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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928743/the-toll-for-trafficking-toll-like-receptor-7-delivery-to-the-endosome
#1
REVIEW
Carlene Petes, Natalya Odoardi, Katrina Gee
Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7 is an endosomal innate immune sensor capable of detecting single-stranded ribonucleic acid. TLR7-mediated induction of type I interferon and other inflammatory cytokine production is important in antiviral immune responses. Furthermore, altered TLR7 expression levels are implicated in various autoimmune disorders, indicating a key role for this receptor in modulating inflammation. This review is focused on the regulation of TLR7 expression and localization compared to that of the other endosomal TLRs: TLR3, 8, and 9...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928004/syncytin-1-an-endogenous-retroviral-protein-triggers-the-activation-of-crp-via-tlr3-signal-cascade-in-glial-cells
#2
Xiuling Wang, Zhongchun Liu, Peigang Wang, Shan Li, Jie Zeng, Xiaoning Tu, Qiujin Yan, Zheman Xiao, Mengxian Pan, Fan Zhu
Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric disorder that impacts on social functioning and quality of life, and there is accumulating evidence that inflammation is a potential pathogenic mechanism of schizophrenia. However, the mechanism of inflammation possibly occurred in schizophrenia has not been well understood. The endogenous retroviral protein syncytin-1 and inflammatory marker CRP are both abnormally expressed in schizophrenia patients. CRP is one of the markers of bacterial infection generally. Less clear is whether virus or viral protein can trigger the activation of CRP...
September 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924346/co-delivery-of-polyinosinic-polycytidylic-acid-and-flagellin-by-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-mps-synergistically-enhances-immune-response-elicited-by-intranasally-delivered-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen
#3
Xiaojing Dai, Jintian He, Ruxia Zhang, Guanghao Wu, Fangfang Xiong, Baohua Zhao
The aim of the present work was to investigate the synergistic effect between toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 ligand polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pI:C) and TLR5 ligand flagellin (FLN) on immune responses induced by nasally delivered hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg). Mannan and chitosan oligosaccharide-modified, pH-responsive poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (MC-PLGA) microparticles (MPs) containing HBsAg, FLN, pI:C or both ligands were prepared with a double-emulsion method. In vitro uptake experiments show that cellular uptake of MC-PLGA MPs by macrophages was through energy-dependent, receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917531/hollow-microneedle-mediated-intradermal-delivery-of-model-vaccine-antigen-loaded-plga-nanoparticles-elicits-protective-t-cell-mediated-immunity-to-an-intracellular-bacterium
#4
Anne Marit de Groot, Guangsheng Du, Juha Mönkäre, Anouk C M Platteel, Femke Broere, Joke A Bouwstra, Alice J A M Sijts
The skin is an attractive organ for immunization due to the presence of a large number of epidermal and dermal antigen-presenting cells. Hollow microneedles allow for precise and non-invasive intradermal delivery of vaccines. In this study, ovalbumin (OVA)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles with and without TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) were prepared and administered intradermally by hollow microneedles. The capacity of the PLGA nanoparticles to induce a cytotoxic T cell response, contributing to protection against intracellular pathogens, was examined...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914974/mucocutaneous-inflammation-in-the-ikaros-family-zinc-finger-1-ikzf1-keratin-5-specifc-transgenic-mice
#5
Mayumi Ueta, Junji Hamuro, Hiromi Nishigaki, Naomi Nakamura, Katsuhiko Shinomiya, Katsura Mizushima, Yuki Hitomi, Risa Tamagawa-Mineoka, Norihiko Yokoi, Yuji Naito, Katsushi Tokunaga, Norito Katoh, Chie Sotozono, Shigeru Kinoshita
BACKGROUND: Our genome-wide association study documented an association between cold medicine related Stevens-Johnson syndrome / toxic epidermal necrolysis (CM-SJS/TEN) and Ikaros Family Zinc Finger 1 (IKZF1). Few studies examined biological and pathological functions of IKZF1 in mucosal immunity. We hypothesized that IKZF1 contributes to the mucocutaneous inflammation. METHODS: Human skin and conjunctival tissues were obtained for immunohistological studies. Primary human conjunctival epithelial cells (PHCjECs) and adult human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa) also used for gene expression analysis...
