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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214679/estradiol-is-a-critical-regulator-of-food-reward-behavior
#1
Jennifer E Richard, Lorena López-Ferreras, Rozita H Anderberg, Kajsa Olandersson, Karolina P Skibicka
Food intake is reduced by estrogenic hormones, levels of which vary throughout life and fluctuate throughout the ovarian cycle in females. However, estrogens have also been shown to increase reward derived from drugs of abuse, where motivational properties of drugs and progression to addiction are potentiated by estrogens. Whether reward derived from food, and specifically motivational properties of food, are altered by estrogens remains unknown. Here we investigated the effect of the estrous cycle on food reward behavior and show estrous cycle dictated variability in food motivation, measured by progressive ratio operant conditioning, in female rats...
January 28, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205670/leptin-and-ghrelin-concentration-in-hyperthyroid-cats-before-and-after-radioactive-iodine-therapy-compared-to-euthyroid-control-cats
#2
Sina Marsilio, Barbara Glanemann, Lucile Martin, Balazs Szladovits, Reto Neiger
OBJECTIVE: Leptin and ghrelin, two peptide hormones with antagonistic effects on satiety and energy balance, could be involved in the pathogenesis of weight loss and polyphagia in cats with hyperthyroidism. Leptin generally decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure, while ghrelin exerts the opposite effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Leptin and ghrelin were measured in 42 client owned hyperthyroid cats with a body condition score (BCS) ≤ 5/9 before (T0) and 4 weeks after radioactive iodine treatment (RAIT) (T1)...
February 16, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205246/pharmacokinetics-of-valnemulin-after-intravenous-intramuscular-and-oral-administration-in-layer-chickens
#3
F Sun, R Fan, J Wang, L Xiong, J Shen, S Zhang, X Cao
The pharmacokinetic characteristics of valnemulin in layer chickens were studied after single intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight. Plasma samples at certain time points were collected and the drug concentrations in them by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). The concentration-time data for each individual were plotted by noncompartmental analysis for the whole three routes. Following intravenous administration, the plasma concentration showed tiny fluctuation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197774/popliteal-block-for-lower-limb-surgery-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-effect-on-sevoflurane-consumption-and-postoperative-pain-a-randomized-double-blinded-controlled-trial
#4
Derya Ozkan, Emel Gonen, Taylan Akkaya, Mesut Bakir
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a preoperative popliteal block on sevoflurane consumption, postoperative pain, and analgesic consumption in children with cerebral palsy (CP) following lower limb surgery. METHODS: Fifty-four patients undergoing lower limb surgery were randomized to receive either a popliteal block + general anaesthesia (group P, n = 27) or general anaesthesia without a popliteal block (group C, n = 27). After anesthesia induction with 50% N2O, O2, and 8% sevoflurane, a popliteal block was given to group P patients with ultrasound guidance as a single dose of 0...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195189/protective-effect-of-maternal-uteroplacental-insufficiency-on-oxygen-induced-retinopathy-in-offspring-removing-bias-of-premature-birth
#5
Silke Becker, Haibo Wang, Baifeng Yu, Randy Brown, Xiaokun Han, Robert H Lane, M Elizabeth Hartnett
To address the hypothesis that maternal uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI) increases severity of retinopathy of prematurity, we developed a composite rat model of UPI and oxygen-fluctuations and removed premature birth as a confounding factor. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams underwent bilateral uterine artery ligation or anesthesia (control) at e19.5. Full-term pups developed in room air (RA) or an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model. Isolectin-stained retinal flat-mounts were analyzed for percent of areas of avascular/total retina (AVA) and of intravitreal neovascular/total retina (IVNV)...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193021/chemical-measurement-and-fluctuation-scaling
#6
Quentin S Hanley
Fluctuation scaling reports on all processes producing a data set. Some fluctuation scaling relationships, such as the Horwitz curve, follow exponential dispersion models which have useful properties. The mean-variance method applied to Poisson distributed data is a special case of these properties allowing the gain of a system to be measured. Here, a general method is described for investigating gain (G), dispersion (β), and process (α) in any system whose fluctuation scaling follows a simple exponential dispersion model, a segmented exponential dispersion model, or complex scaling following such a model locally...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188733/temperature-cycles-affect-colonization-potential-of-calanoid-copepods
#7
Harshana Rajakaruna, Mark Lewis
Marine calanoid copepods colonize new habitats, and some become invasive. Their fitness, measured by intrinsic growth rate and net reproductive rate, is partially driven by biochemical processes. Thus, it is a function of ambient temperature. Biochemical processes may not be approximated well by yearly mean temperature alone when temperature cycles yearly, largely. Higher order moments may also be important. The amplitude of yearly fluctuations of monthly and seasonal sea temperatures varies dramatically across the northern temperate regions...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183447/acute-low-dose-endotoxin-treatment-results-in-improved-whole-body-glucose-homeostasis-in-mice
#8
