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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244829/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-introducing-malaria-diagnostic-testing-in-drug-shops-a-cluster-randomised-trial-in-uganda
#1
Kristian Schultz Hansen, Siân E Clarke, Sham Lal, Pascal Magnussen, Anthony K Mbonye
BACKGROUND: Private sector drug shops are an important source of malaria treatment in Africa, yet diagnosis without parasitological testing is common among these providers. Accurate rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) require limited training and present an opportunity to increase access to correct diagnosis. The present study was a cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of mRDTs in Ugandan drug shops. METHODS: Drug shop vendors were trained to perform and sell subsidised mRDTs and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in the intervention arm while vendors offered ACTs following presumptive diagnosis of malaria in the control arm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244776/internet-of-things-iot-based-design-of-a-secure-and-lightweight-body-area-network-ban-healthcare-system
#2
Yong-Yuan Deng, Chin-Ling Chen, Woei-Jiunn Tsaur, Yung-Wen Tang, Jung-Hsuan Chen
As sensor networks and cloud computation technologies have rapidly developed over recent years, many services and applications integrating these technologies into daily life have come together as an Internet of Things (IoT). At the same time, aging populations have increased the need for expanded and more efficient elderly care services. Fortunately, elderly people can now wear sensing devices which relay data to a personal wireless device, forming a body area network (BAN). These personal wireless devices collect and integrate patients' personal physiological data, and then transmit the data to the backend of the network for related diagnostics...
December 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244182/poor-performance-of-two-rapid-immunochromatographic-assays-for-anti-japanese-encephalitis-virus-immunoglobulin-m-detection-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-serum-from-patients-with-suspected-japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection-in-laos
#3
Onanong Sengvilaipaseuth, Josée Castonguay-Vanier, Anisone Chanthongthip, Ooyanong Phonemixay, Soulignasack Thongpaseuth, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Paul N Newton, Tehmina Bharucha, Audrey Dubot-Pérès
Background: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a leading identified cause of encephalitis in Asia, often occurring in rural areas with poor access to laboratory diagnostics. We evaluated two rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for anti-JEV immunoglobulin M (IgM) detection. Methods: Consecutive cerebrospinal fluid and serum from 388 patients (704 samples) with suspected JEV infections admitted to six hospitals in Laos were tested with one of two SD-Bioline anti-JEV IgM RDTs and the World Health Organization standard anti-JEV IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; Panbio Japanese Encephalitis-Dengue IgM Combo ELISA...
December 13, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244005/ghost-global-hepatitis-outbreak-and-surveillance-technology
#4
Atkinson G Longmire, Seth Sims, Inna Rytsareva, David S Campo, Pavel Skums, Zoya Dimitrova, Sumathi Ramachandran, Magdalena Medrzycki, Hong Thai, Lilia Ganova-Raeva, Yulin Lin, Lili T Punkova, Amanda Sue, Massimo Mirabito, Silver Wang, Robin Tracy, Victor Bolet, Thom Sukalac, Chris Lynberg, Yury Khudyakov
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C is a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. Outbreaks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections associated with unsafe injection practices, drug diversion, and other exposures to blood are difficult to detect and investigate. Effective HCV outbreak investigation requires comprehensive surveillance and robust case investigation. We previously developed and validated a methodology for the rapid and cost-effective identification of HCV transmission clusters...
December 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243896/diagnostics-and-current-care-of-myasthenia-gravis
#5
Sari Atula, Kathrin Pfau, Tapani Salmi, Eero Sihvo, Mikko Haapio, Mika Saarela, Mari Auranen
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common neuromuscular transmission disorder, causing weakness of skeletal muscles on exertion. The course of the disease is highly variable, symptoms and signs may change rapidly due to infection or pregnancy. MG is classified using serological, electrophysiological and pharmaceutical tools. A precise diagnosis allows for the choice of right treatment, predicts the course of disease and hence helps with the follow-up. In this review we present Finnish guidelines for diagnostics, treatment and follow-up of MG patients...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243574/stock-outs-improvisations-and-processes-of-infrastructuring-in-uganda-s-hiv-aids-and-malaria-programmes
#6
René Umlauf, Sung-Joon Park
This paper examines the stock-outs of medicines and diagnostic devices in Uganda. Our aim is to trace and compare interruptions in the supply of antiretrovirals and Rapid Diagnostic Tests in order to provide an ethnographic account of the complex role that improvisations play within global health infrastructures. We will argue that the fragmented and mobile infrastructures of these key global health technologies require and necessitate improvisations by the different actors involved as well as on almost all levels of the Ugandan health-care system...