September 15, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912382/versican-is-produced-by-trif-and-type-i-interferon-dependent-signaling-in-macrophages-and-contributes-to-fine-control-of-innate-immunity-in-lungs
#6
Mary Y Chang, Inkyung Kang, Michael Gale, Anne M Manicone, Michael G Kinsella, Kathleen R Braun, Tara Wigmosta, William C Parks, William A Altemeier, Thomas N Wight, Charles W Frevert
Growing evidence suggests that versican is important in the innate immune response to lung infection. Our goal was to understand the regulation of macrophage-derived versican and the role it plays in innate immunity. We first defined the signaling events that regulate versican expression using bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from mice lacking specific Toll-like receptors (TLR), TLR adaptor molecules or the type I interferon receptor (IFNAR1). We show that LPS and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly(I:C)] trigger a signaling cascade involving TLR3 or 4, the Trif adaptor, Type I interferons and IFNAR1, leading to increased expression of versican by macrophages and implicating versican as an interferon-stimulated gene...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910320/differential-gene-expression-following-tlr-stimulation-in-rag1-mutant-zebrafish-tissues-and-morphological-descriptions-of-lymphocyte-like-cell-populations
#7
Preeti J Muire, Larry A Hanson, Robert Wills, Lora Petrie-Hanson
In the absence of lymphocytes, rag1-/- mutant zebrafish develop protective immunity to bacteria. In mammals, induction of protection by innate immunity can be mediated by macrophages or natural killer (NK) cells. To elucidate potential responsive cell populations, we morphologically characterized lymphocyte-like cells (LLCs) from liver, spleen and kidney hematopoietic tissues. In fish, these cells include NK cells and Non-specific cytotoxic cells (NCCs). We also evaluated the transcriptional expression response of select genes that are important indicators of NK and macrophage activation after exposure to specific TLR ligands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898289/trim32-tax1bp1-dependent-selective-autophagic-degradation-of-trif-negatively-regulates-tlr3-4-mediated-innate-immune-responses
#8
Qing Yang, Tian-Tian Liu, Heng Lin, Man Zhang, Jin Wei, Wei-Wei Luo, Yun-Hong Hu, Bo Zhong, Ming-Ming Hu, Hong-Bing Shu
Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signaling are critical for host defense against pathogen invasion. However, excessive responses would cause harmful damages to the host. Here we show that deficiency of the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 increases poly(I:C)- and LPS-induced transcription of downstream genes such as type I interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines in both primary mouse immune cells and in mice. Trim32-/- mice produced higher levels of serum inflammatory cytokines and were more sensitive to loss of body weight and inflammatory death upon Salmonella typhimurium infection...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894350/short-term-regulation-of-fc%C3%AE-r-mediated-phagocytosis-by-tlrs-in-macrophages-participation-of-5-lipoxygenase-products
#9
Carla da S Pinheiro, Ana Paula T Monteiro, Fabiano F Dutra, Marcelo T Bozza, Marc Peters-Golden, Claudia F Benjamim, Claudio Canetti
TLRs recognize a broad spectrum of microorganism molecules, triggering a variety of cellular responses. Among them, phagocytosis is a critical process for host defense. Leukotrienes (LTs), lipid mediators produced from 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) enzyme, increase FcγR-mediated phagocytosis. Here, we evaluated the participation of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis and whether this process is modulated by LTs. Rat alveolar macrophages (AMs), murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) treated with TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 agonists, but not TLR9, enhanced IgG-opsonized sheep red blood cell (IgG-sRBC) phagocytosis...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892257/candidate-gene-molecular-markers-as-tools-for-analyzing-genetic-susceptibility-to-morbillivirus-infection-in-stranded-cetaceans
#10
Karla Stejskalova, Zuzana Bayerova, Jan Futas, Kristyna Hrazdilova, Marie Klumplerova, Jan Oppelt, Petra Splichalova, Giovanni Di Guardo, Sandro Mazzariol, Cristina Esmeralda Di Francesco, Gabriella Di Francesco, Giuliana Terracciano, Romulus-Marian Paiu, Teodor Dan Ursache, David Modry, Petr Horin
Morbilliviruses, such as Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) or Phocine distemper virus (PDV), represent a growing threat for marine mammals on both hemispheres. Since free-ranging animal populations strongly rely on natural resistance mechanisms, innate immunity related genes and virus cell entry receptor genes may represent key factors involved in susceptibility to CeMV in Cetaceans. Using the next generation sequencing technology, we have sequenced eleven candidate genes in two model species, Stenella coeruleoalba and Phocoena phocoena...
