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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231783/dexamethasone-exacerbates-cytotoxic-chemotherapy-induced-lethargy-and-weight-loss-in-female-tumor-free-mice
#1
John Wong, Lisa T Tran, Kaari A Lynch, Lisa J Wood
Cytotoxic chemotherapy can induce a systemic inflammatory response which has been proposed to be an underlying mechanism of cancer treatment related fatigue. Dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid that has potent anti-inflammatory effects, is incorporated into chemotherapy regimens to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The purpose of this study was to determine whether by suppressing cytotoxic chemotherapy-induced inflammation, dexamethasone could ameliorate chemotherapy induced fatigue/lethargy in tumor free mice...
December 12, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230464/do-protocells-preferentially-retain-macromolecular-solutes-upon-division-fragmentation-a-study-based-on-the-extrusion-of-popc-giant-vesicles
#2
Alessio Fanti, Leandro Gammuto, Fabio Mavelli, Pasquale Stano, Roberto Marangoni
A key process of protocell behaviour is their recursive growth and division. In order to be sustainable, the latter must be characterized by an even and homogeneous partition of the solute molecules initially present in the parent protocell among the daughter ones. Here we have investigated, by means of an artificial division model (extrusion of giant lipid vesicles) and confocal microscopy, the fate of solutes when a large vesicle fragments into many smaller vesicles. Solutes of low- and high-molecular weight such as pyranine, calcein, albumin-FITC, dextran-FITC and carbonic anhydrase have been employed...
December 12, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230079/development-of-a-food-composition-database-to-monitor-changes-in-packaged-foods-and-beverages
#3
Jennifer M Poti, Emily Yoon, Bridget Hollingsworth, Jessica Ostrowski, Julie Wandell, Donna R Miles, Barry M Popkin
In order to monitor nutritional changes in the US food supply and assess potential impact on individual dietary intake, an approach was developed to enhance existing standard food composition tables with time-varying product- and brand-specific information for barcoded packaged foods. A "Crosswalk" was formed between barcoded products and USDA foodcodes in a time-specific manner, such that sales-weighted average nutritional profiles were generated for each foodcode based on corresponding products (275,000 to 350,000 per 2-year cycle)...
December 2017: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229891/cost-effectiveness-of-oral-agents-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-compared-to-interferon-based-therapy-in-saudi-arabia
#4
Mai F Alsaqa'aby, Varun Vaidya, Noura Khreis, Thamer Al Khairallah, Ahmed H Al-Jedai
BACKGROUND: Promising clinical and humanistic outcomes are associated with the use of new oral agents in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). This is the first cost-effectiveness study comparing these medications in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, and interferon (IFN)-b1a products (Avonex and Rebif) as first-line therapies in the treatment of patients with RRMS from a Saudi payer perspective...
November 2017: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229648/phosphorylation-of-the-unique-c-terminal-tail-of-the-alpha-isoform-of-the-scaffold-protein-sh2b1-controls-the-ability-of-sh2b1alpha-to-enhance-nerve-growth-factor-function
#5
Ray M Joe, Anabel Flores, Michael E Doche, Joel M Cline, Erik S Clutter, Paul B Vander, Heimo Riedel, Lawrence S Argetsinger, Christin Carter-Su
The scaffold protein SH2B1, a major regulator of body weight, is recruited to the receptors of multiple cytokines and growth factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF). The β isoform, but not the α isoform, of SH2B1 greatly enhances NGF-dependent neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. Here we asked how the unique C-terminal tails of the α and β isoforms modulate SH2B1 function. We compared the actions of SH2B1α and SH2B1β to those of the N-terminal 631 amino acids shared by both isoforms. In contrast to the β-tail, the α-tail inhibited the ability of SH2B1 to both cycle through the nucleus and enhance NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth, gene expression, phosphorylation of Akt and PLCγ and autophosphorylation of the NGF receptor TrkA...
December 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229579/investigation-of-the-pulsatility-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-using-cardiac-gated-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-imaging
#6
Anton S Becker, Andreas Boss, Markus Klarhoefer, Tim Finkenstaedt, Moritz C Wurnig, Cristina Rossi
The quantitative and non-invasive monitoring of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and composition may have high clinical relevance in the management of CSF disorders. In this study, we propose the use of the Intravoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) MRI for obtaining simultaneous measurements of CSF self-diffusion and fluid circulation. The rationale for this study was that turbulent fluid and mesoscopic fluid fluctuations can be modeled in a first approximation as a fast diffusion process. In this case, we expect that the fast fluid circulation and slower molecular diffusion dynamics can be quantified, assuming a bi-exponential attenuation pattern of the diffusion-weighted signal in MRI...