Joseph R Stevens, Ryan P McMillan, Justin T Resendes, Shannon K Lloyd, Mostafa M Ali, Madlyn I Frisard, Stefan Hargett, Susanna R Keller, Matthew W Hulver
BACKGROUND: Obese individuals present with an increased inflammatory tone as compared to healthy, normal-weight individuals, which is associated with insulin resistance. One factor hypothesized to contribute to increased inflammation in obese and diabetic states is elevated blood endotoxin levels, a condition known as metabolic endotoxemia. In non-obese and insulin sensitive individuals, circulating endotoxin concentrations fluctuate over the course of the day with elevations in the post-prandial state that return to baseline levels in the post-absorptive state...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181436/relation-between-protein-intrinsic-normal-mode-weights-and-pre-existing-conformer-populations
#9
Beytullah Ozgur, E Sila Ozdemir, Attila Gursoy, Ozlem Keskin
Intrinsic fluctuations of a protein enable it to sample a large repertoire of conformers including the open and closed forms. These distinct forms of the protein called as conformational substates pre-exist together in equilibrium as an ensemble independent from its ligands. The role of ligand might be simply to alter the equilibrium towards the most appropriate form for binding. Normal mode analysis is proved to be useful in identifying the directions of conformational changes between substates. In this study, we demonstrate that the ratios of normalized weights of a few normal modes driving the protein between its substates can give insights about the ratios of kinetic conversion rates of the substates, although a direct relation between the eigenvalues and kinetic conversion rates or populations of each substate could not be observed...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178791/statistical-thermodynamic-model-for-light-scattering-from-eye-lens-protein-mixtures
#10
Michael M Bell, David S Ross, Maurino P Bautista, Hossein Shahmohamad, Andreas Langner, John F Hamilton, Carrie N Lahnovych, George M Thurston
We model light-scattering cross sections of concentrated aqueous mixtures of the bovine eye lens proteins γB- and α-crystallin by adapting a statistical-thermodynamic model of mixtures of spheres with short-range attractions. The model reproduces measured static light scattering cross sections, or Rayleigh ratios, of γB-α mixtures from dilute concentrations where light scattering intensity depends on molecular weights and virial coefficients, to realistically high concentration protein mixtures like those of the lens...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168382/molecular-design-expression-and-evaluation-of-pasylated-human-recombinant-erythropoietin-with-enhanced-functional-properties
#11
Mohammad Hossein Hedayati, Dariush Norouzian, Mahdi Aminian, Shahram Teimourian, Reza Ahangari Cohan, Soroush Sardari, M Reza Khorramizadeh
Erythropoietin (EPO) is the principal hormone which, has somewhat short half-life involved in the differentiation and regulation of circulating red blood cells. The present study was carried out to evaluate the capability of a polyethylene glycol mimetic technology as a biological alternative to improve pharmaceutical properties of human recombinant EPO. In silico models of EPO fused to 200 amino acids of proline, alanine, and serine (PAS) were initially generated and assessed by molecular dynamic (MD) simulation...
February 6, 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162166/-difference-in-imaging-and-metal-metabolism-between-hepatic-and-cerebral-type-wilson-disease
#12
X X Zhou, X H Li, X Y Pu, H L Qin, X B Li, J P Chu, Z Y Yang, H W Huang, X L Liang
Objective: To evaluate the difference of metal metabolism, damage to structure and functional activity in brains between hepatic and cerebral type Wilson disease (WD). Methods: Forty patients with WD, including 20 with cerebral type and 20 with hepatic type, and 20 age-matched healthy controls in the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University between Jul 2013 and May 2016 were enrolled.All study subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) of the brain...
January 17, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161872/total-energy-expenditure-energy-intake-and-body-composition-in-endurance-athletes-across-the-training-season-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Juliane Heydenreich, Bengt Kayser, Yves Schutz, Katarina Melzer
BACKGROUND: Endurance athletes perform periodized training in order to prepare for main competitions and maximize performance. However, the coupling between alterations of total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, and body composition during different seasonal training phases is unclear. So far, no systematic review has assessed fluctuations in TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in endurance athletes across the training season. The purpose of this study was to (1) systematically analyze TEE, energy intake, and body composition in highly trained athletes of various endurance disciplines and of both sexes and (2) analyze fluctuations in these parameters across the training season...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153550/trends-in-child-obesity-and-underweight-in-spain-by-birth-year-and-age-1983-to-2011
#14
Ingrid de Ruiter, Rocío Olmedo-Requena, José Juan Sánchez-Cruz, José Juan Jiménez-Moleón
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalences of child obesity and overweight are increasing worldwide and are a significant public health issue, particularly in terms of long-term cardiovascular risk profiles, which continue into adulthood unless obesity is reversed. Accurately identifying trends and at-risk subgroups is crucial to correctly target public health initiatives. The objective of this study was to examine changes in the prevalences of child obesity and underweight in Spain from 1983 to 2011 taking into consideration both age and birth year...
