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Paediatric oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544908/childhood-tumours-with-a-high-probability-of-being-part-of-a-tumour-predisposition-syndrome-reason-for-referral-for-genetic-consultation
#1
REVIEW
Floor A M Postema, Saskia M J Hopman, Cora M Aalfs, Lieke P V Berger, Fonnet E Bleeker, Charlotte J Dommering, Marjolijn C J Jongmans, Tom G W Letteboer, Maran J W Olderode-Berends, Anja Wagner, Raoul C Hennekam, Johannes H M Merks
INTRODUCTION: Recognising a tumour predisposition syndrome (TPS) in childhood cancer patients is of major clinical relevance. The presence of a TPS may be suggested by the type of tumour in the child. We present an overview of 23 childhood tumours that in themselves should be a reason to refer a child for genetic consultation. METHODS: We performed a PubMed search to review the incidence of TPSs in children for 85 tumour types listed in the International Classification of Childhood Cancer third edition (ICCC-3)...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542715/hyperleucocytosis-in-paediatric-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-the-challenge-of-white-blood-cell-counts-above-200%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-10-9-l-the-nopho-experience-1984-2014
#2
Bernward Zeller, Heidi Glosli, Erik Forestier, Shau-Yin Ha, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Ólafur G Jónsson, Birgitte Lausen, Josefine Palle, Henrik Hasle, Jonas Abrahamsson
Hyperleucocytosis in paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We studied hyperleucocytosis in 890 patients with AML aged 0-18 years registered in the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) registry, with special focus on very high white blood cell counts (WBC >200 × 10/l). Eighty-six patients (10%) had WBC 100-199 × 10(9) /l and 57 (6%) had WBC ≥200 × 10(9) /l. Patients with WBC ≥200 × 10(9) /l had a high frequency of t(9;11) and a paucity of trisomy 8...
May 25, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538707/self-esteem-and-academic-difficulties-in-preadolescents-and-adolescents-healed-from-paediatric-leukaemia
#3
Marta Tremolada, Livia Taverna, Sabrina Bonichini, Giuseppe Basso, Marta Pillon
Adolescents with cancer may demonstrate problems in their self-esteem and schooling. This study aims to screen the preadolescents and adolescents more at risk in their self-esteem perception and schooling difficulties post-five years from the end of therapy. Twenty-five paediatric ex-patients healed from leukaemia were recruited at the Haematology-Oncologic Clinic (University of Padua). The mean age of the children was 13.64 years (Standard Deviation (SD)) = 3.08, range = 10-19 years), most were treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (84%) and relatively equally distributed by gender...
May 24, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533244/a-population-pharmacokinetic-model-of-gentamicin-in-paediatric-oncology-patients-to-facilitate-personalised-dosing
#4
C C Llanos-Paez, C E Staatz, R Lawson, S Hennig
To ensure safe and effective dosing of gentamicin in children therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is recommended. TDM utilising Bayesian forecasting software is recommended, but is unavailable as no population model exists that describes the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in paediatric oncology patients. This study aimed to develop and externally evaluate a population pharmacokinetic model of gentamicin to support personalised dosing in paediatric oncology patients. A non-linear mixed effect population pharmacokinetic model was developed from retrospective data...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527634/low-penetration-of-caspofungin-into-cerebrospinal-fluid-following-intravenous-administration-of-standard-doses
#5
Volker Strenger, Fedja Farowski, Carsten Müller, Nora Hofer, Hans Jürgen Dornbusch, Daniela Sperl, Herwig Lackner, Martin Benesch, Christian Urban
The kinetics of caspofungin (CAS) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following intravenous (i.v.) administration has been studied exclusively in animal models. However, human data are missing so far. In this study, 13 CSF samples were obtained at different time points following i.v. infusion of CAS in ten paediatric haemato-/oncological patients (age range 1.0-14.2 years, median 8.6 years) without signs of central nervous system (CNS) infection (n = 10 samples) or with infectious meningitis (n = 3 samples). Serum samples were obtained concurrently...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508875/early-phase-clinical-trials-of-anticancer-agents-in-children-and-adolescents-an-itcc-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Lucas Moreno, Andrew D J Pearson, Xavier Paoletti, Irene Jimenez, Birgit Geoerger, Pamela R Kearns, C Michel Zwaan, Francois Doz, Andre Baruchel, Josef Vormoor, Michela Casanova, Stefan M Pfister, Bruce Morland, Gilles Vassal
In the past decade, the landscape of drug development in oncology has evolved dramatically; however, this paradigm shift remains to be adopted in early phase clinical trial designs for studies of molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapeutic agents in paediatric malignancies. In drug development, prioritization of drugs on the basis of knowledge of tumour biology, molecular 'drivers' of disease and a drug's mechanism of action, and therapeutic unmet needs are key elements; these aspects are relevant to early phase paediatric trials, in which molecular profiling is strongly encouraged...
