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Cardiorespiratory fitness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108267/fitness-and-fatness-in-relation-with-attention-capacity-in-european-adolescents-the-helena-study
#1
Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Jeremy Vanhelst, Jonatan R Ruiz, Ruth Castillo-Gualda, Lars Libuda, Idoia Labayen, Pilar De Miguel-Etayo, Ascensión Marcos, Eszter Molnár, Andrés Catena, Luis A Moreno, Michael Sjöström, Frederic Gottrand, Kurt Widhalm, Francisco B Ortega
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of health-related physical fitness components and accurate measures of fatness with attention in European adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A sub-sample of 444 adolescents from the HELENA study (14.5±1.2years) from 6 different countries participated in this study. Adolescents underwent evaluations of fitness (20m shuttle run, handgrip strength, standing long jump and 4×10m shuttle run tests), fatness (body mass index, skinfold thicknesses, bioelectrical impedance, Bod Pod and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and attention (d2-test)...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107459/associations-of-health-club-membership-with-physical-activity-and-cardiovascular-health
#2
Elizabeth C Schroeder, Gregory J Welk, Warren D Franke, Duck-Chul Lee
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluates whether a health club membership is associated with meeting the US physical activity (PA) guidelines and/or favorable cardiovascular health. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data of health club members (n = 204) and non-members (n = 201) from April to August 2013, this is the first study to our knowledge to examine a health club membership in relation to objectively measured cardiovascular health indicators including resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiorespiratory fitness based on a non-exercise test algorithm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099086/maximal-heart-rate-declines-linearly-with-age-independent-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness-levels
#3
Cemal Ozemek, Mitchell H Whaley, W Holmes Finch, Leonard A Kaminsky
There have been many conflicting observations between the linear or curvilinear decline in maximal heart rate (HRmax) with age. The aim of this study was to determine if linear or curvilinear equations would better describe the decline in HRmax with age in individuals of differing cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) levels. Treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) results from participants (1510 men and 1134 women; 18-76 years) free of overt cardiovascular disease were retrospectively examined using cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098836/association-of-school-environment-and-after-school-physical-activity-with-health-related-physical-fitness-among-junior-high-school-students-in-taiwan
#4
Kai-Yang Lo, Min-Chen Wu, Shu-Chin Tung, City C Hsieh, Hsueh-Hua Yao, Chien-Chang Ho
The relationship between students' school environment and exercise habits is complex, and is affected by numerous factors. However, the few studies that have been conducted on this relationship have reported inconsistent results, especially regarding Taiwanese students. We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate the association of school environment and after-school physical activity with health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents. Data were drawn from a national survey conducted by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008 of health-related physical fitness measurements among junior high school students (649,442 total) in grades seven to nine...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094882/association-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-adiposity-with-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-young-adults
#5
Eunduck Park, Janet C Meininger, Duck-Hee Kang, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Nikhil S Padhye
OBJECTIVES: Cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) has been inversely associated with inflammation, but whether the association is attributed to fitness itself or lower levels of adiposity remains uncertain in young adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of fitness and adiposity with inflammation in young adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 88 participants aged 20-34 years. Fitness was assessed by a submaximal treadmill walking test...
January 17, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090680/validity-of-noninvasive-composite-scores-to-assess-cardiovascular-risk-in-10-year-old-children
#6
Ø Lerum, E Aadland, L B Andersen, S A Anderssen, G K Resaland
Agreement between and classification accuracy of six different noninvasive composite scores and a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor score were investigated in 911 (466 boys and 445 girls) 10-year-old Norwegian children. A CVD risk factor score (triglyceride, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure (SBP), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and cardiorespiratory fitness) and six noninvasive risk scores (fitness+three different measurements of fatness (body mass index (BMI), WHtR, and skinfolds), with and without inclusion of SBP) were calculated (mean z-score by gender)...
