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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109833/a-novel-method-linking-neural-connectivity-to-behavioral-fluctuations-behavior-regressed-connectivity
#1
Antony D Passaro, Jean M Vettel, Jonathan McDaniel, Vernon Lawhern, Piotr J Franaszczuk, Stephen M Gordon
BACKGROUND: During an experimental session, behavioral performance fluctuates, yet most neuroimaging analyses of functional connectivity derive a single connectivity pattern. These conventional connectivity approaches assume that since the underlying behavior of the task remains constant, the connectivity pattern is also constant. NEW METHOD: We introduce a novel method, behavior-regressed connectivity (BRC), to directly examine behavioral fluctuations within an experimental session and capture their relationship to changes in functional connectivity...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096235/role-of-cardiotrophin-1-in-the-regulation-of-metabolic-circadian-rhythms-and-adipose-core-clock-genes-in-mice-and-characterization-of-24-h-circulating-ct-1-profiles-in-normal-weight-and-overweight-obese-subjects
#2
Miguel López-Yoldi, Kimber L Stanhope, Marta Garaulet, X Guoxia Chen, Beatriz Marcos-Gómez, María Paz Carrasco-Benso, Eva M Santa Maria, Xavier Escoté, Vivien Lee, Marinelle V Nunez, Valentina Medici, Eduardo Martínez-Ansó, Neira Sáinz, Ana E Huerta, Laura M Laiglesia, Jesús Prieto, J Alfredo Martínez, Matilde Bustos, Peter J Havel, Maria J Moreno-Aliaga
Cardiotrophin (CT)-1 is a regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. In the present study, we analyzed whether CT-1 also acts to peripherally regulate metabolic rhythms and adipose tissue core clock genes in mice. Moreover, the circadian pattern of plasma CT-1 levels was evaluated in normal-weight and overweight subjects. The circadian rhythmicity of oxygen consumption rate (Vo2) was disrupted in aged-obese CT-1-deficient (CT-1(-/-)) mice (12 mo). Although circadian rhythms of Vo2 were conserved in young-lean CT-1(-/-) mice (2 mo), CT-1 deficiency caused a phase shift of the acrophase...
January 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091559/brain-structural-differences-between-normal-and-obese-adults-and-their-links-with-lack-of-perseverance-negative-urgency-and-sensation-seeking
#3
Haifeng Wang, Baohong Wen, Jingliang Cheng, Hongpeng Li
In order to examine the difference in brain structure between obese and normal weight individuals, and to explore the relationship between the neuroanatomical changes and impulsivity traits, this study used a voxel-based morphometry method to examine gray matter (GM) volume alterations related to impulsive personality traits in obese individuals relative to normal weight. Eighty adults that completed the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale were analyzed. Possible GM volume alterations were first analyzed at the whole brain level, and then the relationship between regional GM volume differences and UPPS-P scores were examined in selected regions of interest...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077924/temperature-during-pregnancy-influences-the-fetal-growth-and-birth-size
#4
Harunor Rashid, Miki Kagami, Farzana Ferdous, Enbo Ma, Toru Terao, Taiichi Hayashi, Yukiko Wagatsuma
BACKGROUND: Birth weight and length have seasonal fluctuations. However, it is uncertain which meteorological element has an effect on birth outcomes and which timing of pregnancy would explain such effect. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine temperature effects during pregnancy and which timing of pregnancy has effects on size at birth. METHODS: A large, randomized, controlled trial of food and micronutrient supplementation for pregnant women was conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh (MINIMat Study), where women were enrolled from November 2001 to October 2003...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074492/confirmation-of-resting-state-bold-fluctuations-in-the-human-brainstem-and-spinal-cord-after-identification-and-removal-of-physiological-noise
#5
Shreyas Harita, Patrick W Stroman
PURPOSE: Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) has been used to investigate networks within the cortex, but its use in the brainstem (BS) and spinal cord (SC) has been limited. This region presents challenges for fMRI, partly because of sources of physiological noise. This study aims to quantify noise contributions to rs-fMRI, and to obtain evidence of resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations. METHODS: Resting-state-fMRI data were obtained from the BS/SC in 16 participants, at 3 Tesla, with T2 -weighted single-shot fast spin-echo imaging...
January 11, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069684/weight-fluctuation-and-cancer-risk-in-post-menopausal-women-the-women-s-health-initiative
#6
Laura M Welti, Daniel P Beavers, Bette J Caan, Haleh Sangi-Haghpekar, Mara Z Vitolins, Kristen M Beavers
BACKGROUND: Weight cycling, defined by an intentional weight loss and subsequent regain, commonly occurs in overweight and obese women and is associated with some negative health outcomes. We examined the role of various weight-change patterns during early to mid- adulthood and associated risk of highly prevalent, obesity-related cancers (breast, endometrial, colorectal) in postmenopausal women. METHODS: 80,943 postmenopausal women (age: 63.4±7.4 years) in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study were categorized by self-reported weight change (weight stable; weight gain; lost weight; weight cycled [1-3, 4-6, 7-10, >10 times]) during early to mid- adulthood (18-50 years)...
