance of a high- quality examination is variable, with an unacceptably high rate of failure to diagnose cancer at endoscopy...
August 18, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820883/spatial-clustering-of-patent-and-sub-patent-malaria-infections-in-northern-namibia-implications-for-surveillance-and-response-strategies-for-elimination
#2
Jennifer L Smith, Joyce Auala, Munyaradzi Tambo, Erastus Haindongo, Stark Katokele, Petrina Uusiku, Roly Gosling, Immo Kleinschmidt, Davis Mumbengegwi, Hugh J W Sturrock
BACKGROUND: Reactive case detection (RACD) around passively detected malaria cases is a strategy to identify and treat hotspots of malaria transmission. This study investigated the unproven assumption on which this approach is based, that in low transmission settings, infections cluster over small scales. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was conducted between January 2013 and August 2014 in Ohangwena and Omusati regions in north central Namibia. Patients attending health facilities who tested positive by malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (index cases) were traced back to their home...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820722/house-structure-is-associated-with-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-a-low-transmission-setting-in-southern-zambia
#3
Matthew M Ippolito, Kelly M Searle, Harry Hamapumbu, Timothy M Shields, Jennifer C Stevenson, Philip E Thuma, William J Moss, For The Southern Africa International Center Of Excellence For Malaria Research
House structure may influence the risk of malaria by affecting mosquito entry and indoor resting. Identification of construction features associated with protective benefits could inform vector control approaches, even in low-transmission settings. We examined the association between house structure and malaria prevalence in a cross-sectional analysis of 2,788 children and adults residing in 866 houses in a low-transmission area of Southern Province, Zambia, over the period 2008-2012. Houses were categorized according to wall (brick/cement block or mud/grass) and roof (metal or grass) material...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820717/short-term-changes-in-anemia-and-malaria-parasite-prevalence-in-children-under-5-years-during-one-year-of-repeated-cross-sectional-surveys-in-rural-malawi
#4
Alinune N Kabaghe, Michael G Chipeta, Dianne J Terlouw, Robert S McCann, Michèle van Vugt, Martin P Grobusch, Willem Takken, Kamija S Phiri
In stable transmission areas, malaria is the leading cause of anemia in children. Anemia in children is proposed as an added sensitive indicator for community changes in malaria prevalence. We report short-term temporal variations of malaria and anemia prevalence in rural Malawian children. Data from five repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted over 1 year in rural communities in Chikwawa District, Malawi, were analyzed. Different households were sampled per survey; all children, 6-59 months, in sampled household were tested for malaria parasitemia and hemoglobin levels using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDT) and Hemocue 301, respectively...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820710/accuracy-of-a-rapid-diagnostic-test-cypress-chagas-quick-test-%C3%A2-for-the-diagnosis-of-chronic-chagas-disease-in-a-nonendemic-area-a-retrospective-longitudinal-study
#5
Andrea Angheben, Silvia Staffolani, Mariella Anselmi, Stefano Tais, Monica Degani, Federico Gobbi, Dora Buonfrate, Maria Gobbo, Zeno Bisoffi
We analyzed the accuracy of Chagas Quick Test(®), a rapid diagnostic test, for the diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease through a retrospective study on a cohort of 669 patients consecutively examined at a single reference center in Italy, during a 7-year period. We observed high concordance with serological reference standard but low accuracy for screening purposes (sensitivity/specificity: 82.8%/98.7%) at least in our nonendemic context.
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820709/performance-of-a-high-sensitivity-rapid-diagnostic-test-for-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-asymptomatic-individuals-from-uganda-and-myanmar-and-naive-human-challenge-infections
#6
Smita Das, Ihn Kyung Jang, Becky Barney, Roger Peck, John C Rek, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Harriet Adrama, Maxwell Murphy, Mallika Imwong, Clare L Ling, Stephane Proux, Warat Haohankhunnatham, Melissa Rist, Annette M Seilie, Amelia Hanron, Glenda Daza, Ming Chang, Tomoka Nakamura, Michael Kalnoky, Paul Labarre, Sean C Murphy, James S McCarthy, Francois Nosten, Bryan Greenhouse, Sophie Allauzen, Gonzalo J Domingo
Sensitive field-deployable diagnostic tests can assist malaria programs in achieving elimination. The performance of a new Alere™ Malaria Ag P.f Ultra Sensitive rapid diagnostic test (uRDT) was compared with the currently available SD Bioline Malaria Ag P.f RDT in blood specimens from asymptomatic individuals in Nagongera, Uganda, and in a Karen Village, Myanmar, representative of high- and low-transmission areas, respectively, as well as in pretreatment specimens from study participants from four Plasmodium falciparum-induced blood-stage malaria (IBSM) studies...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820705/the-impact-of-introducing-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests-on-fever-case-management-a-synthesis-of-ten-studies-from-the-act-consortium
