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Brain surgery

Thaís Flôr da Rocha, Juliana Gibbon Neves, Karin Viegas
Objective: to identify the severity of patients admitted to an emergency trauma. Method: A cross-sectional and retrospective study with 115 trauma patients classified as orange (Manchester System), from June 2013 to July 2014. The data were presented as mean and standard deviation, in addition to the Pearson Chi-square test, One-Way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: from the sample, 81.7% were male with mean age of 39.46±19.71 years. Higher incidence of major trauma (48...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Rowshanak Hashemiyoon, Jens Kuhn, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a complex, idiopathic neuropsychiatric disorder whose pathophysiological mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. It is phenotypically heterogeneous and manifests more often than not with both motor and behavioral impairment, although tics are its clinical hallmark. Tics themselves present with a complex profile as they characteristically wax and wane and are often preceded by premonitory somatosensory sensations to which it is said a tic is the response. Highly comorbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, it is purported to be an epigenetic, neurodevelopmental spectrum disorder with a complex genetic profile...
October 25, 2016: Brain Topography
Young Bin Ji, Seung Jae Oh, Seok-Gu Kang, Jung Heo, Sang-Hoon Kim, Yuna Choi, Seungri Song, Hye Young Son, Se Hoon Kim, Ji Hyun Lee, Seung Joo Haam, Yong Min Huh, Jong Hee Chang, Chulmin Joo, Jin-Suck Suh
Gross total resection (GTR) of glioma is critical for improving the survival rate of glioma patients. One of the greatest challenges for achieving GTR is the difficulty in discriminating low grade tumor or peritumor regions that have an intact blood brain barrier (BBB) from normal brain tissues and delineating glioma margins during surgery. Here we present a highly sensitive, label-free terahertz reflectometry imaging (TRI) that overcomes current key limitations for intraoperative detection of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), and grade III and IV (high grade) gliomas...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ghady Haidar, Christa S Zerbe, Michelle Cheng, Adrian M Zelazny, Steven M Holland, Kathleen R Sheridan
Aspergillus spp. are a leading cause of mortality in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), but other fungi have emerged in the era of mould prophylaxis. Of these, Phellinus spp. are an under-recognised cause of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in CGD, and data on their presentation and management are scarce. We present a patient with CGD who developed disseminated IFI involving the lungs and brain. Surgical specimens grew a basidiomycete which was disregarded as a contaminant. After three months of progressive disease despite antifungals, he was diagnosed with Phellinus tropicalis by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing...
October 26, 2016: Mycoses
Even Hovig Fyllingen, Anne Line Stensjøen, Erik Magnus Berntsen, Ole Solheim, Ingerid Reinertsen
To facilitate a more widespread use of volumetric tumor segmentation in clinical studies, there is an urgent need for reliable, user-friendly segmentation software. The aim of this study was therefore to compare three different software packages for semi-automatic brain tumor segmentation of glioblastoma; namely BrainVoyagerTM QX, ITK-Snap and 3D Slicer, and to make data available for future reference. Pre-operative, contrast enhanced T1-weighted 1.5 or 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans were obtained in 20 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for glioblastoma...
2016: PloS One
Hong Tao, Yiran Cai, Liang Shi, Junfang Tang, Zhidong Liu, Zitong Wang, Lianqi Bai, Zhe Liu
BACKGROUND: Recent research into lung cancer-related driver genes has identified a distinctive molecular subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) - anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive NSCLC. We evaluated the clinical features and survival rates of ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma patients who had undergone surgery but had not received ALK inhibitor therapy, along with the characteristics of patients with distant metastases. METHODS: Clinical data of 40 patients with ALK-positive, postsurgical lung adenocarcinoma were retrospectively analyzed...
October 24, 2016: Thoracic Cancer
Dennis T Lockney, Sasha Vaziri, Frank Walch, Paul Kubilis, Dan Neal, Gregory J A Murad, Maryam Rahman
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic use of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) for patients undergoing brain tumor surgery is common practice despite lack of clear evidence. We hypothesized that prophylactic AED (pAED) use did not affect seizure rates in brain tumor patients who underwent craniotomy for tumor resection. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 606 patients who underwent surgery for brain tumors from 2006-2013 at the University of Florida, excluding patients with pre-existing seizure condition prior to tumor diagnosis...