May 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504503/-cervicofacial-actinomycosis-as-differential-diagnosis-of-cavum-carcinoma-case-report
#7
Eliana T Anteliz García, Carolina M Carballo, Samanta Estévez, Sofía Diana, Arturo de Mena, Gabriela Manonelles, Claudia I Cazes, Eduardo L López
Paediatric actinomycosis is an infrequent infectious disease caused by Actinomyces spp. Cervicofacial infections are usually related to disruption in oral mucosal membranes. We discuss the case of a 15-year-old girl who refers an 8-month history of odynophagia and changes in her tone of voice after getting a tongue piercing. She received multiple antibiotic treatments with slight improvement. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma was diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy. The patient was referred to our Hospital for treatment but, when the biopsy was analyzed again, oncological pathology was excluded and oropharyngeal actinomycosis was diagnosed...
June 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500740/children-with-low-risk-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-are-at-highest-risk-of-second-cancers
#8
Stine N Nielsen, Frank Eriksson, Susanne Rosthoej, Mette K Andersen, Erik Forestier, Henrik Hasle, Lisa L Hjalgrim, Ann Aasberg, Jonas Abrahamsson, Mats Heyman, Ólafur G Jónsson, Kaie Pruunsild, Goda E Vaitkeviciené, Kim Vettenranta, Kjeld Schmiegelow
BACKGROUND: The improved survival rates for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may be jeopardized by the development of a second cancer, which has been associated with thiopurine therapy. PROCEDURE: We retrospectively analyzed three sequential Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology's protocols characterized by increasing intensity of thiopurine-based maintenance therapy. We explored the risk of second cancer in relation to protocols, risk group, thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity, ALL high hyperdiploidy (HeH), and t(12;21)[ETV6/RUNX1]...
May 13, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492812/palliative-care-in-paediatric-oncology-in-nursing-education
#9
Tuani Magalhães Guimarães, Liliane Faria da Silva, Fátima Helena Espírito Santo, Juliana Rezende Montenegro Medeiros de Moraes, Sandra Teixeira de Araújo Pacheco
Objective: To identify and understand the view of students regarding palliative care in paediatric oncology during a graduate programme. Methods: Exploratory research with a qualitative approach conducted in a school of nursing in Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected from September to November 2014, through semi-structured interviews with 20 students enrolled in the last period of a graduate programme. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results: The results produced two thematic units: the (un)preparedness of nursing students regarding palliative care in paediatric oncology and how the subject of palliative care in paediatric oncology is approached in the graduate programme...
May 4, 2017: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489152/evaluation-of-computer-generated-guidelines-for-companions-of-paediatric-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy
#10
Vagner José Lopes, Marcos Augusto Hochuli Shmeil
Objective: To compare computer-generated guidelines with and without the use of a Clinical Decision Support System - Oncology Care and Healthcare for Chemotherapy Patients, for the caregivers of children undergoing chemotherapy. Methods: This is a descriptive, evaluative, and quantitative study conducted at a paediatrics hospital in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, from December 2015 to January 2016. The sample consisted of 58 participants divided into two groups: Group 1, without the aid of software, and Group 2, with the aid of the software...
