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Ahye Kwon, Jungeun Song, Ki-Hwan Yook, Duk-In Jon, Myung Hun Jung, Narei Hong, Hyun Ju Hong
We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Mei Chung, Alice M Tang, Zhuxuan Fu, Ding Ding Wang, Sydne Jennifer Newberry
Background: Conflicting evidence exists regarding potential cardiovascular risks associated with high levels of calcium intake. Purpose: To update and reanalyze 2 systematic reviews to examine the effects of calcium intake on cardiovascular disease (CVD) among generally healthy adults. Data Sources: MEDLINE; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Scopus, including EMBASE; and previous evidence reports from English-language publications from 1966 to July 2016...
October 25, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Jinbin Yuan, Yang Chen, Jian Liang, Chong-Zhi Wang, Xiaofei Liu, Zhihong Yan, Yi Tang, Jiankang Li, Chun-Su Yuan
Ginseng is one of the most widely used natural medicines in the world. Recent studies have suggested Panax ginseng has a wide range of beneficial effects on aging, central nervous system disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, knowledge about the specific bioactive components of ginseng is still limited. This work aimed to screen for the bioactive components in Panax ginseng that act against neurodegenerative diseases, using the target cell-based bioactivity screening method. Firstly, component analysis of Panax ginseng extracts was performed by UPLC-QTOF-MS, and a total of 54 compounds in white ginseng were characterized and identified according to the retention behaviors, accurate MW, MS characteristics, parent nucleus, aglycones, side chains, and literature data...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Umamahesh Balijapalli, Sathiskumar Udayadasan, Vivek Panyam Muralidharan, Dileep Kumar Sukumarapillai, Easwaramoorthi Shanmugam, Aravindan Paduthapillai Gopal, Ravindranath S Rathore, Sathiyanarayanan Kulathu Iyer
Three distinct, hydrogen bond associated N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl) acetamides were synthesized by refluxing benzothiazoles with acetic acid. The nature of the assemblies was characteristic to the substituent in the benzothiazole moiety. In N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)acetamide, water acts as a bridge for forming three hydrogen bonds, as an acceptor to amide NH, and donors to carbonyl of amide and thiazole nitrogen assembles of three different N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)acetamide molecules. The N-(6-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)acetamide formed a (amide) N-H…N (thiazole) bonded R(2)2(8) molecular dimers by two homo-intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions...
October 14, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Tetsuya Nishimoto, Kosuke Mukaigawa, Shigeru Tominaga, Nils Lubbe, Toru Kiuchi, Tomokazu Motomura, Hisashi Matsumoto
The present study was undertaken to construct an algorithm for an advanced automatic collision notification system based on national traffic accident data compiled by Japanese police. While US research into the development of a serious-injury prediction algorithm is based on a logistic regression algorithm using the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System, the present injury prediction algorithm was based on comprehensive police data covering all accidents that occurred across Japan...
October 21, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Manjie Li, Zhaowei Liu, Yongcan Chen, Yang Hai
Interaction between old, corroded iron pipe surfaces and bulk water is crucial to the water quality protection in drinking water distribution systems (WDS). Iron released from corrosion products will deteriorate water quality and lead to red water. This study attempted to understand the effects of pipe materials on corrosion scale characteristics and water quality variations in WDS. A more than 20-year-old hybrid pipe section assembled of unlined cast iron pipe (UCIP) and galvanized iron pipe (GIP) was selected to investigate physico-chemical characteristics of corrosion scales and their effects on water quality variations...
October 18, 2016: Water Research
Zhuofeng Yu, Pinjing He, Liming Shao, Hua Zhang, Fan Lü
Since municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill harbours miscellaneous wastes, pollutants and microorganisms, it gradually becomes a huge potential reservoir for breeding antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of ARGs associated with various mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in MSW landfill leachates. The relationship of ARGs with leachate characteristics was also studied to explore the influence of landfill age. Seven sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine and sulfaquinoxaline), three encoded ARGs (sul-I, sul-II and sul-III) and four types of MGEs (plasmids, transposons, integrons and insertion sequences) were quantified in leachates with landfill ages ranging from 3 months-6 years...
