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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655393/seasonal-influenza-among-children-diagnosed-by-their-guardians-a-small-pilot-study-in-japan
#1
Hiroki Maita, Tadashi Kobayashi, Hiroshi Osawa, Hiroyuki Kato
AimWe aimed to elucidate the accuracy and optimal cut-off point of the self-diagnosis of influenza and the associated clinical symptoms of children by their guardians, compared with those of the rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT). BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza is a common outpatient problem during the winter season. A paediatric influenza epidemic has socio-economic impacts like temporary school closure, school event cancellations, and unscheduled work absences among parents. Hence, early identification and assessment of influenza to prevent its spread is important from a societal perspective...
April 15, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655384/hiv-prevention-strategies-and-risk-of-infection-a-model-based-analysis
#2
A Hahn, R Hinz, T Meyer, U Loderstädt, O Herchenröder, C G Meyer, N G Schwarz, H Frickmann
Risk populations for HIV infections tend to neglect condom use, making alternative preventive approaches necessary. Accordingly, we modelled the risk of sexual HIV transmission for condom use vs. use of rapid diagnostic test (RDT) systems with subsequent exclusion of potential sexual partners with a correctly or falsely positive test from unprotected sex with and without the use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in a bio-statistical approach. We combined a previously described model of transmission risk for HIV-exposed individuals with a newly suggested model of risk of HIV exposure for sexually active HIV-negative individuals...
April 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653276/in-vivo-microscopy-in-neurosurgical-oncology
#3
REVIEW
Hany Osman, Joseph Georges, Deena Elsahy, Eyas Hattab, Steven Yocom, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol
Intraoperative neurosurgical histopathologic diagnoses rely on evaluation of rapid tissue preparations such as frozen sections and smears with conventional light microscopy. Though useful, these techniques are time consuming and therefore unable to provide real-time intraoperative feedback. In vivo molecular imaging techniques are emerging as novel methods for generating real-time diagnostic histopathologic images of tumors and their surrounding tissues. These imaging techniques rely on contrast generated by exogenous fluorescent dyes, autofluorescence of endogenous molecules, fluorescence decay of excited molecules, or light scattering...
April 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652490/immunoassay-multiplexing-on-a-cmos-photodiode-array
#4
Bence Nagy, Mohammed Al-Rawhani, Boon Chong Cheah, Michael P Barrett, David R S Cumming
Scalable immunoassay multiplexing offers a route to creating rapid point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. We present a method for multiplexing immunoassays on the surface of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensor array integrated circuit (IC) without the use of physical separators such as wells or channels. Major advantages of using a CMOS sensor array include low mass-manufacturing costs, the possibility to multiplex multiple assays on a single IC and improved signal when averaging multiple sensors, along with providing a platform where wash steps can be incor-porated to maximize selectivity and sensitivity compared to paper based lateral flow immunoassay...
April 13, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652319/-modern-approaches-to-the-diagnosis-of-precancerous-pathology-and-early-lung-cancer
#5
A A Strunina, D V Sokolov, V V Sokolov, N N Volchenko, S V Kashin
AIM: To assess the possibilities of modern diagnostic techniques to diagnose precancerous pathology and early central lung cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of Russian and foreign publications for precancerous pathology and early lung cancer, results and comparison of various diagnostic techniques. RESULTS: Central lung cancer has a stepwise development with transformation of normal bronchial epithelium to hyperplastic followed by focal metaplasia, dysplasia, cancer in situ (CIS) and microinvasive cancer...
2018: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652111/actual-diagnosis-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#6
Philippe Lehours
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomach of half of humanity. The prevalence of this infection is higher among people of low socioeconomic status and from developing countries. In the absence of effective antibiotic treatment, the infection persists decades or even lifetime. The diagnosis of H. pylori can be made by invasive methods when biopsies are obtained: culture, histological examination, polymerase chain reaction or rapid urease test. Non-invasive methods have been developed, including the urea breath test, a test of high reliability, particularly suitable for post treatment monitoring, but also the fecal antigen test, as well as the detection of antibodies in the serum...