January 30, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152002/the-effects-of-elevated-seawater-temperatures-on-caribbean-gorgonian-corals-and-their-algal-symbionts-symbiodinium-spp
#15
Tamar L Goulet, Kartick P Shirur, Blake D Ramsby, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto
Global climate change not only leads to elevated seawater temperatures but also to episodic anomalously high or low temperatures lasting for several hours to days. Scleractinian corals are detrimentally affected by thermal fluctuations, which often lead to an uncoupling of their mutualism with Symbiodinium spp. (coral bleaching) and potentially coral death. Consequently, on many Caribbean reefs scleractinian coral cover has plummeted. Conversely, gorgonian corals persist, with their abundance even increasing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138524/uncovering-the-forces-between-nucleosomes-using-dna-origami
#16
Jonas J Funke, Philip Ketterer, Corinna Lieleg, Sarah Schunter, Philipp Korber, Hendrik Dietz
Revealing the energy landscape for nucleosome association may contribute to the understanding of higher-order chromatin structures and their impact on genome regulation. We accomplish this in a direct measurement by integrating two nucleosomes into a DNA origami-based force spectrometer, which enabled subnanometer-resolution measurements of nucleosome-nucleosome distance frequencies via single-particle electron microscopy imaging. From the data, we derived the Boltzmann-weighted distance-dependent energy landscape for nucleosome pair interactions...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120239/the-impact-of-random-individual-differences-in-weight-change-on-the-measurable-objectives-of-lifestyle-weight-management-services
#17
Greg Atkinson, Alan M Batterham
Obese adults and children can be referred to lifestyle weight management services (LWMS) in which physical activity and/or dietary advice are delivered. Service providers quantify the 'weight' change between an initial measurement and follow-up measurement(s), which could be 12-24 months later. A control group is usually absent. The aim of this article is to scrutinise the various LWMS objectives for this weight change that are recommended by UK authorities. UK guidelines recommend that an adult LWMS should (A) reduce the sample mean body mass of all enrolled adults by at least 3% and/or (B) reduce the body mass of at least 30% of adults by at least 5%...
January 25, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112134/intraocular-pressure-fluctuation-after-water-drinking-test-in-primary-angle-closure-glaucoma-and-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#18
Yi-Chieh Poon, Mei-Ching Teng, Pei-Wen Lin, Jen-Chia Tsai, Ing-Chou Lai
CONTEXT: Only a few studies have assessed intraocular pressure (IOP) changes during the water drinking test (WDT) in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). AIMS: The aim of this study is to investigate IOP changes during WDT in patients with PACG versus primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a prospective and single tertiary center study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PACG and POAG patients (n = 15 each) without prior glaucoma surgery were enrolled and subjected to WDT, wherein they consumed an amount of water proportional to their body weight within 10 min...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111772/preliminary-evidence-for-the-off-label-treatment-of-bulimia-nervosa-with-psychostimulants-six-case-reports
#19
Aaron Keshen, Thomas Helson
Psychostimulants have been assessed in bulimia nervosa patients with comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but few studies have examined the impact of psychostimulants on bulimia nervosa patients without comorbid ADHD. The aim of this study was to examine psychostimulants as a potential treatment for bulimia nervosa and to assess the concern of weight loss, given the medication's appetite-suppressing effects. This retrospective study describes 6 case reports of outpatients who were prescribed a psychostimulant specifically for their bulimia nervosa...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110630/healthcare-waste-management-during-disasters-and-its-effects-on-climate-change-lessons-from-2010-earthquake-and-cholera-tragedies-in-haiti
#20
Emilia M Raila, David O Anderson
Despite growing effects of human activities on climate change throughout the world, and global South in particular, scientists are yet to understand how poor healthcare waste management practices in an emergency influences the climate change. This article presents new findings on climate change risks of healthcare waste disposal during and after the 2010 earthquake and cholera disasters in Haiti. The researchers analysed quantities of healthcare waste incinerated by the United Nations Mission in Haiti for 60 months (2009 to 2013)...
January 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
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