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Paediatric oncology

Lorna Awo Renner, Deborah McGill
BACKGROUND: Developing countries such as Ghana have very poor childhood cancer survival rates. There is a need to determine reasons for late presentation and treatment abandonment which are major causes of poor survival. Understanding these issues could inform effective strategies for childhood cancer control in resource-constrained settings. AIM: To explore factors influencing parental decision-making for children with cancer in Ghana with regard to health seeking and retention in treatment, in order to provide information that will guide Public Health interventions for childhood cancer control...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Mervi Taskinen, Trausti Oskarsson, Mette Levinsen, Matteo Bottai, Marit Hellebostad, Olafur Gisli Jonsson, Päivi Lähteenmäki, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Mats Heyman
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system irradiation (CNS-RT) has played a central role in the cure of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but due to the risk of long-term toxicity, it is now considered a less-favorable method of CNS-directed therapy. PROCEDURES: Retrospectively, we estimated the effect of CNS involvement and CNS-RT on events and overall survival (OS) in 835 children treated for high-risk ALL in the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL-92 and ALL-2000 trials...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
K A Lee, C O'Sullivan, P Daly, J Pears, C Owens, B Timmermann, C Ares, S E Combs, D Indelicato, M Capra
BACKGROUND: Proton therapy (PT) is a radiotherapy treatment modality that uses protons, rather than conventional photons. PT is often used in paediatric oncology due to its reported capability to reduce acute and late adverse treatment effects. As PT is unavailable in Ireland, patients are referred abroad for treatment. AIMS: To: (1) produce a descriptive study of Irish children referred abroad for PT, and (2) discuss the case for PT in general. METHODS: A retrospective review of all children referred for PT before October 2015 was performed...
October 15, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
The Lancet Oncology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Lancet Oncology
Marianne Jarfelt
Swedish National Guidelines for long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors The prognosis of childhood cancer has improved during the last 30-40 years. Today, the five year survival is in excess of 80%. Therefore the number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing. Today, there are approximately 9,000 childhood cancer survivors in Sweden. Unfortunately, the number of late complications after childhood cancer increases with follow-up time. Thirty years after cancer treatment 60-80% of the survivors will have at least one late complication...
October 6, 2016: Läkartidningen
Nermine O Basta, Gail C Halliday, Guy Makin, Jillian Birch, Richard Feltbower, Nick Bown, Martin Elliott, Lucas Moreno, Giuseppe Barone, Andrew Dj Pearson, Peter W James, Deborah A Tweddle, Richard Jq McNally
BACKGROUND: Despite therapeutic advances, survival following relapse for neuroblastoma patients remains poor. We investigated clinical and biological factors associated with length of progression-free and overall survival following relapse in UK neuroblastoma patients. METHODS: All cases of relapsed neuroblastoma, diagnosed during 1990-2010, were identified from four Paediatric Oncology principal treatment centres. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to calculate post-relapse overall survival (PROS), post-relapse progression-free survival (PRPFS) between relapse and further progression, and to investigate influencing factors...
October 4, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Domnita O Badarau, Eva De Clercq, Tenzin Wangmo, Monica Dragomir, Ingrid Miron, Thomas Kühne, Bernice S Elger
Communication about diagnosis and medical treatment for children suffering from life-threatening illnesses is complex. It is a primary step in involving underage patients and families in care and lays the foundation for obtaining parental permission and patient assent for treatment. In practice child participation in care is often difficult to obtain due to patients' different and sometimes fluctuating preferences, but also parents' protective strategies. Physicians may be susceptible to parental wishes to limit information and feel uncomfortable discussing issues related to uncertainty of cure with patients...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
Edyta Ulińska, Katarzyna Mycko, Elżbieta Sałacińska-Łoś, Agata Pastorczak, Alicja Siwicka, Wojciech Młynarski, Michał Matysiak
AIM OF THE STUDY: To characterise expression of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) in childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), and to evaluate a possible link between mTOR and clinical characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The examined group consisted of 21 consecutive patients, aged 1-18 years, diagnosed with B-cell ALL in 2010, and 10 relapsed B-cell ALL patients diagnosed for the first time between 2009 and 2011, who developed relapse before 2014...