December 15, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243258/the-diagnostic-pathway-of-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-a-large-u-s-healthcare-system
#7
Jason Gilde, Brian Song, Farzad Masroor, Jeanne A Darbinian, Miranda L Ritterman Weintraub, James Salazar, Eleanor Yang, Deepak Gurushanthaiah, Kevin H Wang
OBJECTIVE: To examine the current diagnostic pathway of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and identify factors associated with time to diagnosis. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with OPSCC in an integrated healthcare system from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2013. Patient demographics, tobacco and alcohol use, chief complaint, tumor stage, human papilloma virus (HPV) status, physician factors (diagnosis, antibiotic prescription, performance of endoscopic exam, biopsy), and time intervals were examined...
December 15, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243178/development-and-validation-of-a-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-for-the-detection-of-mycoplasma-bovis-in-mastitic-milk
#8
Aqeela Ashraf, Muhammad Imran, Tahir Yaqub, Muhammad Tayyab, Wasim Shehzad, Claro N Mingala, Yung-Fu Chang
Mycoplasma mastitis is often difficult to control due to a lack of rapid and accurate diagnostic tools. The aim of the current study was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) in mastitic milk. The assay was developed using primers designed for three different target genes: uvrC, 16S rRNA, and gyrB, and validated using mastitic milk samples previously found positive for the target pathogen. Specificity of the developed assay was determined by testing cross-reactivity of LAMP primers against closely related bovine mastitis bacterial pathogens...
December 14, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242711/effect-of-point-of-care-diagnostics-on-maternal-outcomes-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-women-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson, Rebecca L Morgan, Benn Sartorius, Brittany Dennis, Paul K Drain, Lehana Thabane
Introduction: The World Health Organization advocates for increased accessibility of HIV-related point-of-care (POC) diagnostics in settings that lack laboratory infrastructure. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of POC diagnostics on maternal health outcomes in HIV-infected women. Methods: A systematic literature review used multiple data sources as follows: Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials, published in The Cochrane Library; PubMed; EBSCOhost and LILACS from January 2000 to October 2015...
June 2017: Point of Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242399/novel-functional-renal-imaging-with-18f-fds-pet-in-rat-models-of-kidney-diseases
#10
Rudolf Werner, Hiroshi Wakabayashi, Xinyu Chen, Mitsuru Hirano, Tetsuya Shinaji, Constantin Lapa, Steven P Rowe, Mehrbod S Javadi, Takahiro Higuchi
Background: Precise regional quantitative assessment of renal function is limited with conventional 99mTc-labeled renal radiotracers. A recent study reported that the positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer 2-deoxy-2-18F-fluorosorbitol (18F-FDS) has ideal pharmacokinetics for functional renal imaging. Furthermore, 18F-FDS is available via simple reduction from routinely used 2-deoxy-2-18F-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG). We aimed to further investigate the potential of 18F-FDS PET as a functional renal imaging agent using rat models of kidney diseases...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241991/pancreatic-cyst-fluid-glucose-rapid-inexpensive-and-accurate-diagnosis-of-mucinous-pancreatic-cysts
#11
Rosalie A Carr, Michele T Yip-Schneider, Rachel E Simpson, Scott Dolejs, Justine G Schneider, Huangbing Wu, Eugene P Ceppa, Walter Park, C Max Schmidt
BACKGROUND: The most widely accepted biochemical test for preoperative differentiation of mucinous from benign, nonmucinous pancreatic cysts is cyst fluid carcinoembryonic antigen. However, the diagnostic accuracy of carcinoembryonic antigen ranges from 70% to 86%. Based on previous work, we hypothesize that pancreatic cyst fluid glucose may be an attractive alternative to carcinoembryonic antigen. METHODS: Pancreatic cyst fluid was collected during endoscopic or operative intervention...
December 11, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241891/cost-effectiveness-of-candida-polymerase-chain-reaction-detection-and-empirical-antifungal-treatment-among-patients-with-suspected-fungal-peritonitis-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#12
Arnaud Pagès, Xavier Iriart, Laurent Molinier, Bernard Georges, Antoine Berry, Patrice Massip, Blandine Juillard-Condat
BACKGROUND: Mortality from intra-abdominal candidiasis in intensive care units (ICUs) is high. It takes many days for peritoneal-fluid fungal culture to become positive, and the recommended empirical antifungal therapy involves excessive costs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) should produce results more rapidly than fungal culture. OBJECTIVES: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the combination of several diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to manage Candida peritonitis in non-neutropenic adult patients in ICUs...
December 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240876/machine-learning-for-classifying-tuberculosis-drug-resistance-from-dna-sequencing-data
#13
Yang Yang, Katherine E Niehaus, Timothy M Walker, Zamin Iqbal, A Sarah Walker, Daniel J Wilson, Tim E Peto, Derrick W Crook, E Grace Smith, Tingting Zhu, David A Clifton
Motivation: Correct and rapid determination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) resistance against available tuberculosis (TB) drugs is essential for the control and management of TB. Conventional molecular diagnostic test assumes that the presence of any well-studied single nucleotide polymorphisms is sufficient to cause resistance, which yields low sensitivity for resistance classification. Methods: Given the availability of DNA sequencing data from MTB, we developed machine learning models for a cohort of 1839 UK bacterial isolates to classify MTB resistance against eight anti-TB drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, streptomycin) and to classify multi-drug resistance...