#7
Katia J Bruxvoort, Baptiste Leurent, Clare I R Chandler, Evelyn K Ansah, Frank Baiden, Anders Björkman, Helen E D Burchett, Sîan E Clarke, Bonnie Cundill, Debora D DiLiberto, Kristina Elfving, Catherine Goodman, Kristian S Hansen, S Patrick Kachur, Sham Lal, David G Lalloo, Toby Leslie, Pascal Magnussen, Lindsay Mangham-Jefferies, Andreas Mårtensson, Ismail Mayan, Anthony K Mbonye, Mwinyi I Msellem, Obinna E Onwujekwe, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Mark W Rowland, Delér Shakely, Sarah G Staedke, Lasse S Vestergaard, Jayne Webster, Christopher J M Whitty, Virginia L Wiseman, Shunmay Yeung, David Schellenberg, Heidi Hopkins
Since 2010, the World Health Organization has been recommending that all suspected cases of malaria be confirmed with parasite-based diagnosis before treatment. These guidelines represent a paradigm shift away from presumptive antimalarial treatment of fever. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) are central to implementing this policy, intended to target artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) to patients with confirmed malaria and to improve management of patients with nonmalarial fevers. The ACT Consortium conducted ten linked studies, eight in sub-Saharan Africa and two in Afghanistan, to evaluate the impact of mRDT introduction on case management across settings that vary in malaria endemicity and healthcare provider type...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820682/case-report-a-case-of-plasmodium-falciparum-hrp2-and-hrp3-gene-mutation-in-bangladesh
#8
Maisha Khair Nima, Thomas Hougard, Mohammad Enayet Hossain, Mohammad Golam Kibria, Abu Naser Mohon, Fatema Tuj Johora, Rajibur Rahman, Rashidul Haque, Mohammad Shafiul Alam
Several species of Plasmodium are responsible for causing malaria in humans. Proper diagnoses are crucial to case management, because severity and treatment varies between species. Diagnoses can be made using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), which detect Plasmodium proteins. Plasmodium falciparum causes the most virulent cases of malaria, and P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) is a common target of falciparum malaria RDTs. Here we report a case in which a falciparum malaria patient in Bangladesh tested negative on PfHRP2-based RDTs...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819735/-evaluation-of-the-onsite-malaria-rapid-test-performance-in-miandrivazo-madagascar
#9
E Ravaoarisoa, T Andriamiandranoro, R Raherinjafy, M Jahevitra, S Razanatsiorimalala, V Andrianaranjaka, M Randrianarivelojosia
The performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic test OnSite-for detecting pan specific pLDH and Plasmodium falciparum specific HRP2 - was assessed during the malaria transmission peak period in Miandrivazo, in the southwestern part of Madagascar from April 20 to May 6, 2010. At the laboratory, the quality control OnSite Malaria Rapid Test according to the WHO/TDR/FIND method demonstrated that the test had good sensitivity. Of the 218 OnSite tests performed at the Miandrivazo Primary Health Center on patients with fever or a recent history of fever, four (1...
August 17, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819487/an-evaluation-of-wb123-antibody-elisa-in-individuals-treated-with-ivermectin-and-albendazole-and-implementation-challenges-in-africa
#10
Dziedzom Komi de Souza, Irene Offei Owusu, Joseph Otchere, Michelle Adimazoya, Kwadwo Frempong, Collins Stephen Ahorlu, Daniel Adjei Boakye, Michael David Wilson
The development of antibody testing for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is intended to enhance the monitoring and evaluation activities of the Global Program for the Elimination of LF. This is due to the fact that antibody tests are expected to be the most sensitive at detecting exposure to LF compared to antigen that takes longer to develop. To this end a new antibody-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to Wuchereria bancrofti antigen Wb123 has been developed and further designed into a point of care rapid diagnostic test, under evaluation...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819345/point-of-care-molecular-test-for-zika-infection
#11
Michael G Mauk, Jinzhao Song, Haim H Bau, Changchun Liu
The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has led to a serious threat to public health. Rapid and sensitive diagnostics for ZIKV infection are crucial because Zika infection is usually mild and often asymptomatic, but may have serious consequences to infants born to infected mothers. We report on a simple, sensitive, inexpensive, point-of-care (POC) diagnostic technology for rapid detection of ZIKV in saliva. We use a chemically heated cup for isothermal amplification without a need for electrical power...