December 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229332/determination-of-household-and-industrial-chemicals-personal-care-products-and-hormones-in-leafy-and-root-vegetables-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#7
Irene Aparicio, Julia Martín, Concepción Abril, Juan Luis Santos, Esteban Alonso
A multiresidue method has been developed for the determination of emerging pollutants in leafy and root vegetables. Selected compounds were 6 perfluoroalkyl compounds (5 perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid), 3 non-ionic surfactants (nonylphenol and nonylphenolethoxylates), 8 anionic surfactants (4 alkylsulfates and 4 linear alkylbenzene sulfonates), 4 preservatives (parabens), 2 biocides (triclosan and triclocarban), 2 plasticizers (bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate), 6 UV-filters (benzophenones) and 4 hormones...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227160/inter-and-intra-examiner-reliability-of-bitewing-radiography-and-near-infrared-light-transillumination-for-proximal-caries-detection-and-assessment
#8
Friederike Litzenburger, Katrin Heck, Vinay Pitchika, Klaus W Neuhaus, Fabian N Jost, Reinhard Hickel, Anahita Jablonski-Momeni, Alexander Welk, Alexander Lederer, Jan Kühnisch
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of digital bitewing (DBW) radiography and near-infrared light transillumination (NIRT) for proximal caries detection and assessment in posterior teeth. METHODS: From a pool of 85 patients, 100 corresponding pairs of DBW and NIRT images (~1/3 healthy, ~1/3 with enamel caries and ~1/3 with dentin caries) were chosen. Twelve dentists with different professional statuses and clinical experience repeated the evaluation in two blinded cycles...
December 11, 2017: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227023/sex-linked-difference-in-blood-oxygen-saturation
#9
Sagi Levental, Elie Picard, Francis Mimouni, Leon Joseph, Tal Y Samuel, Reuben Bromiker, Dror Mandel, Nissim Arish, Shmuel Goldberg
BACKGROUND: It is not known whether SpO2 in healthy volunteers is affected by sex. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate whether there are differences in SpO2 between young healthy adult males and females and to evaluate whether the differences are already present at birth. METHODS: We studied 2 cohorts of patients. The first one consisted of young adult volunteers (105 males and 102 females). In these patients, SpO2 was measured as well as selected anthropometric variables (height, weight), vital signs (respiratory rate, pulse rate and body temperature), and obtained data on menstrual cycle phase of the female participants...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224585/long-term-implications-of-feed-energy-source-in-different-genetic-types-of-reproductive-rabbit-females-i-resource-acquisition-and-allocation
#10
A Arnau-Bonachera, C Cervera, E Blas, T Larsen, E Martínez-Paredes, L Ródenas, J J Pascual
To achieve functional but also productive females, we hypothesised that it is possible to modulate acquisition and allocation of animals from different genetic types by varying the main energy source of the diet. To test this hypothesis, we used 203 rabbit females belonging to three genetic types: H (n=66), a maternal line characterised by hyper-prolificacy; LP (n=67), a maternal line characterised by functional hyper-longevity; R (n=79), a paternal line characterised by growth rate. Females were fed with two isoenergetic and isoprotein diets differing in energy source: animal fat (AF) enhancing milk yield; cereal starch (CS) promoting body reserves recovery...
December 11, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224584/long-term-implications-of-feed-energy-source-in-different-genetic-types-of-reproductive-rabbit-females-iii-fitness-and-productivity
#11
A Arnau-Bonachera, D Savietto, J J Pascual
The specialization process associated with genetic selection could be associated with functional disorders, affecting the reproductive success of females (fitness). We hypothesized that by modulating energy acquisition and allocation of females we could balance productivity and reproductive success. To test this hypothesis, we used 203 rabbit females belonging to three genetic types: H (n=66) maternal line specialized in prolificacy, LP (n=67) generalist maternal line, R (n=70) paternal line specialized in growth rate...
December 11, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224106/g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-gper-and-sex-specific-metabolic-homeostasis
#12
Geetanjali Sharma, Eric R Prossnitz
Obesity and metabolic syndrome display disparate prevalence and regulation between males and females. Human, as well as rodent, females with regular menstrual/estrous cycles exhibit protection from weight gain and associated chronic diseases. These beneficial effects are predominantly attributed to the female hormone estrogen, specifically 17β-estradiol (E2). E2 exerts its actions via multiple receptors, nuclear and extranuclear estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ, and the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, previously termed GPR30)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223906/comparison-of-real-world-and-certification-emission-rates-for-light-duty-gasoline-vehicles
#13
Tanzila Khan, H Christopher Frey
U.S. light duty vehicles are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards. Emission compliance is determined by certification testing of selected emissions from representative vehicles on standard driving cycles using chassis dynamometers. Test results are also used in many emission inventories. The dynamometer based emission rates are adjusted to provide the certification levels (CL), which must be lower than the standards for compliance. Although standard driving cycles are based on specific observations of real-world driving, they are not necessarily real-world representative...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222860/adenosine-sensitive-wolff-parkinson-white-longer-time-across-the-atrioventricular-groove
#14
Cheyenne Beach, Christopher W Follansbee, Lee Beerman, Sharon Mazzocco, Li Wang, Gaurav Arora
BACKGROUND: Successful ablation sites in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) are characterized by short atrioventricular (AV) intervals. Approximately 15% of patients with WPW have adenosine-sensitive accessory pathways (APs). We sought to determine if local AV intervals of adenosine-sensitive APs are different from those of adenosine-insensitive APs in patients with WPW. METHODS: Patients ≤ 21 years with WPW and adenosine-sensitive APs who underwent successful ablation over a 9-year period were included...