2016: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
Subramanyam Padma, Palaniswamy Shanmuga Sundaram, Anshu Tewari
(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a well-established imaging modality in adult oncological practice. Its role in childhood malignancies needs to be discussed as paediatric malignancies differ from adults in tumor subtypes and they have different tumor biology and FDG uptake patterns. This is also compounded by smaller body mass, dosimetric restrictions, and physiological factors that can affect the FDG uptake. It calls for careful planning of the PET study, preparing the child, the parents, and expertise of nuclear physicians in reporting pediatric positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) studies...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Jorrit W van As, Henk van den Berg, Elvira C van Dalen
BACKGROUND: Platinum-based therapy, including cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin or a combination of these, is used to treat a variety of paediatric malignancies. One of the most important adverse effects is the occurrence of hearing loss or ototoxicity. In an effort to prevent this ototoxicity, different otoprotective medical interventions have been studied. This review is the second update of a previously published Cochrane review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of medical interventions to prevent hearing loss and to determine possible effects of these interventions on anti-tumour efficacy, toxicities other than hearing loss and quality of life in children with cancer treated with platinum-based therapy...
September 27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Fernando Carceller, Francisco J Bautista, Irene Jiménez, Raquel Hladun-Álvaro, Cécile Giraud, Luca Bergamaschi, Madhumita Dandapani, Isabelle Aerts, François Doz, Didier Frappaz, Michela Casanova, Bruce Morland, Darren R Hargrave, Lynley V Marshall, Gilles Vassal, Andrew D J Pearson, Birgit Geoerger, Lucas Moreno
OBJECTIVES: Dose-finding trials are fundamental to develop novel drugs for children and adolescents with advanced cancer. It is crucial to maximise individual benefit, whilst ensuring adequate assessment of key study end-points. We assessed prognostic factors of survival in paediatric phase I trials, including two predictive scores validated in adult oncology: the Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) and the MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) scores. METHODS: Data of patients with solid tumours aged <18 years at enrolment in their first dose-finding trial between 2000 and 2014 at eight centres of the Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer European consortium were collected...
November 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Angela Coppola, Vincenzo Tramontano, Federica Basaldella, Chiara Arcaro, Giovanna Squintani, Francesco Sala
INTRODUCTION: Over the past decade, the reluctance to operate in eloquent brain areas has been reconsidered in the light of the advent of new peri-operative functional neuroimaging techniques and new evidence from neuro-oncology. To maximise tumour resection while minimising morbidity should be the goal of brain surgery in children as much as it is in adults, and preservation of brain functions is critical in the light of the increased survival and the expectations in terms of quality of life...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Swantje Völler, Georg Hempel, Gudrun Würthwein, Alan V Boddy, Miriam Krischke, Nicolas André, Maurizio D'Incalci, Gianni Bisogno, Joachim Boos
Following the publication of our paper regarding a population-based model of doxorubicin pharmacokinetics in children in Clinical Pharmacokinetics last year (Voller et al. 54:1139-1149, 2015), we have received many inquiries on the practical clinical consequences of this model; however, a population-based model is only one of the aspects to be taken into account when developing dosing algorithms. In addition, any new method of dose calculation would need clinical validation and, subsequently, a new clinical trial...