April 12, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651206/urinary-urea-uric-acid-and-hippuric-acid-as-potential-biomarkers-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#7
Hanaa B Atya, Sahar A Ali, Mohamed I Hegazy, Fathia Z El Sharkawi
Urine is a proven source of metabolite biomarkers and has the potential to be a rapid, noninvasive, inexpensive, and efficient diagnostic tool for various human diseases. Despite these advantages, urine is an under-investigated source of biomarkers for multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective was to investigate the level of some urinary metabolites (urea, uric acid and hippuric acid) in patients with MS and correlate their levels to the severity of the disease, MS subtypes and MS treatment. The urine samples were collected from 73 MS patients-48 with RRMS and 25 with SPMS- and age matched 75 healthy controls...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651117/field-validation-of-recombinant-antigen-immunoassays-for-diagnosis-of-lassa-fever
#8
Matthew L Boisen, Jessica N Hartnett, Jeffrey G Shaffer, Augustine Goba, Mambu Momoh, John Demby Sandi, Mohamed Fullah, Diana K S Nelson, Duane J Bush, Megan M Rowland, Megan L Heinrich, Anatoliy P Koval, Robert W Cross, Kayla G Barnes, Anna E Lachenauer, Aaron E Lin, Mahan Nekoui, Dylan Kotliar, Sarah M Winnicki, Katherine J Siddle, Michael Gbakie, Mbalu Fonnie, Veronica J Koroma, Lansana Kanneh, Peter C Kulakosky, Kathryn M Hastie, Russell B Wilson, Kristian G Andersen, Onikepe O Folarin, Christian T Happi, Pardis C Sabeti, Thomas W Geisbert, Erica Ollmann Saphire, S Humarr Khan, Donald S Grant, John S Schieffelin, Luis M Branco, Robert F Garry
Lassa fever, a hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is endemic in West Africa. It is difficult to distinguish febrile illnesses that are common in West Africa from Lassa fever based solely on a patient's clinical presentation. The field performance of recombinant antigen-based Lassa fever immunoassays was compared to that of quantitative polymerase chain assays (qPCRs) using samples from subjects meeting the case definition of Lassa fever presenting to Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone. The recombinant Lassa virus (ReLASV) enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) for detection of viral antigen in blood performed with 95% sensitivity and 97% specificity using a diagnostic standard that combined results of the immunoassays and qPCR...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650943/-a-useful-case-of-photodynamic-diagnosis-of-inferior-vena-cava-invasion-by-pancreatic-head-cancer-using-5-aminolevulinic-acid-5-ala
#9
Toru Mizutani, Yasutoshi Murayama, Hisashi Ikoma, Tomohiro Arita, Toshiyuki Kosuga, Hirotaka Konishi, Ryo Morimura, Atsushi Shiozaki, Yoshiaki Kuriu, Masayoshi Nakanishi, Hitoshi Fujiwara, Kazuma Okamoto, Eigo Otsuji
Curative resection is necessary to survival in pancreatic cancer, however after surgery, pathologic examination sometimes diagnoses the remains of cancer at the resected stump. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the stump by intraoperative rapid pathological examination. 5-aminolevulinic acid(5-ALA)is an endogenous natural amino acid and precursor of the heme pathway. 5-ALA is metabolized and accumulated as protoporphyrin IX(Pp IX)that is photosensitive substance. 5-ALA mediated photodynamic diagnosis(PDD)(ALA-PDD)has high diagnostic ability...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650322/decision-based-on-big-data-research-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-medical-artificial-system-in-developing-country
#10
Jia Wu, Yanlin Tan, Zhigang Chen, Ming Zhao
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a high risk cancer and is usually scanned by PET-CT for testing, predicting and then give the treatment methods. However, in the actual hospital system, at least 640 images must be generated for each patient through PET-CT scanning. Especially in developing countries, a huge number of patients in NSCLC are attended by doctors. Artificial system can predict and make decision rapidly. According to explore and research artificial medical system, the selection of artificial observations also can result in low work efficiency for doctors...