September 11, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890720/porcine-b-cell-subset-responses-to-toll-like-receptor-ligands
#11
Roman Othmar Braun, Sylvie Python, Artur Summerfield
Toll-like receptors (TLR) triggering of B cells are known to promote B cell expansion, differentiation of B cells into antibody-producing and memory cells, but the TLR responses of porcine B cells is poorly characterized. Therefore, this study investigated the response pattern of porcine B cell subsets to a large collection of TLR ligands and demonstrates that the TLR2 ligand Pam3Cys-SK4 and the TLR7/8 ligands gardiquimod and resiquimod are particularly efficient at inducing proliferation, CD25 and CCR7. This activation was also determined in B-cell subpopulations including a CD21(+)IgM(+) subset, an IgG(+) subset and two putative B1-like subsets, defined as CD21(-)IgM(high)CD11R1(+)CD11c(+)CD14(+) and CD21(-)IgM(high) CD11R1(-)CD11c(+)CD14(-) B cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886971/traf6-a-player-in-cvb3-induced-myocarditis
#12
Oana N Ursu, Tina Beyer, Martina Sauter, Annunziata Fragasso, Sandra Bundschuh, Karin Klingel, Barbara Munz
Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is an important inducer of myocarditis, which, in susceptible individuals, can chronify and eventually lead to the development of dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. The respective mechanisms are not completely understood. Here, we analyzed expression of the TRAF6 gene, encoding TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), a signal transduction scaffold protein that acts downstream of cytokine receptors, in heart tissue of susceptible and non-susceptible mouse strains. We found that after infection, TRAF6 expression was upregulated in both non-susceptible C57BL/6 wildtype and susceptible A...
September 5, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881163/exploiting-poly-i-c-to-induce-cancer-cell-apoptosis
#13
Francesca Bianchi, Samantha Pretto, Elda Tagliabue, Andrea Balsari, Lucia Sfondrini
TLR3 belong to the Toll-like receptors family, it is mainly expressed on immune cells where it senses pathogen-associated molecular patterns and initiates innate immune response. TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) was developed to mimic pathogens infection and boost immune system activation to promote anti-cancer therapy. Accordingly, TLR agonists were included in the National Cancer Institute list of immunotherapeutic agents with the highest potential to cure cancer. Besides well known effects on immune cells, poly(I:C) was also shown, in experimental models, to directly induce apoptosis in cancer cells expressing TLR3...