January 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090137/echocardiographic-assessment-of-right-ventricle-adaptation-to-endurance-training-in-young-rowers-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#7
M Konopka, W Krol, K Burkhard-Jagodzinska, A Jakubiak, A Klusiewicz, J Chwalbinska, A Pokrywka, D Sitkowski, M Dluzniewski, W Braksator
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the degree of cardiorespiratory fitness and the function of the right ventricle (RV). 117 rowers, age 17.5±1.5 years. All subjects underwent cardiopulmonary exercise. Standard echocardiography and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography with evaluation of longitudinal strain in each segment of the RV (basal - RVLS-B; mid - RVLS-M, apical - RVLS-A) and global RV free-wall strain (RVLS-G) were performed. RVLS-B values were lower compared to the RVLS-M (-25...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090136/the-impact-of-duration-on-effectiveness-of-exercise-the-implication-for-periodization-of-training-and-goal-setting-for-individuals-who-are-overfat-a-meta-analysis
#8
J E Clark
Given the assumption that all methods of exercise, e.g., endurance (ET), resistance (RT), or combination of both (E+R), can induce a beneficial effect size (ES) for changes in body composition and health status of individuals who are overfat. Thus the aim and purpose of this study is to evaluate the current body of knowledge to address the question as to the impact that the duration of exercise has on its relative effectiveness for inducing health and body compositional changes in individuals who are overfat to assist with developing periodized exercise protocols and establishing short and long term goals...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089898/exercise-guidelines-to-promote-cardiometabolic-health-in-spinal-cord-injured-humans-time-to-raise-the-intensity
#9
Tom E Nightingale, Richard S Metcalfe, Niels Bj Vollaard, James L J Bilzon
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a life changing event that, as a result of paralysis, negatively influences habitual levels of physical activity and hence cardiometabolic health. Performing regular structured exercise therefore appears extremely important in persons with SCI. However, exercise options are mainly limited to the upper-body, which involves a smaller activated muscle mass compared to the mainly leg-based activities commonly performed by non-disabled individuals. Current exercise guidelines for SCI focus predominantly on relative short durations of moderate-intensity aerobic arm cranking exercise, yet contemporary evidence suggests this is not sufficient to induce meaningful improvements in risk factors for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease in this population...
January 12, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089658/utility-of-body-mass-index-waist-to-height-ratio-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-thresholds-for-identifying-cardiometabolic-risk-in-10-4-17-6-year-old-children
#10
Duncan S Buchan, Julien S Baker
OBJECTIVE: To examine the utility of Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist-to-Height-Ratio (WHtR) and cardiorespiratory fitness thresholds to identify cardiometabolic risk in youth. METHODS: Cross-sectional cardiometabolic risk factor variables on 534 children aged 10.4-17.6 years of age (52% boys) from the United Kingdom were used. Binary logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to examine the utility of established age and gender specific thresholds for BMI, WHtR and cardiorespiratory fitness to identify individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk (increased clustered triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and glucose)...
January 12, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089564/cardiorespiratory-fitness-after-transient-ischemic-attack-and-minor-ischemic-stroke-baseline-data-of-the-moveit-study
#11
H Myrthe Boss, IngerA Deijle, SanderM Van Schaik, EdwinC de Melker, BobT J van den Berg, HenryC Weinstein, MirjamI Geerlings, L Jaap Kappelle, RenskeM Van den Berg-Vos
BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is reduced in patients with stroke. It is unclear whether it is also reduced in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke. We investigated the CRF in patients with a recent TIA or minor stroke and explored which determinants are associated with a lower fitness. METHODS: In 113 patients with a recent TIA or minor ischemic stroke (64 (SD = 10) years of age; 49 (IQR 27-86) days post TIA or stroke), the peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) was determined in a symptom-limited ramp exercise test...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081200/fitter-women-did-not-have-attenuated-hemodynamic-responses-to-psychological-stress-compared-with-age-matched-women-with-lower-levels-of-fitness
#12
Sisitha U Jayasinghe, Susan J Torres, Mais Hussein, Steve F Fraser, Gavin W Lambert, Anne I Turner
According to the 'cross stressor adaptation hypothesis', regular exercise acts as a buffer against the detrimental effects of stress. Nevertheless, evidence that higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness moderate hemodynamic responses to acute psychological stress is inconclusive, especially in women. Women aged 30-50 years (in the mid-follicular phase of the menstrual cycle) with higher (n = 17) and lower (n = 17) levels of fitness were subjected to a Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Continuous, non-invasive measurements were made of beat-to-beat, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), left ventricular ejection time (LVET), maximum slope, pulse interval (PI) and total peripheral resistance (TPR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079707/effect-of-number-of-sprints-in-a-sit-session-on-change-in-vo2max-a-meta-analysis
#13
Niels Bj Vollaard, Richard S Metcalfe, Sean Williams
PURPOSE: Recent meta-analyses indicate that sprint interval training (SIT) improves cardiorespiratory fitness (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), but the effects of various training parameters on the magnitude of the improvement remain unknown. The present meta-analysis examined the modifying effect of the number of sprint repetitions in a SIT session on improvements in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. METHODS: The databases PubMed and Web of Science were searched for original studies that have examined pre- and post-training V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in adults following ≥2 weeks of training consisting of repeated (≥2) Wingate-type cycle sprints, published up to 1 May 2016...