January 9, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069390/continuous-direct-compression-as-manufacturing-platform-for-sustained-release-tablets
#7
B Van Snick, J Holman, C Cunningham, A Kumar, J Vercruysse, T De Beer, J P Remon, C Vervaet
This study presents a framework for process and product development on a continuous direct compression manufacturing platform. A challenging sustained release formulation with high content of a poorly flowing low density drug was selected. Two HPMC grades were evaluated as matrix former: standard Methocel CR and directly compressible Methocel DC2. The feeding behavior of each formulation component was investigated by deriving feed factor profiles. The maximum feed factor was used to estimate the drive command which strongly depended upon the density of the material...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069086/fluctuations-in-money-availability-within-an-income-cycle-impacts-diet-quality-of-remote-indigenous-australians
#8
Thomas P Wycherley, Brita Ak Pekarsky, Megan M Ferguson, Kerin O'Dea, Julie K Brimblecombe
OBJECTIVE: To consider the plausible nutritional impacts of fluctuations in money availability within an income cycle for remote Indigenous Australians. DESIGN: Community-level dietary intake (energy, micro/macronutrients) and expenditure on foods and beverages (F&B) were estimated over one year for three remote Indigenous Australian communities (Northern Territory, Australia) using monthly F&B transaction data. F&B that were likely to be consumed during a period within an income cycle when money was relatively limited (low money period (LMP) foods) were identified by panel consensus and scenario modelling was conducted to simulate the nutritional outcomes of a range of F&B selection responses to having an LMP...
January 10, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050256/factors-associated-with-unintended-weight-change-in-the-uk-armed-forces-a-cohort-study
#9
Sharon Am Stevelink, Nicola T Fear
OBJECTIVE: To examine factors associated with self-reported unintended weight change in (ex-) military personnel of the UK Armed Forces. DESIGN: A cohort study whereby a self-report questionnaire was administered at baseline (2003-2005) and follow-up (2007-2009). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 6352 former and serving military personnel of the UK Armed Forces. SETTING: United Kingdom. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Personnel were asked about socio-demographic, military and (mental) health characteristics, including screening measures for common mental health disorders...
July 2016: JRSM Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048167/su-f-i-66-the-effects-of-nicotinic-agonists-on-rat-hippocampal-glutamatergic-fluctuation-by-using-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-at-9-4t
#10
S-I Lim, K-H Song, C-H Yoo, D-C Woo, B-Y Choe
PURPOSE: Nicotine exerts its effects through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Varenicline, a smoking cessation aid, is a partial agonist acting at the α4β2 nAChRs. Although nicotine and varenicline contribute to the reward system at the same time, the influence of the substances on hippocampal neurochemical changes has not been investigated yet. We therefore studied the effects of repeated nicotine exposure and varenicline administration on hippocampus of rats by using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) at 9...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047432/su-g-iep1-11-resting-state-fluctuation-of-bold-signal-amplitude-for-mapping-cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-presurgical-functional-mri
#11
P Wang, P Hou, S Kesler, R Colen, A Kumar, S Prabhu, H Liu
PURPOSE: Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) MRI with hypercapnia challenges, such as a breath-hold (BH) task, has been proposed to indicate areas with neurovascular uncoupling potentials for presurgical functional MRI (fMRI). This study aimed to explore the use of resting-state (RS) fMRI, in particular, the RS fluctuation of amplitude (RSFA) for detecting the impaired CVR and compare with BH MRI in patients with gliomas. METHODS: The BH and RS fMRI from six patients as part of their presurgical fMRI studies were analyzed...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046836/we-fg-202-08-assessment-of-treatment-response-via-longitudinal-diffusion-mri-on-a-mri-guided-system-initial-experience-of-quantitative-analysis
#12
X Qi, Y Yang, L Yang, D Low, K Sheng
PURPOSE: To report our initial experience of systematic monitoring treatment response using longitudinal diffusion MR images on a Co-60 MRI-guided radiotherapy system. METHODS: Four patients, including 2 head-and-necks, 1 sarcoma and 1 GBM treated on a 0.35 Tesla MRI-guided treatment system, were analyzed. For each patient, 3D TrueFISP MRIs were acquired during CT simulation and before each treatment for treatment planning and patient setup purposes respectively...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046706/su-f-t-129-impact-of-radial-fluctuations-in-rbe-for-therapeutic-proton-beams
#13
M Butkus, T Palmer
PURPOSE: To evaluate the off axis relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for actively scanned proton beams and determine if a constant radial RBE can be assumed. METHODS: The PHITS Monte Carlo code paired with a microscopic analytical function was used to determine probability distribution functions of the lineal energy in 0.3µm diameter spheres throughout a water phantom. Twenty million primary protons were simulated for a 0.6cm diameter pencil beam. Beam energies corresponding to Bragg Peak depths of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300mm were used and evaluated transversely every millimeter and radially for annuli of 1...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035585/effect-of-exercise-on-ovulation-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Osnat Hakimi, Luiz-Claudio Cameron
BACKGROUND: Infertility has been described as a devastating life crisis for couples, and has a particularly severe effect on women, in terms of anxiety and depression. Anovulation accounts for around 30% of female infertility, and while lifestyle factors such as physical activity are known to be important, the relationship between exercise and ovulation is multi-factorial and complex, and to date there are no clear recommendations concerning exercise regimes. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to systematically assess the effect of physical activity on ovulation and to discuss the possible mechanisms by which exercise acts to modulate ovulation in reproductive-age women...