June 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650007/malaria-incidence-and-prevalence-during-the-first-year-of-life-in-nanoro-burkina-faso-a-birth-cohort-study
#11
Hamtandi Magloire Natama, Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, M Athanase Somé, Serge Henri Zango, Hermann Sorgho, Pieter Guetens, Maminata Coulibaly-Traoré, Innocent Valea, Petra F Mens, Henk D F H Schallig, Luc Kestens, Halidou Tinto, Anna Rosanas-Urgell
BACKGROUND: Infants are thought to be protected against malaria during the first months of life mainly due to passage of maternal antibodies. However, in high transmission settings, malaria in early infancy is not uncommon and susceptibility to the infections varies between individuals. This study aimed to determine malaria morbidity and infection during early childhood in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: Malariometric indices were determined over 1-year follow-up in a birth cohort of 734 infants living in Nanoro health district...
April 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649748/rapid-and-selective-sampling-of-igg-from-skin-in-less-than-1-min-using-a-high-surface-area-wearable-immunoassay-patch
#12
Jacob W Coffey, Simon R Corrie, Mark A F Kendall
Microprojection array (MPA) patches are an attractive approach to selectively capture circulating proteins from the skin with minimal invasiveness for diagnostics at the point-of-care or in the home. A key challenge to develop this technology is to extract sufficient quantities of specific proteins from within the skin to enable high diagnostic sensitivity within a convenient amount of time. To achieve this, we investigated the effect of MPA geometry (i.e. projection density, length and array size) on protein capture...
March 22, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649602/point-of-care-and-point-of-can-leveraging-reference-laboratory-capacity-for-integrated-diagnosis-of-fever-syndromes-in-the-tropics
#13
REVIEW
Makeda Semret, Momar Ndao, Jan Jacobs, Cedric P Yansouni
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for integrated diagnosis of febrile syndromes, able to account for multiple pathogens and inform decisions for clinical care and public health. AIMS: To reflect on the evolving roles of laboratory-based testing for non-malarial febrile illnesses (NMFI) in low-resource settings (LRS), and to consider how advances in diagnostics, in connectivity and transport, and in quality-systems implementation may substantially enhance the capacity of reference laboratories to bridge the current gap between remote passive surveillance and clinically meaningful integrated fever diagnosis...
April 9, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649263/validation-of-czecanca-czech-cancer-panel-for-clinical-application-for-targeted-ngs-based-analysis-of-hereditary-cancer-syndromes
#14
Jana Soukupova, Petra Zemankova, Klara Lhotova, Marketa Janatova, Marianna Borecka, Lenka Stolarova, Filip Lhota, Lenka Foretova, Eva Machackova, Viktor Stranecky, Spiros Tavandzis, Petra Kleiblova, Michal Vocka, Hana Hartmannova, Katerina Hodanova, Stanislav Kmoch, Zdenek Kleibl
BACKGROUND: Carriers of mutations in hereditary cancer predisposition genes represent a small but clinically important subgroup of oncology patients. The identification of causal germline mutations determines follow-up management, treatment options and genetic counselling in patients' families. Targeted next-generation sequencing-based analyses using cancer-specific panels in high-risk individuals have been rapidly adopted by diagnostic laboratories. While the use of diagnosis-specific panels is straightforward in typical cases, individuals with unusual phenotypes from families with overlapping criteria require multiple panel testing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649256/gene-target-selection-for-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-for-rapid-discrimination-of-treponema-pallidum-subspecies
#15
Sascha Knauf, Simone Lüert, David Šmajs, Michal Strouhal, Idrissa S Chuma, Sieghard Frischmann, Mohammed Bakheit
We show proof of concept for gene targets (polA, tprL, and TP_0619) that can be used in loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays to rapidly differentiate infection with any of the three Treponema pallidum subspecies (pallidum (TPA), pertenue (TPE), and endemicum (TEN)) and which are known to infect humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs). Four TPA, six human, and two NHP TPE strains, as well as two human TEN strains were used to establish and validate the LAMP assays. All three LAMP assays were highly specific for the target DNA...
