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Haemophilus influenzae

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637909/rapid-differentiation-of-haemophilus-influenzae-and-haemophilus-haemolyticus-using-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-with-clinprotools-mass-spectra-analysis
#1
Jonathan H K Chen, Vincent C C Cheng, Chun-Pong Wong, Sally C Y Wong, Wing-Cheong Yam, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Haemophilus influenzae is associated with severe invasive disease, while Haemophilus haemolyticus is considered part of the commensal flora in the human respiratory tract. Although the addition of a custom mass spectra library into the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system could improve identification of these two species, the establishment of such a custom database is technically complicated and requires a large amount of resources, which most clinical laboratories cannot afford...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630241/multipathogenic-necrotising-supraglottitis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#2
Jacob Joseph Ahmed, James Douglas Constable, Tawakir Kamani, Mriganka De
Supraglottitis is a potentially life-threatening condition. It is now uncommon due to the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccination and is more recently caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, H. influenzae non-type B, H. parainfluenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Pasteurella multocida Very rarely, it can cause necrotising supraglottitis/epiglottitis, and this has been reported in immunocompromised individuals. We present a unique case of multipathogenic supraglottitis causing laryngeal fibrinoid necrosis in an immunocompetent patient...
June 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629795/epidemiological-features-and-antibiotic-resistance-patterns-of-haemophilus-influenzae-originating-from-respiratory-tract-and-vaginal-specimens-in-pediatric-patients
#3
Jian-Ping Li, Chun-Zhen Hua, Li-Ying Sun, Hong-Jiao Wang, Zhi-Min Chen, Shi-Qiang Shang
BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) is a common pathogen of respiratory tract infections in children, however, as a possible cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, its epidemiological features,antibiotic-resistance patterns, and treatment are seldom noted. METHODS: Specimens obtained from patients were inoculated on Haemophilus selective medium; and drug-sensitivities tests were determined with disc diffusion method. Cefinase disc was used to detect β-lactamase...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628438/haemophilus-influenzae-type-a-meningitis-in-immunocompetent-child-oman-2015
#4
Kiran P Sawardekar
Meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was eliminated in Oman after the introduction of Hib vaccine in 2001. However, a case of H. influenzae type a meningitis was diagnosed in a child from Oman in 2015, which highlights the need to monitor the incidence of invasive non-Hib H. influenzae disease.
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626902/haemophilus-influenzae-oral-vaccination-for-preventing-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-bronchitis-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
REVIEW
Edward Teo, Kathleen Lockhart, Sai Navya Purchuri, Jennifer Pushparajah, Allan W Cripps, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are serious conditions in which patients are predisposed to viral and bacterial infections resulting in potentially fatal acute exacerbations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is defined as a lung disease characterised by obstruction to lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing. Antibiotic therapy has not been particularly useful in eradicating bacteria such as non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) because they are naturally occurring flora of the upper respiratory tract in many people...
June 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621647/timeliness-and-completeness-of-routine-childhood-vaccinations-in-children-by-two-years-of-age-in-alberta-canada
#6
Vineet Saini, Shannon E MacDonald, Deborah A McNeil, Sheila W McDonald, James D Kellner, Sarah A Edwards, Victoria Stagg, Suzanne Tough
OBJECTIVES: Assessing timeliness and completeness of vaccine administration is important for evaluating the effectiveness of immunization programs. Few studies have reported timeliness, particularly in Canada. The objective of this study was to examine timeliness of the receipt of vaccination for each routine childhood recommended vaccine by 24 months of age among children in a community-based pregnancy cohort in Calgary, Alberta. METHODS: Survey data from a community-based pregnancy cohort in Alberta were linked to Public Health vaccination records of children (n = 2763)...
June 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621044/haemophilus-influenzae-vulvovaginitis-associated-with-rhinitis-caused-by-the-same-clone-in-a-prepubertal-girl
#7
Xiao Chen, Lifeng Chen, Wenjie Zeng, Xiaofeng Zhao
Vulvovaginitis caused by upper respiratory flora is generally considered to be the most common gynecological problem in prepubertal girls. To date, however, no direct evidence has been obtained for the underlying mechanism of transmission. This report describes a case of non-capsulate Haemophilus influenzae vulvovaginitis in a 6-year-old girl with a history of foreign bodies (cotton wool) in her vagina. Moreover, this girl had recurrent rhinitis for approximately 3 years. On Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis the H...