October 18, 2016: Water Research
Ji-Yuan Liang, Jun-Yun Wu, Ming-Yeh Yang, Anren Hu, Liang-Yü Chen
Polyphenols are associated with a wide range of physiological properties. Catechin is a flavan-3-ol with five phenolic hydroxyl groups. After blue light illumination, the transparent solution of catechin became yellowish. The effects of visible light illumination (400-800nm) were investigated on molecular structures and antioxidant capacities of catechin. Under the neutral or alkaline aqueous with the illumination of blue light, the photolysis and polymerization of catechin were observed in this study. A chromogenic catechin dimer was separated and identified as a proanthocyanidin by the chromatographic technique and mass spectrometry...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Hirotsugu Hashimoto, Masahiro Yanagiya, Masashi Kusakabe, Atsushi Kurata, Sayaka Ohara, Yoshio Suzuki, Jun Matsumoto, Hajime Horiuchi
Vascular changes observed in intralobar pulmonary sequestration (PS) have been reported to be similar to those observed in pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, atherosclerosis in the pulmonary artery, which is one of the characteristic arterial changes of PH, has scarcely been reported in PS. Here, we report this unique manifestation in a 66-year-old man, in whom an intralobar PS fed by an aberrant artery branching from the left gastric artery had been identified 10 years earlier, and who was diagnosed with pneumonia after having symptoms of fever and cough...
October 5, 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Ping Ma, Darla E Kendzor, Insiya B Poonawalla, David S Balis, Michael S Businelle
INTRODUCTION: Individuals who use the nicotine patch are more likely to quit smoking than those who receive placebo or no medication. However, studies have not yet examined the association between actual daily nicotine patch wear time during the early phase of a smoking cessation attempt and later smoking abstinence. The purpose of this study was to address this gap in the literature. METHODS: Participants who enrolled in a safety-net hospital smoking cessation program were followed for 13 weeks (i...
October 18, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jun Itakura, Masayuki Kurosaki, Chitomi Hasebe, Yukio Osaki, Kouji Joko, Hitoshi Yagisawa, Shinya Sakita, Hiroaki Okushin, Takashi Satou, Hiroyuki Hisai, Takehiko Abe, Keiji Tsuji, Takashi Tamada, Haruhiko Kobashi, Akeri Mitsuda, Yasushi Ide, Chikara Ogawa, Syotaro Tsuruta, Kouichi Takaguchi, Miyako Murakawa, Yasuhiro Asahina, Nobuyuki Enomoto, Namiki Izumi
BACKGROUNDS & AIMS: We aimed to clarify the characteristics of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) after treatment failure with NS5A inhibitor, daclatasvir (DCV) in combination with NS3/4A inhibitor, asunaprevir (ASV), in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1b infection. METHODS: This is a nationwide multicenter study conducted by the Japanese Red Cross Liver Study Group. The sera were obtained from 68 patients with virological failure after 24 weeks of DCV/ASV treatment...
2016: PloS One
Keitaro Nakamoto, Masato Watanabe, Mitsuru Sada, Toshiya Inui, Masuo Nakamura, Kojiro Honda, Hiroo Wada, Yu Mikami, Hirotaka Matsuzaki, Masafumi Horie, Satoshi Noguchi, Yasuhiro Yamauchi, Hikari Koyama, Toshiyuki Kogane, Tadashi Kohyama, Hajime Takizawa
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bronchial asthma (BA) is a chronic airway disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, which are intimately linked to chronic airway inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide are generated by inflammatory cells that are involved in the pathogenesis of BA. However, the role of ROS in the management of BA patients is not yet clear. We attempted to determine the role of ROS as a biomarker in the clinical setting of BA...
2016: PloS One
Brittany N Flores, Mark E Dulchavsky, Amy Krans, Michael R Sawaya, Henry L Paulson, Peter K Todd, Sami J Barmada, Magdalena I Ivanova
Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9orf72 are the most common inherited cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The expansions elicit toxicity in part through repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation of the intronic (GGGGCC)n sequence into dipeptide repeat-containing proteins (DPRs). Little is known, however, about the structural characteristics and aggregation propensities of the dipeptide units comprising DPRs. To address this question, we synthesized dipeptide units corresponding to the three sense-strand RAN translation products, analyzed their structures by circular dichroism, electron microscopy and dye binding assays, and assessed their relative toxicity when applied to primary cortical neurons...