April 27, 2017: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474336/comparative-genomic-expression-signatures-of-signal-transduction-pathways-and-targets-in-paediatric-burkitt-lymphoma-a-children-s-oncology-group-report
#11
Sanghoon Lee, Nancy S Day, Rodney R Miles, Sherrie L Perkins, Megan S Lim, Janet Ayello, Carmella van de Ven, Lauren Harrison, Nader K El-Mallawany, Stanton Goldman, Mitchell S Cairo
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the most common histological subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in children and adolescents. Through the introduction of short intensive multi-agent chemoimmunotherapy, survival has improved significantly over the past 30 years. However, this successful approach is limited by significant chemotherapy-induced acute toxicity and risk of developing resistant disease, demonstrating the need to identify less toxic and targeted therapies. We analysed the comparative genomic signature and targetable signalling pathways in paediatric BL (PEBL) samples from the Children's Oncology Group study (ANHL01P1) by genomic profiling and selected genes were confirmed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction...
May 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463966/no-evidence-of-response-bias-in-a-population-based-childhood-cancer-survivor-questionnaire-survey-results-from-the-swiss-childhood-cancer-survivor-study
#12
Corina S Rueegg, Micòl E Gianinazzi, Gisela Michel, Marcel Zwahlen, Nicolas X von der Weid, Claudia E Kuehni
PURPOSE: This is the first study to quantify potential nonresponse bias in a childhood cancer survivor questionnaire survey. We describe early and late responders and nonresponders, and estimate nonresponse bias in a nationwide questionnaire survey of survivors. METHODS: In the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we compared characteristics of early responders (who answered an initial questionnaire), late responders (who answered after ≥1 reminder) and nonresponders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444889/invasive-fungal-infections-in-paediatric-patients-treated-with-macromolecular-immunomodulators-other-than-tumour-necrosis-alpha-inhibitors
#13
REVIEW
Ioannis Kyriakidis, Athanasios Tragiannidis, Ilse Zündorf, Andreas H Groll
An expanding list of immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and biologic therapeutics is currently entering clinical practice, particularly in the areas of oncology, transplantation and autoimmune disorders. These agents are directed against molecules or cells involved in inflammation and immunity and may therefore be associated with serious and opportunistic infections. The purpose of this review was to critically analyse the literature on invasive fungal infections (IFIs) occurring in association with mAbs and fusion proteins other than tumour necrosis alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors, including therapeutics modulating T-cell-mediated pathologies (muromonab, abatacept, belatacept, ipilimumab, basiliximab, daclizumab), inducing lymphopenia (alemtuzumab), depleting CD20+ B cells (rituximab) and interfering with various targets (anakinra, natalizumab, blodalumab, ixekizumab and others) with a focus on children, and to provide a framework of evaluating the risk for IFIs in this population...
April 26, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444219/dna-methylation-of-a-novel-pak4-locus-influences-ototoxicity-susceptibility-following-cisplatin-and-radiation-therapy-for-pediatric-embryonal-tumors
#14
Austin L Brown, Kayla L Foster, Philip J Lupo, Erin C Peckham-Gregory, Jeffrey C Murray, M Fatih Okcu, Ching C Lau, Surya P Rednam, Murali Chintagumpala, Michael E Scheurer
Background: Ototoxicity is a common adverse side effect of platinum chemotherapy and cranial radiation therapy; however, individual susceptibility is highly variable. Therefore, the objective of this study was to conduct an epigenome-wide association study to identify differentially methylated CpG sites associated with ototoxicity susceptibility among cisplatin-treated pediatric patients with embryonal tumors. Methods: Samples were collected for a discovery (n=62) and a replication cohort (n=18) of medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor patients...
April 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439893/outcome-after-intensive-reinduction-therapy-and-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-in-paediatric-relapsed-acute-myeloid-leukaemia
#15
Lene Karlsson, Erik Forestier, Henrik Hasle, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Ólafur G Jónsson, Birgitte Lausen, Ulrika Norén Nyström, Josefine Palle, Anne Tierens, Bernward Zeller, Jonas Abrahamsson
Given that 30-40% of children with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) relapse after primary therapy it is important to define prognostic factors and identify optimal therapy. From 1993 to 2012, 543 children from the Nordic countries were treated according to two consecutive protocols: 208 children relapsed. The influence of disease characteristics, first line treatment, relapse therapy and duration of first remission on outcome was analysed. Second complete remission (CR2) was achieved in 146 (70%) patients. Estimated 5-year overall survival (OS5y ) was 39 ± 4% for the whole group and 43 ± 4% for the 190 patients given re-induction therapy, of whom 76% received regimens that included fludarabine, cytarabine (FLA) ± anthracyclines, 18% received Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) upfront blocks and 5% received other regimens...