January 10, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079704/modeling-perceived-exertion-during-graded-arm-cycling-exercise-in-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Jason S Au, Julia O Totosy de Zepetnek, Maureen J MacDonald
PURPOSE: Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) may be useful for exercise testing and prescription in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), though the roles of differentiated central and peripheral fatigue during exercise are not clear. We aimed to model differentiated RPE responses during graded arm cycling in individuals with SCI and describe their relationship to cardiorespiratory outcomes. METHODS: Thirty-six individuals with SCI (13 paraplegia; 23 tetraplegia) completed a maximal graded-arm cycling exercise test to volitional exhaustion (5W/min paraplegia; 10W/min tetraplegia)...
January 10, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078668/mitochondrial-adaptations-to-exercise-in-human-skeletal-muscle-a-possible-role-for-cristae-density-as-a-determinant-of-muscle-fitness
#15
Christopher G R Perry
Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable plasticity in response to repeated exercise challenges (i.e. exercise 'training'). A hallmark phenotypic change is an increase in the ability to sustain contraction and resist fatigue. Such increased muscle endurance is linked, in part, to an improved ability to sustain ATP synthesis aerobically through coordinated enhancements in the delivery of oxygen (e.g. cardiorespiratory, vascular adaptations) and its utilization within skeletal muscle mitochondria for the oxidation of fat and carbohydrates...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078090/the-effect-of-ongoing-feedback-on-physical-activity-levels-following-an-exercise-intervention-in-older-adults-a-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#16
Katie-Jane Brickwood, Stuart T Smith, Greig Watson, Andrew D Williams
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity ranks as a major contributing factor in the development and progression of chronic disease. Lifestyle interventions reduce the progression of chronic disease, however, compliance decreases over time and health effects only persist as long as the new lifestyle is maintained. Telephone counselling (TC) is an effective way to provide individuals with ongoing support to maintain lifestyle changes. Remote physical activity monitoring and feedback (RAMF) via interactive technologies such as activity trackers and smartphones may be a cost-effective alternative to TC, however, this comparison has not been made...
2017: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077863/what-have-human-experimental-overfeeding-studies-taught-us-about-adipose-tissue-expansion-and-susceptibility-to-obesity-and-metabolic-complications
#17
REVIEW
D J Cuthbertson, T Steele, J P Wilding, J C G Halford, J A Harrold, M Hamer, F Karpe
Overfeeding experiments, in which we impose short-term positive energy balance, help unravel the cellular, physiological and behavioural adaptations to nutrient excess. These studies mimic longer-term mismatched energy expenditure and intake. There is considerable inter-individual heterogeneity in the magnitude of weight gain when exposed to similar relative caloric excess reflecting variable activation of compensatory adaptive mechanisms. Significantly, given similar relative weight gain, individuals may be protected from/predisposed to metabolic complications (insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, hypertension), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077856/relationship-between-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-blood-pressure-in-young-adults-a-mediation-analysis-of-body-composition
#18
Ana Díez-Fernández, Mairena Sánchez-López, José Antonio Nieto, Alberto González-García, José Miota-Ibarra, Ignacio Ortiz-Galeano, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno
High blood pressure levels are among the most important cardiovascular disease risk factors and are influenced by physical fitness and body composition. However, the degree to which obesity may attenuate or modify the beneficial effects of physical fitness on blood pressure levels in young adults is uncertain. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze whether body composition is a mediator between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and blood pressure levels in young adults. This work was a cross-sectional study involving first-year college students (n=386) at the University Campus of Cuenca (Spain)...
January 12, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074345/the-beneficial-effects-of-physical-activity-is-it-down-to-your-genes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-twin-and-family-studies
#19
REVIEW
J R Zadro, D Shirley, T B Andrade, K J Scurrah, A Bauman, P H Ferreira
BACKGROUND: There is evidence for considerable heterogeneity in the responsiveness to regular physical activity (PA) which might reflect the influence of genetic factors. The aim of this systematic review was to assess whether the response to a PA intervention for measures of body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness is (i) correlated within twin pairs and/or families and (ii) more correlated in monozygotic twins (MZ) compared to dizygotic twins (DZ), which would be consistent with genetic effects...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073789/dynamics-of-convulsive-seizure-termination-and-postictal-generalized-eeg-suppression
#20
Prisca R Bauer, Roland D Thijs, Robert J Lamberts, Demetrios N Velis, Gerhard H Visser, Else A Tolner, Josemir W Sander, Fernando H Lopes da Silva, Stiliyan N Kalitzin
It is not fully understood how seizures terminate and why some seizures are followed by a period of complete brain activity suppression, postictal generalized EEG suppression. This is clinically relevant as there is a potential association between postictal generalized EEG suppression, cardiorespiratory arrest and sudden death following a seizure. We combined human encephalographic seizure data with data of a computational model of seizures to elucidate the neuronal network dynamics underlying seizure termination and the postictal generalized EEG suppression state...
January 10, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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