April 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648880/evolving-challenges-in-pediatric-pulmonary-medicine-new-opportunities-to-re-invigorate-the-field
#16
Joseph M Collaco, Steven H Abman
Thirty years after the first board certification examination for pediatric pulmonology was administered there remain substantial challenges in attracting trainees and sustaining and retaining clinician-scientists in the field. In fact, significant workforce shortages are predicted to exist with current fellowship graduation rates and the aging of the existing workforce. However, the rapid diagnostic and therapeutic advances occurring in the field should serve as draw for trainees. In addition, pediatric pulmonologists provide unique expertise for the diversity and severity of respiratory conditions that is not duplicated by generalists, allergists, intensivists, or neonatologists...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645058/recent-advances-in-nanoparticle-based-lateral-flow-immunoassay-as-a-point-of-care-diagnostic-tool-for-infectious-agents-and-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Ruptanu Banerjee, Amit Jaiswal
Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) technology is a paper-based, point-of-care strip biosensor designed to detect a specific analyte in a given sample. This type of assay is now of great interest to researchers for its cost-effectiveness, simplicity, portability and rapidness of detection of analytes, including but not limited to areas such as agriculture, food, biomedicine and pathogen detection. Various nanoparticles (such as metal nanoparticles, carbon-based nanoparticles, quantum dots, lanthanides and up-converting phosphor) functionalized by an antibody to detect an analyte protein or molecular marker present in the surface of an infectious pathogen are used for in LFIAs...
April 12, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644437/a-paperfluidic-platform-to-detect-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-in-clinical-samples
#18
Audrey L Horst, Justin M Rosenbohm, Nikunja Kolluri, Justin Hardick, Charlotte A Gaydos, Mario Cabodi, Catherine M Klapperich, Jacqueline C Linnes
Globally, the microbe Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) causes 106 million newly documented sexually transmitted infections each year. Once appropriately diagnosed, NG infections can be readily treated with antibiotics, but high-risk patients often do not return to the clinic for treatment if results are not provided at the point of care. A rapid, sensitive molecular diagnostic would help increase NG treatment and reduce the prevalence of this sexually transmitted disease. Here, we report on the design and development of a rapid, highly sensitive, paperfluidic device for point-of-care diagnosis of NG...
April 11, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644358/raman-encoded-multivalent-glycan-nanoconjugates-for-traceable-specific-binding-and-killing-of-bacteria
#19
Surendra H Mahadevegowda, Shuai Hou, Jielin Ma, Damien Keogh, Jianhua Zhang, Asadulla Mallick, Xue-Wei Liu, Hongwei Duan, Mary B Chan-Park
Glycan recognition plays key roles in cell-cell and host-pathogen interactions, stimulating widespread interest in developing multivalent glycoconjugates with superior binding affinity for biological and medical uses. Here, we explore the use of Raman-encoded silver coated gold nanorods (GNRs) as scaffolds to form multivalent glycoconjugates. The plasmonic scaffolds afford high-loading of glycan density and their optical properties offer the possibilities of monitoring and quantitative analysis of glycan recognition...
April 12, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644095/rapid-whole-genome-sequencing-decreases-infant-morbidity-and-cost-of-hospitalization
#20
Lauge Farnaes, Amber Hildreth, Nathaly M Sweeney, Michelle M Clark, Shimul Chowdhury, Shareef Nahas, Julie A Cakici, Wendy Benson, Robert H Kaplan, Richard Kronick, Matthew N Bainbridge, Jennifer Friedman, Jeffrey J Gold, Yan Ding, Narayanan Veeraraghavan, David Dimmock, Stephen F Kingsmore
Genetic disorders are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Rapid whole-genome sequencing (rWGS) can diagnose genetic disorders in time to change acute medical or surgical management (clinical utility) and improve outcomes in acutely ill infants. We report a retrospective cohort study of acutely ill inpatient infants in a regional children's hospital from July 2016-March 2017. Forty-two families received rWGS for etiologic diagnosis of genetic disorders. Probands also received standard genetic testing as clinically indicated...
2018: NPJ Genomic Medicine
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