June 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620585/identification-of-a-large-family-of-slam-dependent-surface-lipoproteins-in-gram-negative-bacteria
#8
Yogesh Hooda, Christine C L Lai, Trevor F Moraes
The surfaces of many Gram-negative bacteria are decorated with soluble proteins anchored to the outer membrane via an acylated N-terminus; these proteins are referred to as surface lipoproteins or SLPs. In Neisseria meningitidis, SLPs such as transferrin-binding protein B (TbpB) and factor-H binding protein (fHbp) are essential for host colonization and infection because of their essential roles in iron acquisition and immune evasion, respectively. Recently, we identified a family of outer membrane proteins called Slam (Surface lipoprotein assembly modulator) that are essential for surface display of neisserial SLPs...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619239/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-haemophilus-influenzae-strains-isolated-from-the-urethra-of-men-with-acute-urethritis-and-or-epididymitis
#9
Takashi Deguchi, Shin Ito, Kyoko Hatazaki, Kengo Horie, Mitsuru Yasuda, Keita Nakane, Kosuke Mizutani, Tomohiro Tsuchiya, Shigeaki Yokoi, Nozomu Hanaoka, Ken Shimuta, Makoto Ohnishi, Tetsuro Muratani, Masahiro Nakano
We determined minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 41 antimicrobial agents for 73 clinical strains of Haemophilusinfluenzae isolated from the urethra of men with acute urethritis and/or epididymitis and examined the strains for the production of β-lactamase. We also compared their antimicrobial susceptibilities with those of H. influenzae strains from respiratory tract or otorhinolaryngological infections that were reported in Japan. The proportion of β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant strains from acute urethritis and/or epididymitis appeared to be lower, but that of β-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistant strains appeared to be higher, compared with those from respiratory tract or otorhinolaryngological infections...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617678/single-variant-bottleneck-in-the-early-dynamics-of-h-influenzae-bacteremia-in-neonatal-rats-questions-the-theory-of-independent-action
#10
Xinxian Shao, Bruce Levin, Ilya Nemenman
There is an abundance of information about the genetic basis, physiological and molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. In contrast, relatively little is known about population dynamic processes, by which bacteria colonize hosts and invade tissues and cells and thereby cause disease. In an article published in 1978, Moxon and Murphy presented evidence that, when inoculated intranasally with a mixture streptomycin sensitive and resistant (Sm (S) and Sm (R) ) and otherwise isogenic strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), neonatal rats develop a bacteremic infection that often is dominated by only one strain, Sm (S) or Sm (R) ...
June 15, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616365/streptococcus-pneumoniae-otitis-media-pathogenesis-and-how-it-informs-our-understanding-of-vaccine-strategies
#11
REVIEW
Caroline Bergenfelz, Anders P Hakansson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to review the literature regarding the mechanisms of transition from asymptomatic colonization to induction of otitis media and how the insight into the pathogenesis of otitis media has the potential to help design future otitis media-directed vaccines. RECENT FINDINGS: Respiratory viruses have long been shown to predispose individuals to bacterial respiratory infections, such as otitis media. Recent information suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae, which colonize the nasopharynx asymptomatically, can sense potentially "threatening" changes in the nasopharyngeal environment caused by virus infection by upregulating specific sets of genes involved in biofilm release, dissemination from the nasopharynx to other sites, and protection against the host immune system...
2017: Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604066/simultaneous-identification-of-haemophilus-influenzae-and-haemophilus-haemolyticus-using-real-time-pcr
#12
Erin P Price, Tegan M Harris, Jessie Spargo, Elizabeth Nosworthy, Jemima Beissbarth, Anne B Chang, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Derek S Sarovich
AIM: To design a highly specific and sensitive multiplex real-time PCR assay for the differentiation of the pathogen Haemophilus influenzae from its nonpathogenic near-neighbor Haemophilus haemolyticus. MATERIALS & METHODS: A comparison of 380 Haemophilus spp. genomes was used to identify loci specific for each species. Novel PCR assays targeting H. haemolyticus (hypD) and H. influenzae (siaT) were designed. RESULTS & DISCUSSION: PCR screening across 143 isolates demonstrated 100% specificity for hypD and siaT...
June 12, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600561/the-moda2-phasevarion-of-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-regulates-resistance-to-oxidative-stress-and-killing-by-human-neutrophils
#13
Kenneth L Brockman, M Taylor Branstool, John M Atack, Frank Robledo-Avila, Santiago Partida-Sanchez, Michael P Jennings, Lauren O Bakaletz
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is the causative agent of multiple respiratory tract infections. Several human pathogens, including NTHI, possess a novel genetic system, termed the phasevarion, which mediates a rapid and reversible change in the expression of many genes throughout the chromosome. This occurs by phase variation of a single gene (modA) that encodes a DNA methyltransferase and results in two phenotypically distinct subpopulations, ON and OFF. NTHI encounters many pressures within the various microenvironments of its human host as the disease course evolves from one of asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriage to overt disease...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600447/the-epidemiology-management-and-outcomes-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-infants
#14
Lynda Ouchenir, Christian Renaud, Sarah Khan, Ari Bitnun, Andree-Anne Boisvert, Jane McDonald, Jennifer Bowes, Jason Brophy, Michelle Barton, Joseph Ting, Ashley Roberts, Michael Hawkes, Joan L Robinson
OBJECTIVES: The pathogens that cause bacterial meningitis in infants and their antimicrobial susceptibilities may have changed in this era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, use of conjugated vaccines, and maternal antibiotic prophylaxis for group B Streptococcus (GBS). The objective was to determine the optimal empirical antibiotics for bacterial meningitis in early infancy. METHODS: This was a cohort study of infants <90 days of age with bacterial meningitis at 7 pediatric tertiary care hospitals across Canada in 2013 and 2014...