December 29, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028196/adenosine-shifts-plasticity-regimes-between-associative-and-homeostatic-by-modulating-heterosynaptic-changes
#15
Nicholas M Bannon, Marina Chistiakova, Jen-Yung Chen, Maxim Bazhenov, Maxim Volgushev
: Endogenous extracellular adenosine level fluctuates in an activity-dependent manner and with sleep-wake cycle, modulating synaptic transmission and short-term plasticity. Hebbian-type long-term plasticity introduces intrinsic positive feedback on synaptic weight changes, making them prone to runaway dynamics. We previously demonstrated that co-occurring, weight-dependent heterosynaptic plasticity can robustly prevent runaway dynamics. Here we show that at neocortical synapses in slices from rat visual cortex, adenosine modulates the weight-dependence of heterosynaptic plasticity: blockade of adenosine A1 receptors abolished weight-dependence, while increased adenosine level strengthened it...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008960/precipitation-and-carbon-water-coupling-jointly-control-the-interannual-variability-of-global-land-gross-primary-production
#16
Yao Zhang, Xiangming Xiao, Luis Guanter, Sha Zhou, Philippe Ciais, Joanna Joiner, Stephen Sitch, Xiaocui Wu, Julia Nabel, Jinwei Dong, Etsushi Kato, Atul K Jain, Andy Wiltshire, Benjamin D Stocker
Carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems is increasing along with the rising of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Embedded in this trend, recent studies suggested that the interannual variability (IAV) of global carbon fluxes may be dominated by semi-arid ecosystems, but the underlying mechanisms of this high variability in these specific regions are not well known. Here we derive an ensemble of gross primary production (GPP) estimates using the average of three data-driven models and eleven process-based models...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999670/a-qualitative-analysis-of-participants-reflections-on-body-image-during-participation-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy
#17
Maria Fogelkvist, Thomas Parling, Lars Kjellin, Sanna Aila Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Negative body image is a risk factor for development and relapse in eating disorders (ED). Many patients continue to be dissatisfied with their body shape or weight after treatment. This study presents a qualitative analysis of written reflections on body image from patients with an ED and a negative body image before and after an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy group treatment at a specialized ED-unit. METHOD: Before and after the treatment participants (n = 47) answered a questionnaire with open ended questions on their thoughts on body image...
2016: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993039/-diffusive-gradients-in-thin-films-techniques-provide-representative-time-weighted-average-measurements-of-inorganic-nutrients-in-dynamic-freshwater-systems
#18
Jianyin Huang, William W Bennett, David T Welsh, Tianling Li, Peter R Teasdale
Nutrient concentrations in freshwater are highly variable over time, with changes driven by weather events, anthropogenic sources, modifications to catchment hydrology or habitats, and internal biogeochemical processes. Measuring infrequently collected grab samples is unlikely to adequately represent nutrient concentrations in such dynamic systems. In contrast, in situ passive sampling techniques, such as the "diffusive gradients in thin films" (DGT) technique, provide time-weighted average analyte concentrations over the entire deployment time...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986613/oxygen-flux-reduces-cux1-positive-neurons-and-cortical-growth-in-a-gestational-rodent-model-of-growth-restriction
#19
Elaine Fletcher, Jean Wade, Petrina A Georgala, Trudi L Gillespie, David J Price, Elizabeth Pilley, Julie-Clare Becher
BACKGROUND: The mammalian cerebral cortex forms in an inside-out manner, establishing deep cortical layers before superficial layers and is regulated by transcription factors which influence cell differentiation. Preterm birth interrupts the trajectory of normal neurodevelopment and adverse perinatal exposures have been implicated in cortical injury. We hypothesise that growth restriction (GR) and fluctuating hyperoxia (ΔO2) impair cortical laminar development. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats received 18% (non-restricted, NR) or 9% (growth restricted, GR) protein diet from E15-P7...
December 13, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986311/lignocellulose-degrading-enzymes-free-radical-transformations-during-composting-of-lignocellulosic-waste-and-biothermal-phases-in-small-scale-reactors
#20
Justyna Bohacz
Environmentally friendly strategies of waste management are both part of legal solutions currently in place and a focus of interest worldwide. Large-scale composting plants are set up across various regions while home composting is becoming increasingly popular. A variety of microbial groups are successively at work during composting and enzymatic activities detected in the composting mass fluctuate accordingly. Changes in the activities of oxidoreductases and hydrolases, i.e. glucose oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, xylanase, superoxide dismutase and keratinase, low-molecular weight compounds, i...
December 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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