October 21, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Peng Wang, Jianrui Li, Qiang Diao, YuanKai Lin, Jun Zhang, Lin Li, Gang Yang, Xiaokun Fang, Xie Li, YingQi Chen, Ling Zheng, Guangming Lu
BACKGROUND: Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults, in some cases, radiotherapy may be the preferred treatment option especially for elderly people who cannot endure surgery. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy on glioma. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an MR imaging technique that allows for a quantitative determination of cerebral blood flow (CBF) noninvasively. Tumor volume is still an important determinant for evaluating treatment response...
November 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Kay Mursch, Martin Scholz, Wolfgang Brück, Julianne Behnke-Mursch
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) helped the surgeon navigate towards the tumor as seen in preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and whether IOUS was able to distinguish between tumor margins and the surrounding tissue. Methods: Twenty-five patients suffering from high-grade gliomas who were previously treated by surgery and radiotherapy were included. Intraoperatively, two histopathologic samples were obtained a sample of unequivocal tumor tissue (according to anatomical landmarks and the surgeon's visual and tactile impressions) and a small tissue sample obtained using a navigated needle when the surgeon decided to stop the resection...
August 8, 2016: Ultrasonography
Lara Ianov, Ashok Kumar, Thomas C Foster
The expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) varies across brain regions and changes with age and according to the previous history of estradiol exposure. ERα is regulated by a number of mechanisms including the level of mRNA (Esr1) expression. For this study, we took advantage of regional differences in hippocampal ERα expression to investigate DNA ERα promoter methylation at CpG dinucleotide sites as a potential epigenetic mechanism for regulating gene expression. Young and aged female Fischer 344 rats were ovariectomized, and Esr1 expression and ERα promoter methylation were examined in hippocampal regions CA1 and CA3, either 3 or 14 weeks following surgery...
September 28, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
N Garg, D Bakhshinyan, C Venugopal, S Mahendram, D A Rosa, T Vijayakumar, B Manoranjan, R Hallett, N McFarlane, K H Delaney, J M Kwiecien, C C Arpin, P-S Lai, R F Gómez-Biagi, A M Ali, E D de Araujo, O A Ajani, J A Hassell, P T Gunning, S K Singh
Medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant paediatric brain tumor, is currently treated using a combination of surgery, craniospinal radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Owing to MB stem cells (MBSCs), a subset of MB patients remains untreatable despite standard therapy. CD133 is used to identify MBSCs although its functional role in tumorigenesis has yet to be determined. In this work, we showed enrichment of CD133 in Group 3 MB is associated with increased rate of metastasis and poor clinical outcome. The signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3) pathway are selectively activated in CD133(+) MBSCs and promote tumorigenesis through regulation of c-MYC, a key genetic driver of Group 3 MB...
October 24, 2016: Oncogene
Himanshi Kapoor, Nalini Yadav, Madhu Chopra, Sushil Chandra Mahapatra, Veena Agrawal
Glioblastoma has been reckoned as the prime cause of death due to brain tumours, being most invasive and lethal. Available treatment options, i.e. surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapies are not effective in improving prognosis, so an alternate therapy is insistent. Plant based drugs are efficient due to their synergistic action, multi-targeted approach and least side effects. Present investigation reports the strong anti-tumorous potential of Nardostachys jatamansi rhizome extract (NJRE) on U87 MG glioblastoma cells...
October 19, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Sean D McGarry, Sarah L Hurrell, Amy L Kaczmarowski, Elizabeth J Cochran, Jennifer Connelly, Scott D Rand, Kathleen M Schmainda, Peter S LaViolette
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to diagnose and monitor brain tumors. Extracting additional information from medical imaging and relating it to a clinical variable of interest is broadly defined as radiomics. Here, multiparametric MRI radiomic profiles (RPs) of de novo glioblastoma (GBM) brain tumors is related with patient prognosis. Clinical imaging from 81 patients with GBM before surgery was analyzed. Four MRI contrasts were aligned, masked by margins defined by gadolinium contrast enhancement and T2/fluid attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensity, and contoured based on image intensity...