2016: PloS One
Sunil K George, Mehran Abolbashari, John D Jackson, Tamer Aboushwareb, Anthony Atala, James J Yoo
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs when certain conditions cause the kidneys to gradually lose function. For patients with CKD, renal transplantation is the only treatment option that restores kidney function. In this study, we evaluated primary renal cells obtained from diseased kidneys to determine whether their normal phenotypic and functional characteristics are retained, and could be used for cell therapy. Primary renal cells isolated from both normal kidneys (NK) and diseased kidneys (CKD) showed similar phenotypic characteristics and growth kinetics...
2016: PloS One
Lucie Gailledrat, Morgane Rousselet, Jean-Luc Venisse, Sylvain Lambert, Bruno Rocher, Manon Remaud, Alice Guilleux, Anne Sauvaget, Emeline Eyzop, Marie Grall-Bronnec
Concerns about body shape and weight are core diagnostic criteria for eating disorders although intensity varies between patients. Few studies have focused on the clinical differences relative to the intensity of these concerns. Nonetheless, they might have a prognostic value. This study was aimed at identifying the characteristics associated with marked body shape concerns in patients with an eating disorder. Data was collected from a systematic and standardized clinical assessment of outpatients seeking treatment in our department for eating disorders...
2016: PloS One
Bing Zheng, Jun Liu, Jianlei Gu, Jing Du, Lin Wang, Shengli Gu, Juan Cheng, Jun Yang, Hui Lu
BACKGROUND: A key challenge in thyroid carcinoma is preoperatively diagnosing malignant thyroid nodules. A novel diagnostic test that measures the expression of a 3-gene signature (DPP4, SCG5 and CA12) has demonstrated promise in thyroid carcinoma assessment. However, more reliable prediction methods combining clinical features with genomic signatures with high accuracy, good stability and low cost are needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 25 clinical information were recorded in 771 patients...
2016: PloS One
Thanh Tam Tran, Joel Adams-Bedford, Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan, Sam-Ang Seubsman, Adrian Sleigh
INTRODUCTION: Injury and psychological distress are public health priorities because of their high occurrence in the population. This study examines the longitudinal effects of injury characteristics on psychological distress. METHODS: Study participants were enrolled distance learning Thai adults (N = 42,785 at 2013 follow-up) residing nationwide. We analysed 2009 and 2013 data. Injury questions included injury prevalence, causes and levels of severity. Distress was measured using the standard Kessler-6...
2016: PloS One
Dennis Liang Fei, Hayley Motowski, Rakesh Chatrikhi, Sameer Prasad, Jovian Yu, Shaojian Gao, Clara L Kielkopf, Robert K Bradley, Harold Varmus
We have asked how the common S34F mutation in the splicing factor U2AF1 regulates alternative splicing in lung cancer, and why wild-type U2AF1 is retained in cancers with this mutation. A human lung epithelial cell line was genetically modified so that U2AF1S34F is expressed from one of the two endogenous U2AF1 loci. By altering levels of mutant or wild-type U2AF1 in this cell line and by analyzing published data on human lung adenocarcinomas, we show that S34F-associated changes in alternative splicing are proportional to the ratio of S34F:wild-type gene products and not to absolute levels of either the mutant or wild-type factor...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Samuel A Sakyi, Samuel Yaw Aboagye, Isaac Darko Otchere, Albert M Liao, Thomas G Caltagirone, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a subcutaneous skin disease listed among the neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization (WHO). Early case detection and management is very important to reduce morbidity and the accompanied characteristic disfiguring nature of BU. Since diagnosis based on clinical evidence can lead to misdiagnosis, microbiological confirmation is essential to reduce abuse of drugs; since the anti-mycobacterial drugs are also used for TB treatment. The current WHO gold standard PCR method is expensive, requires infrastructure and expertise are usually not available at the peripheral centers where BU cases are managed...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Roderick J Finlayson, Atikun Thonnagith, Maria Francisca Elgueta, Jordi Perez, John-Paul B Etheridge, De Q H Tran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Novel multitined cannulae constitute an attractive option for ultrasound-guided radiofrequency neurotomy of cervical medial branches. The deployment tines increase the cannula's active area, thus altering its lesion size. Despite their theoretical benefits, multitined cannulae have not been assessed. In this bench study, we sought to investigate the lesions produced by a standard 18-gauge and 2 commercially available multitined deployment cannulae. We created ex vivo models to evaluate lesion morphology at a periosteal interface using approach angles likely to be encountered during an ultrasound-guided technique...
October 21, 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
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