June 9, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599639/seasonality-of-acquisition-of-respiratory-bacterial-pathogens-in-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#15
Kevin J Psoter, Anneclaire J De Roos, Jon Wakefield, Jonathan D Mayer, Margaret Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: Seasonal variations are often observed for respiratory tract infections; however, limited information is available regarding seasonal patterns of acquisition of common cystic fibrosis (CF)-related respiratory pathogens. We previously reported differential seasonal acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in young children with CF and no such variation for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus acquisition. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the seasonal incidence of acquisition of other respiratory bacterial pathogens in young children with CF...
June 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592578/bacterial-meningitis-in-finland-1995-2014-a-population-based-observational-study
#16
Aleksandra Polkowska, Maija Toropainen, Jukka Ollgren, Outi Lyytikäinen, J Pekka Nuorti
OBJECTIVES: Bacterial meningitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its epidemiological characteristics, however, are changing due to new vaccines and secular trends. Conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae (10-valent) were introduced in 1986 and 2010 in Finland. We assessed the disease burden and long-term trends of five common causes of bacterial meningitis in a population-based observational study. METHODS: A case was defined as isolation of S...
June 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585510/reemergence-of-the-natural-history-of-otolaryngologic-infections-lessons-learned-from-2-american-presidents
#17
James Naples, Marissa Schwartz, Marc Eisen
Presidents George Washington and Theodore Roosevelt suffered complications of epiglottitis and otomastoiditis, respectively. The introduction of antibiotics and vaccinations against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae has significantly reduced the incidence of these otolaryngologic infections, such that the natural history of the disease is rarely encountered. However, antibiotic resistance and pathogenic evolution has raised concern about increased virulence of these common organisms. A retrospective evaluation of the complications suffered by Washington and Roosevelt provides valuable insight to the natural history of common otolaryngologic infections that may reemerge as a result of organism evolution in response to antibiotics and vaccines...
May 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583371/bacterial-infections-after-pediatric-heart-transplantation-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-outcomes
#18
Christina A Rostad, Karla Wehrheim, James K Kirklin, David Naftel, Elizabeth Pruitt, Timothy M Hoffman, Thomas L'Ecuyer, Katie Berkowitz, William T Mahle, Janet N Scheel
BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in heart transplant recipients. However, data describing the epidemiology and outcomes of these infections in children are limited. METHODS: We analyzed the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study database of patients transplanted between 1993 and 2014 to determine the etiologies, risk factors and outcomes of children with bacterial infections post-heart transplantation. RESULTS: Of 4,458 primary transplants in the database, there were 4,815 infections that required hospitalization or intravenous therapy, 2,047 (42...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583305/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-new-hexavalent-vaccine-dtap5-ipv-hb-hib-administered-in-a-mixed-primary-series-schedule-with-a-pentavalent-vaccine-dtap5-ipv-hib
#19
Federico Martinón-Torres, Florence Boisnard, Stéphane Thomas, Christine Sadorge, Ray Borrow
DTaP5-IPV-HB-Hib vaccine is a fully-liquid, combination hexavalent vaccine. This phase III, open-label, multicentre study conducted in Spain, evaluated the immune response to all DTaP5-IPV-HB-Hib antigens when the vaccine was used in a mixed hexa/penta/hexa primary series. Infants (who had received one dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth) received a mixed schedule including DTaP5-IPV-HB-Hib (PRP-OMP conjugate) at 2 and 6months of age, DTaP5-IPV-Hib at 4months, meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccine at 2 and 4months, and routine rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccination...
June 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583022/implementation-of-the-new-virtuo-blood-culture-system-evaluation-and-comparison-to-the-3d-system-using-simulated-blood-cultures
#20
Nathalie Miller, Laetitia Brassinne, Daniel Allemeersch
PURPOSE: To evaluate the performances of the newly approved BacT/ALERT VIRTUO blood culture system for the recovery of bloodstream pathogens and compare it to the BacT/ALERT 3D system. METHODS: Simulated blood cultures of eight clinically relevant microorganisms were used: Bacteroides fragilis (ATCC 25285), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Haemophilus influenzae (ATCC 49247), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619) and Candida krusei (ATCC 6258)...
June 5, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
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