December 12, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240766/estimated-clinical-impact-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-cartridge-for-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-modeling-study
#14
Emily A Kendall, Samuel G Schumacher, Claudia M Denkinger, David W Dowdy
BACKGROUND: The Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay offers rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) but still suffers from imperfect sensitivity. The newer Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra cartridge has shown improved sensitivity in recent field trials, but at the expense of reduced specificity. The clinical implications of switching from the existing Xpert cartridge to the Xpert Ultra cartridge in different populations remain uncertain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a Markov microsimulation model of hypothetical cohorts of 100,000 individuals undergoing diagnostic sputum evaluation with Xpert for suspected pulmonary TB, in each of 3 emblematic settings: an HIV clinic in South Africa, a public TB center in India, and an adult primary care setting in China...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240337/nucleic-acid-diagnostic-approaches-in-parasitology
#15
Anne-Marie Kerttula, Antti Lavikainen
Nucleic acid diagnostic technologies are partly replacing traditional microscopy and antigen detection methods in parasitological diagnostics. In particular, the diagnostics of parasitic diarrhea is undergoing a transformation due to the application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Diagnostics of malaria is still based on microscopy, but rapid nucleic acid tests are emerging. Laboratories of clinical microbiology in Finland currently provide PCR tests e.g. for intestinal protozoa, Toxoplasma and Trichomonas...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239620/wax-spreading-in-paper-under-controlled-pressure-and-temperature
#16
Wei Hong, Jing Zhou, Mandakini Kanungo, Nancy Jia, Anthony D Dinsmore
This work describes a novel, rapid method to fabricate high resolution paper-based microfluidic devices using wax-ink based printing. This study demonstrates that both temperature and pressure are important knobs in controlling the device resolution. High resolution lines and patterns were obtained by heating the paper asymmetrically from one side up to 110 ℃ while applying pressure up to 49 kPa. Starting with wax lines with an initial width of 130 µm, we achieve a thorough penetration through 190 µm-thick paper with lateral spreading on the front as narrow as 90 µm...
December 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239119/a-retrospective-review-of-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-in-35-dogs-diagnosed-by-a-combination-of-morphologic-findings-flow-cytometric-immunophenotyping-and-cytochemical-staining-results-2007-2015
#17
L L Davis, K R Hume, T Stokol
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is an uncommon, rapidly progressive neoplasm in dogs. The aim of this retrospective study was to characterize the clinical presentation, haematologic findings, diagnostic imaging results, treatment and survival time of a contemporary cohort of dogs with AML. Diagnosis was based on >20% blasts in bone marrow or blood identified as myeloid based on morphologic findings, flow cytometric immunophenotyping and cytochemical staining. Medical records of 35 dogs diagnosed with AML from 2007 to 2015 were included...
December 14, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238519/how-to-manage-anaphylaxis-in-primary-care
#18
REVIEW
Alberto Alvarez-Perea, Luciana Kase Tanno, María L Baeza
Anaphylaxis is defined as a severe life-threatening generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction characterized by rapidly developing airway and/or circulation problems. It presents with very different combinations of symptoms and apparently mild signs and can progress to fatal anaphylactic shock unpredictably. The difficulty in recognizing anaphylaxis is due, in part, to the variability of diagnostic criteria, which in turn leads to a delay in administration of appropriate treatment, thus increasing the risk of death...
2017: Clinical and Translational Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238510/epidemiology-transmission-diagnosis-and-outcome-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#19
REVIEW
Seyed Hamid Moosavy, Parivash Davoodian, Mirza Ali Nazarnezhad, Abdolazim Nejatizaheh, Ebrahim Eftekhar, Hamidreza Mahboobi
Hepatitis C infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disorders worldwide. Nearly three percent (3%) of the world population has an HCV infection. Prevalence of HCV infection was higher in some groups such as injected drug users (IDUs) and HIV positive populations. Acute hepatitis has proven asymptomatic in most cases, and delay of diagnosis might lead to late onset of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Some host characteristics such as age, gender, body mass index, and viral properties are associated with HCV outcome hepatitis...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238229/coinfections-with-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-and-syphilis-among-hiv-infected-clients-in-southern-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Techalew Shimelis, Yayheyirad Tassachew, Agete Tadewos, Mesfin Worku Hordofa, Anteneh Amsalu, Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Endale Tadesse
Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are hepatotropic viruses of public health significance worldwide. Despite their severe clinical impact in HIV-infected patients, there is inadequate information regarding the epidemiology of hepatitis/HIV coinfections in Ethiopia. Thus, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections among HIV-infected patients at a tertiary hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Methods: Stored sera, which were originally collected for the investigation of syphilis among HIV-infected clients, were analyzed in this study...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
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