June 2017: Clinical Laboratory International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819248/a-portable-microfluidic-platform-for-rapid-molecular-diagnostic-testing-of-patients-with-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#12
Hua Wang, Xinju Zhang, Xiao Xu, Qunfeng Zhang, Hengliang Wang, Dong Li, Zhihua Kang, Zhiyuan Wu, Yigui Tang, Zhenhua An, Ming Guan
The ability to simultaneously detect JAK2 V617F and MPL W515K/L mutations would substantially improve the early diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and decrease the risk of arterial thrombosis. The goal of this study is to achieve a point of care testing platform for simultaneous analysis of major genetic alterations in MPN. Here, we report a microfluidic platform including a glass capillary containing polypropylene matrix that extracts genomic DNA from a drop of whole blood, a microchip for simultaneous multi-gene mutation screening, and a handheld battery-powered heating device...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819114/isothermal-amplification-of-long-discrete-dna-fragments-facilitated-by-single-stranded-binding-protein
#13
Yinhua Zhang, Nathan A Tanner
Isothermal amplification methods for detection of DNA and RNA targets have expanded significantly in recent years, promising a new wave of simple and rapid molecular diagnostics. Current isothermal methods result in the generation of short fragments (<150 base pairs) or highly branched long DNA products. Here we report the amplification of discrete target fragments of several kilobases at 37 °C from both double- and single-stranded circular template DNA using specific primer pairs. In contrast to existing methods, this amplification requires only the single-stranded DNA-binding protein gp32 from bacteriophage T4 and a strand-displacing DNA polymerase...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819062/nodes-paranodes-and-neuropathies
#14
REVIEW
Janev Fehmi, Steven S Scherer, Hugh J Willison, Simon Rinaldi
This review summarises recent evidence supporting the involvement of the specialised nodal and perinodal domains (the paranode and juxtaparanode) of myelinated axons in the pathology of acquired, inflammatory, peripheral neuropathies.The identification of new target antigens in the inflammatory neuropathies heralds a revolution in diagnosis, and has already begun to inform increasingly targeted and individualised therapies. Rapid progress in our basic understanding of the highly specialised nodal regions of peripheral nerves serves to strengthen the links between their unique microstructural identities, functions and pathologies...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818785/a-single-tube-approach-for-in-vitro-diagnostics-using-diatomaceous-earth-and-optical-sensor
#15
Fei Zhao, Bonhan Koo, Huifang Liu, Choong Eun Jin, Yong Shin
Versatile, simple and efficient sample preparation is desirable for point-of-care testing of emerging diseases such as zoonoses, but current sample preparation assays are insensitive, labour-intensive and time-consuming and require multiple instruments. We developed a single-tube sample preparation approach involving direct pathogen enrichment and extraction from human specimens using diatomaceous earth (DE). Amine-modified DE was used to directly enrich a zoonotic pathogen, Brucella, in a large sample volume...
August 12, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818691/multi-center-evaluation-of-the-cobas-%C3%A2-liat-%C3%A2-influenza-a-b-rsv-assay-for-rapid-point-of-care-diagnosis
#16
Jane Gibson, Elissa M Schechter-Perkins, Patricia Mitchell, Sharon Mace, Yu Tian, Kemi Williams, Robert Luo, Belinda Yen-Lieberman
Point of Care Testing (POCT) provides the capability for rapid laboratory test results in patient care environments where a traditional clinical laboratory is not available. POCTs have shorter turn-around times (TATs), they may be performed by non-laboratory personnel, and the need for transport time is eliminated. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently granted Clinical Laboratory Improvements Amendment (CLIA) waiver status to the cobas(®) Influenza A/B & RSV assay, a rapid, accurate point-of-care test for Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) performed on the Liat(®) System...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818557/dna-aptamer-identification-and-characterization-for-e-coli-o157-detection-using-cell-based-selex-method
#17
Masoum Amraee, Mana Oloomi, Afsaneh Yavari, Saeid Bouzari
Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that causes symptoms in humans. Its rapid identification should be considered to avoid toxic effects of the pathogen. In this study, systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment using whole cells (Cell-SELEX) method was used for recognizing E. coli strain, O157 by single-stranded DNA library of aptamer. Nine rounds of cell-selex procedure were applied using O157, as a whole-cell target, with O42, K12, Top10, DH5α E. coli cells, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhi as counterparts...
August 14, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818471/basic-principles-of-test-negative-design-in-evaluating-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness
#18
Wakaba Fukushima, Yoshio Hirota
Based on the unique characteristics of influenza, the concept of "monitoring" influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) across the seasons using the same observational study design has been developed. In recent years, there has been a growing number of influenza VE reports using the test-negative design, which can minimize both misclassification of diseases and confounding by health care-seeking behavior. Although the test-negative designs offer considerable advantages, there are some concerns that widespread use of the test-negative design without knowledge of the basic principles of epidemiology could produce invalid findings...
August 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818179/multiple-trauma-and-emergency-room-management
#19
Michael Frink, Philipp Lechler, Florian Debus, Steffen Ruchholtz
BACKGROUND: The care of severely injured patients remains a challenge. Their initial treatment in the emergency room is the essential link between first aid in the field and definitive in-hospital treatment. METHODS: We present important elements of the initial in-hospital care of severely injured patients on the basis of pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and the current German S3 guideline on the care of severely and multiply traumatized patients, which was last updated in 2016...
July 24, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818121/different-places-different-ideas-reimagining-practice-in-american-psychiatric-nursing-after-world-war-ii
#20
Kylie M Smith
In 1952, Hildegard Peplau published her textbook Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing. This was the same year the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1st ed.; DSM-I; APA). These events occurred in the context of a rapidly changing policy and practice environment in the United States after World War II, where the passing of the National Mental Health Act in 1946 released vast amounts of funding for the establishment of the National Institute of Mental Health and the development of advanced educational programs for the mental health professions including nursing...
January 1, 2018: Nursing History Review: Official Journal of the American Association for the History of Nursing
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