December 9, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218597/role-of-tulipa-gesneriana-teosinte-branched1-tgtb1-in-the-control-of-axillary-bud-outgrowth-in-bulbs
#15
Natalia M Moreno-Pachon, Marie-Chantal Mutimawurugo, Eveline Heynen, Lidiya Sergeeva, Anne Benders, Ikram Blilou, Henk W M Hilhorst, Richard G H Immink
Tulip vegetative reproduction. Tulips reproduce asexually by the outgrowth of their axillary meristems located in the axil of each bulb scale. The number of axillary meristems in one bulb is low, and not all of them grow out during the yearly growth cycle of the bulb. Since the degree of axillary bud outgrowth in tulip determines the success of their vegetative propagation, this study aimed at understanding the mechanism controlling the differential axillary bud activity. We used a combined physiological and "bottom-up" molecular approach to shed light on this process and found that first two inner located buds do not seem to experience dormancy during the growth cycle, while mid-located buds enter dormancy by the end of the growing season...
December 7, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217263/the-dietary-inflammatory-index-is-associated-with-elevated-white-blood-cell-counts-in-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#16
Michael D Wirth, Maria Sevoyan, Lorne Hofseth, Nitin Shivappa, Thomas G Hurley, James R Hébert
White blood cells (WBCs) are considered a reliable biomarker of inflammation. Elevations in both WBCs and pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with several chronic conditions. Diet is a strong moderator of inflammation and WBCs. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and WBCs using data from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). NHANES is a cross-sectional study that occurs in two-year cycles. Respondents from five cycles (n=26,046) with available data on diet (collected through a single 24-hour dietary recall [24HR]) and WBCs (derived using the Coulter method) were included...
December 4, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217212/ovarian-morphology-by-transabdominal-ultrasound-correlates-with-reproductive-and-metabolic-disturbance-in-adolescents-with-pcos
#17
Beth W Rackow, Heidi Vanden Brink, Lynwood Hammers, Clare A Flannery, Marla E Lujan, Tania S Burgert
PURPOSE: To determine whether ovarian morphology imaged using transabdominal ultrasonography reflects clinical and metabolic features in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: A retrospective pilot study was conducted in 33 adolescents (12-18 years) with PCOS as defined by hyperandrogenism and irregular cycles. Adolescents underwent the following assessments at a random time during the menstrual cycle: transabdominal ultrasonography, physical examination (height, weight, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure), fasting hormonal tests (free, percent free, and total testosterone, androstenedione, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone), and metabolic tests (including an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting and 2-hour insulin and glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and whole-body insulin sensitivity index)...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216578/preparation-and-characterization-of-xanthan-gum-cl-poly-acrylic-acid-o-mwcnts-hydrogel-nanocomposite-as-highly-effective-re-usable-adsorbent-for-removal-of-methylene-blue-from-aqueous-solutions
#18
Edwin Makhado, Sadanand Pandey, Philiswa N Nomngongo, James Ramontja
In this work, xanthan gum-cl-poly acrylic acid (XG-cl-pAA) hydrogel and xanthan gum-cl-poly acrylic acid/oxidized MWCNTs (XG-cl-pAA/o-MWCNTs) hydrogel nanocomposite was successfully surface modify by microwave assisted copolymerization, in which N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) was used as a cross-linking agent. A copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto xanthan gum (XG) initiated by microwave radiation method. Different weight percentages of oxidized MWCNTs were incorporated into the hydrogel matrix during the grafting reaction...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214044/milk-yield-and-kit-development-of-four-breeds-of-rabbit-in-ibadan-nigeria
#19
Olatunji Abubakar Jimoh, Emmanuel Olabisi Ewuola
Background: Rabbit breeding with high performance imported ones would be of benefit for genetic diversity and improvement of performance in domestic rabbit breeds. The rearing of more productive rabbit breeds could be pathway to improve the productivity and reduce the production cost. Maternal nutritional status exert a great influence on reproductive functions of does, which may expand from conception, through gestation and parturition and development of kits to puberty. Methods: Four breeds of rabbit were evaluated for their parturition, weaning and pubertal differences among the rabbit population in Ibadan, Nigeria...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213246/the-influence-of-footwear-on-the-modular-organization-of-running
#20
Alessandro Santuz, Antonis Ekizos, Lars Janshen, Vasilios Baltzopoulos, Adamantios Arampatzis
For most of our history, we predominantly ran barefoot or in minimalist shoes. The advent of modern footwear, however, might have introduced alterations in the motor control of running. The present study investigated shod and barefoot running under the perspective of the modular organization of muscle activation, in order to help addressing the neurophysiological factors underlying human locomotion. On a treadmill, 20 young and healthy inexperienced barefoot runners ran shod and barefoot at preferred speed (2...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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