September 7, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878771/coordinated-role-of-toll-like-receptor-3-and-retinoic-acid-inducible-gene-i-in-the-innate-response-of-bovine-endometrial-cells-to-virus
#14
Luisa C Carneiro, Carmen Bedford, Sarah Jacca, Alfonso Rosamilia, Vera F de Lima, Gaetano Donofrio, I Martin Sheldon, James G Cronin
Bovine herpesvirus-4 (BoHV-4) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infect the uterus of cattle, often resulting in reduced fertility, or abortion of the fetus, respectively. Here, exposure of primary bovine endometrial cells to BoHV-4 or BVDV modulated the production of inflammatory mediators. Viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are detected via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). However, the relative contribution of specific PRRs to innate immunity, during viral infection of the uterus, is unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878760/respiratory-commensal-bacteria-corynebacterium-pseudodiphtheriticum-improves-resistance-of-infant-mice-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-superinfection
#15
Paulraj Kanmani, Patricia Clua, Maria G Vizoso-Pinto, Cecilia Rodriguez, Susana Alvarez, Vyacheslav Melnikov, Hideki Takahashi, Haruki Kitazawa, Julio Villena
Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum is a Gram-positive bacterium found as a member of the normal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract. It was suggested that C. pseudodiphtheriticum may be potentially used as a next-generation probiotic for nasal application, although no deep studies were performed in this regard. We hypothesized that human isolate C. pseudodiphtheriticum strain 090104 is able to modulate the respiratory innate immune response and beneficially influence the resistance to viral and bacterial infections...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872665/expression-of-human-cathelicidin-peptide-ll-37-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
Shoko Kusaka, Atsushi Nishida, Kenichiro Takahashi, Shigeki Bamba, Hiroyuki Yasui, Masahiro Kawahara, Osamu Inatomi, Mitsushige Sugimoto, Akira Andoh
Cathelicidin peptide LL-37 plays an important role in the early host response against invading pathogens via its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this study, we investigated LL-37 expression in the inflamed mucosa of IBD patients. Furthermore, the regulatory mechanism of LL-37 induction was investigated in human colonic subepithelial myofibroblasts (SEMFs). LL-37 mRNA expression and protein secretion were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively...
September 5, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870522/poly-i-c-impairs-no-donor-induced-relaxation-by-overexposure-to-no-via-the-nf-kappa-b-inos-pathway-in-rat-superior-mesenteric-arteries
#17
Makoto Ando, Takayuki Matsumoto, Kumiko Taguchi, Tsuneo Kobayashi
Recent studies have suggested a link between vascular dysfunction and innate immune activation including toll-like receptors (TLRs), but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Here we investigated whether poly (I:C) [a synthetic double-strand RNA recognized by TLR3, melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5), and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)] affected nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP-related vascular relaxation, one of the major cascades of relaxation, in rat superior mesenteric arteries. Using organ-cultured arteries, we found that poly (I:C) (30μg/mL for approximately 1 day) markedly reduced sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced relaxation (vs...
September 1, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861088/the-unresolved-role-of-interferon-%C3%AE-in-asthma-bronchiale
#18
REVIEW
Nina Sopel, Andreas Pflaum, Julia Kölle, Susetta Finotto
Asthma bronchiale is a disease of the airways with increasing incidence, that often begins during infancy. So far, therapeutic options are mainly symptomatic and thus there is an increasing need for better treatment and/or prevention strategies. Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are a major cause of asthma exacerbations and might cause acute wheezing associated with local production of pro-inflammatory mediators resulting in neutrophilic inflammatory response. Viral infections induce a characteristic activation of immune response, e...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857295/a-protective-role-of-irf3-and-irf7-signaling-downstream-tlrs-in-the-development-of-vein-graft-disease-via-type-i-interferons
#19
K H Simons, H A B Peters, J Wouter Jukema, M R de Vries, P H A Quax
BACKGROUND: Toll like receptors (TLR) play an important role in vein graft disease (VGD). Interferon regulatory factors (IRF) 3 and 7 are the transcriptional regulators of type-I interferons (IFN) and type-I IFN responsive genes and are downstream factors of TLRs. Relatively little is known with regard to the interplay of IRFs and TLRs in VGD development. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IRF3 and IRF7 signaling downstream TLRs and the effect of IRF3 and IRF7 in VGD...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854748/pattern-recognition-receptor-genes-expression-profiling-in-indigenous-chickens-of-india-and-white-leghorn
#20
S Haunshi, Arun Kumar Burramsetty, T R Kannaki, K S Raja Ravindra, R N Chatterjee
Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) such as Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, RIG-I helicase receptors, and C-type lectin receptors play a critical role in innate immunity as a first line of defense against invading pathogens through recognition of pathogen and/or damage-associated molecular patterns. Genetic makeup of birds is known to play a role in resistance or susceptibility to various infectious diseases. Therefore, the present study was carried out to elucidate the differential expression of PRR and some of the cytokine genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of indigenous chicken breeds such as Ghagus and Nicobari and an exotic chicken breed, White Leghorn (WLH)...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
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