April 25, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432088/gps-and-paediatric-oncology-palliative-care-a-q-methodological-study
#16
Sue Neilson, Faith Gibson, Stephen Jeffares, Sheila M Greenfield
OBJECTIVE: This mixed-methods study set in the West Midlands region of the UK demonstrates the effectiveness of Q methodology in examining general practitioners' (GPs') perception of their role in children's oncology palliative care. METHODS: Using data obtained from the analysis of semistructured interviews with GPs who had cared for a child receiving palliative care at home and bereaved parents, 50 statements were identified as representative of the analysis findings...
April 21, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429876/iodine-131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine-therapy-for-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-high-risk-neuroblastoma
#17
REVIEW
Kathelijne Cjm Kraal, Elvira C van Dalen, Godelieve Am Tytgat, Berthe Lf Van Eck-Smit
BACKGROUND: Patients with newly diagnosed high-risk (HR) neuroblastoma (NBL) still have a poor outcome, despite multi-modality intensive therapy. This poor outcome necessitates the search for new therapies, such as treatment with (131)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((131)I-MIBG). OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and adverse effects of (131)I-MIBG therapy in patients with newly diagnosed HR NBL. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (PubMed) (1945 to 25 April 2016) and Embase (Ovid) (1980 to 25 April 2016)...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423235/hepatic-sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome-during-maintenance-therapy-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-is-associated-with-continuous-asparaginase-therapy-and-mercaptopurine-metabolites
#18
Linea Natalie Toksvang, Silvia De Pietri, Stine N Nielsen, Jacob Nersting, Birgitte K Albertsen, Peder S Wehner, Steen Rosthøj, Päivi M Lähteenmäki, Daniel Nilsson, Tove A Nystad, Kathrine Grell, Thomas L Frandsen, Kjeld Schmiegelow
BACKGROUND: Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) during treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has mainly been associated with 6-thioguanine. The occurrence of several SOS cases after the introduction of extended pegylated asparaginase (PEG-asparaginase) therapy in the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL2008 protocol led us to hypothesize that PEG-asparaginase, combined with other drugs, may trigger SOS during 6-thioguanine-free maintenance therapy...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391003/surgery-alone-is-sufficient-therapy-for-children-and-adolescents-with-low-risk-synovial-sarcoma-a-joint-analysis-from-the-european-paediatric-soft-tissue-sarcoma-study-group-and-the-children-s-oncology-group
#19
Andrea Ferrari, Yueh-Yun Chi, Gian Luca De Salvo, Daniel Orbach, Bernadette Brennan, R Lor Randall, M Beth McCarville, Jennifer O Black, Rita Alaggio, Douglas S Hawkins, Gianni Bisogno, Sheri L Spunt
BACKGROUND: Multimodal risk-adapted treatment is used in paediatric protocols for synovial sarcoma (SS). Retrospective analyses suggest that low-risk SS patients can be safely treated with surgery alone, but no prospective studies have confirmed the safety of this approach. This analysis pooled data from the two prospective clinical trials to assess outcomes in SS patients treated with a surgery-only approach and to identify predictors of treatment failure. METHODS: Patients with localised SS enrolled on the European paediatric Soft tissue sarcoma Study Group (EpSSG) NRSTS2005 and on the Children Oncology Group (COG) ARST0332 trials, treated with surgery alone were eligible for this analysis...
April 6, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383768/treatment-outcomes-of-children-with-hodgkin-lymphoma-between-2000-and-2010-first-report-by-the-south-african-children-s-cancer-study-group
#20
Jennifer A Geel, Tobias C Chirwa, Biance Rowe, Katherine C Eyal, Fareed Omar, David K Stones, Yasmin Goga, D Cristina Stefan, Anel van Zyl, Barry Van Emmenes, Oloko Wedi, Manickavallie Vaithilingum, Marc G Hendricks
BACKGROUND: Children with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have excellent survival rates in high-income countries, but there are minimal outcome data in South African patients. Differing approaches to treatment are used in centres across South Africa, and the South African Children's Cancer Study Group (SACCSG) embarked on a programme to audit outcomes to improve survival rates. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicentre study was conducted to analyse outcomes and prognostic factors of children with HL in South Africa...
April 6, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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