September 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
Neil M D'Souza, Penny Fang, Jennifer Logan, Jinzhong Yang, Wen Jiang, Jing Li
Malignancies of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly glioblastoma and brain metastases from a variety of disease sites, are difficult to treat despite advances in multimodality approaches consisting of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy (RT). Recent successes of immunotherapeutic strategies including immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) via anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies against aggressive cancers, such as melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma, have presented an exciting opportunity to translate these strategies for CNS malignancies...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Nicholas Brandmeir, Elena Nehrbass, James McInerney
INTRODUCTION:  Deep brain stimulator (DBS) infections are a persistent problem for patients undergoing this procedure. They may require further surgery, treatment with antibiotics, or even removal of the device. To date, no consensus exists on the best practices to avoid DBS infections or what factors predispose patients to an eventual infection. The goal of this study was to examine several patient factors for association with DBS infection. METHODS:  A single-center, single-surgeon quality improvement database was queried...
September 20, 2016: Curēus
Rui Zhang, Lotte Bonde Bertelsen, Christian Flø, Yan Wang, Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Due to well-developed Circle of Willis in pigs, it is technically challenging to make persistent focal ischemic stroke based on occlusion of cerebral arteries. Endothelin-1 could cause a focal lesion by forcing transient but strong vasoconstriction in the circumscribed injected area. Its use in porcine stroke model has drawn attention lately. However, all the porcine endothelin-1 induced models were euthanized soon after surgery. Whether the brain lesion is persistent, and whether they could cause neurological deficit are not known...
October 20, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Peng-Fei Yan, Ling Yan, Zhen Zhang, Adnan Salim, Lei Wang, Ting-Ting Hu, Hong-Yang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered a valuable tool for preoperative diagnosis of intracranial tumors. We assessed its accuracy in the diagnosis of intracranial tumors in usual clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI reports of 762 patients who had undergone conventional brain MRI prior to surgery were retrospectively reviewed. A 4-grade scoring system was devised to establish diagnostic agreement. Each tumor type was compared with the corresponding pathological diagnoses by dichotomization...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Fuben Xu, Kun Zhang, Peizhen Lv, Rongbin Lu, Li Zheng, Jinmin Zhao
Restoration of normal neurological function of transected peripheral nerve challenged regenerative medicine and surgery. Previous studies showed that Nectin-like molecule 1 (NECL1) is one of the important adhesion molecules on the axons and Schwann cells is located along the internodes in direct apposition to NECL1. In this study, we fabricated PLGA membrane pre-coated with NECL1, mimicking the natural axons to enhance the adhesion of Schwann cells. Investigation of the cellular response in vitro was performed by detecting cytotoxicity, proliferation, morphology, viability, specific markers and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of Schwann cells cultured in PLGA...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Maenia Scarpino, Giovanni Lanzo, Francesco Cappelli, Marco Moretti, Gianni Misuri, Luca Voltolini, Massimo Pistolesi, Aldo Amantini, Antonello Grippo
Cerebral fat embolism (CFE) is an uncommon disease occurring mainly after traumatic lower limb long bone fractures. A 64-year-old woman with pneumonia and bilateral pleural effusion underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). After 3 days, the patient had an acute decrease in consciousness level followed by the onset of seizures and right hemiparesis. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed findings suggestive of CFE. CFE occurring after an uncommon nontraumatic cause of fat embolism, such as VATS, is a rare clinical event whose diagnosis could be challenging...
November 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
G Fenna van Breda, Lennart G Bongartz, Wenqing Zhuang, Rachel P L van Swelm, Jeanne Pertijs, Branko Braam, Maarten-Jan Cramer, Dorine W Swinkels, Pieter A Doevendans, Marianne C Verhaar, Roos Masereeuw, Jaap A Joles, Carlo A J M Gaillard
BACKGROUND: Hepcidin regulates systemic iron homeostasis by downregulating the iron exporter ferroportin. Circulating hepcidin is mainly derived from the liver but hepcidin is also produced in the heart. We studied the differential and local regulation of hepcidin gene expression in response to myocardial infarction (MI) and/or chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized that cardiac hepcidin gene expression is induced by and regulated to severity of cardiac injury, either through direct (MI) or remote (CKD) stimuli, as well as through increased local iron content...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
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