September 19, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Matthias Schindler, Fabiën N Belle, Michael A Grotzer, Nicolas X von der Weid, Claudia E Kuehni
Population-based studies on childhood cancer survival are key to monitor progress against cancer and to detect potential differences between regions and other subgroups in the population. We investigated time trends and factors associated with childhood cancer survival on a national level in Switzerland, from 1976 to 2013. We extracted data from the population-based Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry of 5,776 children (age 0-14 years) diagnosed with cancer from 1985 to 2014 in Switzerland. We calculated age-adjusted 5-year survival, defined the annual reduction in risk of death (ARR), and explored associations of survival with clinical and demographic factors...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
C Rodriguez, J Fernandez, J Van Broeck, B Taminiau, V Avesani, J A Boga, F Vazquez, M Delmée, G Daube
Clostridium difficile is recognised worldwide as the main cause of infectious bacterial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in hospitals and other healthcare settings. The aim of this study was to first survey C. difficile prevalence during the summer of 2014 at the Central University Hospital of Asturias (Spain). By typing the isolates obtained, it was then possible to compare the ribotype distribution at the Spanish hospital with results from the St Luc University Hospital in Belgium over the same period. The prevalence of positive cases reported in Spain and Belgium was 12...
September 9, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Emma Fosbury, Elwira Szychot, Olga Slater, Mary Mathias, Keith Sibson
Wilms tumour (WT) is the commonest primary malignant renal tumour of childhood. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (avWS) is a well-described paraneoplastic phenomenon, but it is uncommon and may not be detected until clinically significant bleeding is encountered during interventional procedures. Previous studies on small cohorts of patients have determined an incidence of between 4 and 8%. We have performed a retrospective study on cases of WT presenting over an 11.5-year period to a paediatric haematology/oncology unit in a tertiary referral centre to review the incidence of avWS, bleeding phenotype, management, and response to treatment of the primary pathology...
September 12, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Jessica E Morgan, Hadeel Hassan, Julia V Cockle, Christopher Lethaby, Beki James, Robert S Phillips
PURPOSE: The incidence of invasive fungal disease (IFD) is rising, but its treatment in paediatric haematology and oncology patients is not yet standardised. This review aimed to critically appraise and analyse the clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) that are available for paediatric IFD. METHODS: Electronic searches of MEDLINE, MEDLINE in-Process & Other non-Indexed Citations, the Guidelines International Network (GIN), and Google were performed and combined fungal disease (Fung* OR antifung*OR Candida* OR Aspergill*) with prophylaxis or treatment (prophyl* OR therap* OR treatment)...
September 11, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Adriana Rosé, Nicolas André, Viviana R Rozados, Leandro E Mainetti, Mauricio Menacho Márquez, María José Rico, Paula Schaiquevich, Milena Villarroel, Lauro Gregianin, Jaume Mora Graupera, Wendy Gómez García, Sidnei Epelman, Carlos Alasino, Daniel Alonso, Guillermo Chantada, O Graciela Scharovsky
Following previous metronomic meetings in Marseille (2011), Milano (2014), and Mumbai (2016), the first Latin American metronomic meeting was held in the School of Medical Sciences, National University of Rosario, Rosario, Argentina on 27 and 28 of May, 2016. For the first time, clinicians and researchers with experience in the field of metronomics, coming from different countries in Latin America, had the opportunity of presenting and discussing their work. The talks were organised in three main sessions related to experience in the pre-clinical, and clinical (paediatric and adult) areas...
2016: Ecancermedicalscience
Denise Niewerth, Gertjan J L Kaspers, Gerrit Jansen, Johan van Meerloo, Sonja Zweegman, Gaye Jenkins, James A Whitlock, Stephen P Hunger, Xiaomin Lu, Todd A Alonzo, Peter M van de Ven, Terzah M Horton, Jacqueline Cloos
BACKGROUND: Drug combinations of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib with cytotoxic chemotherapy are currently evaluated in phase 2 and 3 trials for the treatment of paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL). METHODS: We investigated whether expression ratios of immunoproteasome to constitutive proteasome in leukaemic cells correlated with response to bortezomib-containing re-induction chemotherapy in patients with relapsed and refractory acute leukaemia, enrolled in two Children's Oncology Group phase 2 trials of bortezomib for ALL (COG-AALL07P1) and AML (COG-AAML07P1)...
2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
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